|Gene and protein expression and cellular localisation of cytochrome P450 enzymes of the 1A, 2A, 2C, 2D and 2E subfamilies in equine intestine and liver.|
Tydén, E; Tjälve, H; Larsson, P
Acta veterinaria Scandinavica
Among the cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP), families 1-3 constitute almost half of total CYPs in mammals and play a central role in metabolism of a wide range of pharmaceuticals. This study investigated gene and protein expression and cellular localisation of CYP1A, CYP2A, CYP2C, CYP2D and CYP2E in equine intestine and liver. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to analyse gene expression, western blot to examine protein expression and immunohistochemical analyses to investigate cellular localisation.CYP1A and CYP2C were the CYPs with the highest gene expression in the intestine and also showed considerable gene expression in the liver. CYP2E and CYP2A showed the highest gene expression in the liver. CYP2E showed moderate intestinal gene expression, whereas that of CYP2A was very low or undetectable. For CYP2D, rather low gene expression levels were found in both intestine and the liver. In the intestine, CYP gene expression levels, except for CYP2E, exhibited patterns resembling those of the proteins, indicating that intestinal protein expression of these CYPs is regulated at the transcriptional level. For CYP2E, the results showed that the intestinal gene expression did not correlate to any visible protein expression, indicating that intestinal protein expression of this CYP is regulated at the post-transcriptional level. Immunostaining of intestine tissue samples showed preferential CYP staining in enterocytes at the tips of intestinal villi in the small intestine. In the liver, all CYPs showed preferential localisation in the centrilobular hepatocytes.Overall, different gene expression profiles were displayed by the CYPs examined in equine intestine and liver. The CYPs present in the intestine may act in concert with those in the liver to affect the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficiency of substrate drugs. In addition, they may play a role in first-pass metabolism of feed constituents and of herbal supplements used in equine practice.
|Kinesin-14 Pkl1 targets γ-tubulin for release from the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) .|
Olmsted, ZT; Riehlman, TD; Branca, CN; Colliver, AG; Cruz, LO; Paluh, JL
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
The γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) is a key part of microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) that control microtubule polarity, organization and dynamics in eukaryotes. Understanding regulatory mechanisms of γ-TuRC function is of fundamental importance, as this complex is central to many cellular processes, including chromosome segregation, fertility, neural development, T-cell cytotoxicity and respiration. The fission yeast microtubule motor kinesin-14 Pkl1 regulates mitosis by binding to the γ-tubulin small complex (γ-TuSC), a subunit of γ-TuRC. Here we investigate the binding mechanism of Pkl1 to γ-TuSC and its functional consequences using genetics, biochemistry, peptide assays and cell biology approaches in vivo and in vitro. We identify two critical elements in the Tail domain of Pkl1 that mediate γ-TuSC binding and trigger release of γ-tubulin from γ-TuRC. Such action disrupts the MTOC and results in failed mitotic spindle assembly. This study is the first demonstration that a motor protein directly affects the structural composition of the γ-TuRC, and we provide details of this mechanism that may be of broad biological importance.
|Glutamate transporters EAAT4 and EAAT5 are expressed in vestibular hair cells and calyx endings.|
Dalet, A; Bonsacquet, J; Gaboyard-Niay, S; Calin-Jageman, I; Chidavaenzi, RL; Venteo, S; Desmadryl, G; Goldberg, JM; Lysakowski, A; Chabbert, C
Glutamate is the neurotransmitter released from hair cells. Its clearance from the synaptic cleft can shape neurotransmission and prevent excitotoxicity. This may be particularly important in the inner ear and in other sensory organs where there is a continually high rate of neurotransmitter release. In the case of most cochlear and type II vestibular hair cells, clearance involves the diffusion of glutamate to supporting cells, where it is taken up by EAAT1 (GLAST), a glutamate transporter. A similar mechanism cannot work in vestibular type I hair cells as the presence of calyx endings separates supporting cells from hair-cell synapses. Because of this arrangement, it has been conjectured that a glutamate transporter must be present in the type I hair cell, the calyx ending, or both. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we demonstrate that a glutamate-activated anion current, attributable to a high-affinity glutamate transporter and blocked by DL-TBOA, is expressed in type I, but not in type II hair cells. Molecular investigations reveal that EAAT4 and EAAT5, two glutamate transporters that could underlie the anion current, are expressed in both type I and type II hair cells and in calyx endings. EAAT4 has been thought to be expressed almost exclusively in the cerebellum and EAAT5 in the retina. Our results show that these two transporters have a wider distribution in mice. This is the first demonstration of the presence of transporters in hair cells and provides one of the few examples of EAATs in presynaptic elements.
|Detecting protein-protein interactions by Far western blotting.|
Yuliang Wu,Qiang Li,Xing-Zhen Chen
Far western blotting (WB) was derived from the standard WB method to detect protein-protein interactions in vitro. In Far WB, proteins in a cell lysate containing prey proteins are firstly separated by SDS or native PAGE, and transferred to a membrane, as in a standard WB. The proteins in the membrane are then denatured and renatured. The membrane is then blocked and probed, usually with purified bait protein(s). The bait proteins are detected on spots in the membrane where a prey protein is located if the bait proteins and the prey protein together form a complex. Compared with other biochemical binding assays, Far WB allows prey proteins to be endogenously expressed without purification. Unlike most methods using cell lysates (e.g., co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP)) or living cells (e.g., fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET)), Far WB determines whether two proteins bind to each other directly. Furthermore, in cases where they bind to each other indirectly, Far WB allows the examination of candidate protein(s) that form a complex between them. Typically, 2-3 d are required to carry out the experiment.