|Presentation||Immunoaffinity Purified immunoglobulin in 0.02M Phosphate Buffer, 0.25 M NaCl, pH 7.6 with 15 mg/mL BSA containing no preservatives.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||The undiluted antibody is stable at 2–8°C for 12 months. Do not store in a diluted format.|
|Material Size||1 mL|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Nuclear magnetic resonance structure revealed that the human polyomavirus JC virus agnoprotein contains an α-helix encompassing the Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain.|
Coric, P; Saribas, AS; Abou-Gharbia, M; Childers, W; White, MK; Bouaziz, S; Safak, M
Journal of virology 88 6556-75 2014
Agnoprotein is a small multifunctional regulatory protein required for sustaining the productive replication of JC virus (JCV). It is a mostly cytoplasmic protein localizing in the perinuclear area and forms highly stable dimers/oligomers through a Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain. There have been no three-dimensional structural data available for agnoprotein due to difficulties associated with the dynamic conversion from monomers to oligomers. Here, we report the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a synthetic agnoprotein peptide spanning amino acids Thr17 to Glu55 where Lys23 to Phe39 encompassing the Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain forms an amphipathic α-helix. On the basis of these structural data, a number of Ala substitution mutations were made to investigate the role of the α-helix in the structure and function of agnoprotein. Single L29A and L36A mutations exhibited a significant negative effect on both protein stability and viral replication, whereas the L32A mutation did not. In addition, the L29A mutant displayed a highly nuclear localization pattern, in contrast to the pattern for the wild type (WT). Interestingly, a triple mutant, the L29A+L32A+L36A mutant, yielded no detectable agnoprotein expression, and the replication of this JCV mutant was significantly reduced, suggesting that Leu29 and Leu36 are located at the dimer interface, contributing to the structure and stability of agnoprotein. Two other single mutations, L33A and E34A, did not perturb agnoprotein stability as drastically as that observed with the L29A and L36A mutations, but they negatively affected viral replication, suggesting that the role of these residues is functional rather than structural. Thus, the agnoprotein dimerization domain can be targeted for the development of novel drugs active against JCV infection.Agnoprotein is a small regulatory protein of JC virus (JCV) and is required for the successful completion of the viral replication cycle. It forms highly stable dimers and oligomers through its hydrophobic (Leu/Ile/Phe-rich) domain, which has been shown to play essential roles in the stability and function of the protein. In this work, the Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain has been further characterized by NMR studies using an agnoprotein peptide spanning amino acids T17 to Q54. Those studies revealed that the dimerization domain of the protein forms an amphipathic α-helix. Subsequent NMR structure-based mutational analysis of the region highlighted the critical importance of certain amino acids within the α-helix for the stability and function of agnoprotein. In conclusion, this study provides a solid foundation for developing effective therapeutic approaches against the dimerization domain of the protein to inhibit its critical roles in JCV infection.
|Selective expression of CYP2A13 in human pancreatic α-islet cells.|
Guo, Yu, et al.
Drug Metab. Dispos., 40: 1878-82 (2012) 2012
Exposure to cigarette smoke is an etiological factor of human pancreatic cancer and has been associated with an increased risk of pancreatic diseases, including pancreatitis and diabetes. The toxicants in cigarette smoke can reach pancreatic tissue, and most of the toxicants require cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated metabolic activation to exert their toxicity. Among all the human P450 enzymes, CYP2A13 is the most efficient enzyme in the metabolic activation of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a major tobacco-specific toxicant and a suspected human carcinogen. It also metabolically activates 4-aminobiphenyl, another toxicant in cigarette smoke. Immunohistochemical analysis in this study demonstrated that CYP2A13 was selectively expressed in the islets but not in the exocrine portion of adult human pancreas. Further study using dual immunofluorescence labeling technique showed that CYP2A13 protein was mainly expressed in the α-islet but not in β-islet cells. The selective expression of CYP2A13 in human pancreatic α-islet cells suggests that these islet cells could be damaged by the toxicants existing in cigarette smoke through CYP2A13-mediated in situ metabolic activation. Our result provides a mechanistic insight for human pancreatic diseases that have been associated with cigarette smoke exposure.
|Expression and distribution of symplekin regulates the assembly and function of the epithelial tight junction.|
Hong Chang,Chen Zhang,Yi Cao
Histochemistry and cell biology 137 2012
Symplekin is multifunctional protein localized to both the tight junction and the nucleus with known roles in mRNA polyadenylation, proliferation, differentiation and tumorigenesis. Functions of symplekin at tight junctions have not been systematically investigated. In this study, increased expression of symplekin was observed during the formation of tight junctions in cultured HT-29 and HepG2 epithelial cells. Repression of symplekin by RNAi increased the permeability of epithelial monolayers, disrupted cellular polarity, and decreased the expression of the tight junction protein ZO-1. Moreover, symplekin was co-localized with ZO-1 at tight junctions and co-immunoprecipitated with ZO-1, indicating that ZO-1 and symplekin form complexes. In conclusion, symplekin expression regulates the assembly of tight junctions, thus helps to maintain the integrity of the epithelial monolayer and cellular polarity.
|Targeting the FOXO1/KLF6 axis regulates EGFR signaling and treatment response.|
Sangodkar, J; Dhawan, NS; Melville, H; Singh, VJ; Yuan, E; Rana, H; Izadmehr, S; Farrington, C; Mazhar, S; Katz, S; Albano, T; Arnovitz, P; Okrent, R; Ohlmeyer, M; Galsky, M; Burstein, D; Zhang, D; Politi, K; Difeo, A; Narla, G
The Journal of clinical investigation 122 2637-51 2012
EGFR activation is both a key molecular driver of disease progression and the target of a broad class of molecular agents designed to treat advanced cancer. Nevertheless, resistance develops through several mechanisms, including activation of AKT signaling. Though much is known about the specific molecular lesions conferring resistance to anti-EGFR-based therapies, additional molecular characterization of the downstream mediators of EGFR signaling may lead to the development of new classes of targeted molecular therapies to treat resistant disease. We identified a transcriptional network involving the tumor suppressors Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) that negatively regulates activated EGFR signaling in both cell culture and in vivo models. Furthermore, the use of the FDA-approved drug trifluoperazine hydrochloride (TFP), which has been shown to inhibit FOXO1 nuclear export, restored sensitivity to AKT-driven erlotinib resistance through modulation of the KLF6/FOXO1 signaling cascade in both cell culture and xenograft models of lung adenocarcinoma. Combined, these findings define a novel transcriptional network regulating oncogenic EGFR signaling and identify a class of FDA-approved drugs as capable of restoring chemosensitivity to anti-EGFR-based therapy for the treatment of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma.
|Overexpression of caveolin-1 in lymphoblastoid TK6 cells enhances proliferation after irradiation with clinically relevant doses.|
David Barzan,Patrick Maier,W Jens Zeller,Frederik Wenz,Carsten Herskind
Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al] 186 2010
The transmembrane protein caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an essential component of caveolae, small membrane invaginations involved in vesicle formation. CAV1 plays a role in signal transduction, tumor suppression and oncogene transformation. Previous studies with CAV1 knockout mice and CAV1 knockdown in pancreatic tumor cells implicated CAV1 in mediating radioresistance. The aim of this work was to test the effect of CAV1 overexpression after irradiation in human cells lacking endogenous CAV1 expression.
|Identification of Vanabin-interacting protein 1 (VIP1) from blood cells of the vanadium-rich ascidian Ascidia sydneiensis samea.|
Tatsuya Ueki, Koki Shintaku, Yuki Yonekawa, Nariaki Takatsu, Hiroshi Yamada, Toshiyuki Hamada, Hiroshi Hirota, Hitoshi Michibata
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1770 951-7 2007
Several species of ascidians, the so-called tunicates, accumulate extremely high levels of vanadium ions in their blood cells. We previously identified a family of vanadium-binding proteins, named Vanabins, from blood cells and blood plasma of a vanadium-rich ascidian, Ascidia sydneiensis samea. The 3-dimensional structure of Vanabin2, the predominant vanadium-binding protein in blood cells, has been revealed, and the vanadium-binding properties of Vanabin2 have been studied in detail. Here, we used Far Western blotting to identify a novel protein that interacts with Vanabin2 from a blood cell cDNA library. The protein, named Vanabin-interacting protein 1 (VIP1), was localized in the cytoplasm of signet ring cells and giant cells. Using a two-hybrid method, we revealed that VIP1 interacted with Vanabins 1, 2, 3, and 4 but not with Vanabin P. The N-terminal domain of VIP1 was shown to be important for the interaction. Further, Vanabin1 was found to interact with all of the other Vanabins. These results suggest that VIP1 and Vanabin1 act as metal chaperones or target proteins in vanadocytes.
|1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 actions on cell proliferation, size, gene expression, and receptor localization, in the HL-1 cardiac myocyte.|
Nibbelink, KA; Tishkoff, DX; Hershey, SD; Rahman, A; Simpson, RU
The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 103 533-7 2007
The steroid hormone 1,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) [1,25D] has been shown to affect the growth and proliferation of primary cultures of ventricular myocytes isolated from neonatal rat hearts. The research presented here shows that the vitamin D receptor [VDR] is present in murine cardiac myocytes (HL-1 cells), and that 1,25D affects the growth, proliferation and morphology of these cells. In addition we show that 1,25D effects expression of ANP, myotrophin, and c-myc. Furthermore, 1,25D effects expression and localization of the VDR within the cell. Murine HL-1 cardiac myocytes were grown and treated with 1,25D in culture, and growth and morphology were assessed with microscopic analysis. Cells were counted and protein levels were evaluated through Western blot analysis. Subcellular localization of the VDR was determined using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. 1,25D was found to decrease proliferation and alter cellular morphology of the HL-1 cells. Treatment with 1,25D increased expression of myotrophin while decreasing expression of atrial natriuretic peptide [ANP] and c-myc. 1,25D treatment also increased expression and nuclear localization of the VDR in these cardiac myocytes. Thus 1,25D is an important hormone involved in modulating and maintaining heart cell structure and function.
|Androgen receptor as a licensing factor for DNA replication in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells.|
Litvinov, IV; Vander Griend, DJ; Antony, L; Dalrymple, S; De Marzo, AM; Drake, CG; Isaacs, JT
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 15085-90 2006
Androgen receptor (AR) protein expression and function are critical for survival and proliferation of androgen-sensitive (AS) prostate cancer cells. Besides its ability to function as a transcription factor, experimental observations suggest that AR becomes a licensing factor for DNA replication in AS prostate cancer cells and thus must be degraded during each cell cycle in these cells to allow reinitiation of DNA replication in the next cell cycle. This possibility was tested by using the AS human prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP, CWR22Rv1, and LAPC-4. These studies demonstrated that AR levels fluctuate both within and between various phases of the cell cycle in each of these AS lines. Consistent with its licensing ability, AR is degraded during mitosis via a proteasome-dependent pathway in these AS prostate cancer cells. In contrast, proteasome-dependent degradation of AR during mitosis is not observed in AR-expressing but androgen-insensitive human prostate stromal cells, in which AR does not function as a licensing factor for DNA replication. To evaluate mitotic degradation of AR in vivo, the same series of human AS prostate cancers growing as xenografts in nude mice and malignant tissues obtained directly from prostate cancer patients were evaluated by dual Ki-67 and AR immunohistochemistry for AR expression in mitosis. These results document that AR is also down-regulated during mitosis in vivo. Thus, AS prostate cancer cells do not express AR protein during mitosis, either in vitro or in vivo, consistent with AR functioning as a licensing factor for DNA replication in AS prostate cancer cells.
|Hypoxic induction of vascular endothelial growth factor is selectively impaired in mice carrying the mutant SOD1 gene.|
Tetsuro Murakami, Hristelina Ilieva, Mito Shiote, Tetsuya Nagata, Isao Nagano, Mikio Shoji, Koji Abe
Brain research 989 231-7 2003
Localization and hypoxic induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was examined in the spinal cord of transgenic mice carrying a mutation in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent study demonstrated that VEGF is mainly expressed in motor neurons before and after hypoxia. Baseline expression of VEGF was higher in transgenic (Tg) mice than in wild-type (Wt) littermates. However, VEGF was hardly induced after hypoxia in Tg mice, whereas Wt mice showed an approximate nine-fold increase. Impaired VEGF induction was evident in Tg mice at 12 weeks of age, when they were still presymptomatic. In contrast, baseline and hypoxic expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor did not differ between Tg and Wt mice. Thus, the present study demonstrates that hypoxic induction of VEGF in Tg mice is selectively impaired from a very early stage, suggesting profound involvement in the pathogenesis of motor neuron degeneration in this animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
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|GOAT ANTI-RABBIT IgG (H+L) FLUORESCEIN CONJUGATED|