|Blockade of A2B adenosine receptor reduces left ventricular dysfunction and ventricular arrhythmias 1 week after myocardial infarction in the rat model.|
Zhang, H; Zhong, H; Everett, TH; Wilson, E; Chang, R; Zeng, D; Belardinelli, L; Olgin, JE
Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Remodeling occurs after myocardial infarction (MI), leading to fibrosis, dysfunction, and ventricular tachycardias (VTs). Adenosine via the A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAdoR) has been implicated in promoting fibrosis.To determine the effects of GS-6201, a potent antagonist of the A2BAdoR, on arrhythmogenic and functional cardiac remodeling after MI.Rats underwent ischemia-reperfusion MI and were randomized into 4 groups: control (treated with vehicle), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (treated with enalapril 1 day after MI), GS-6201-1d (treated with GS-6201 1 day after MI), GS-6201-1w (treated with GS-6201 administered 1 week after MI) . Echocardiography was performed at baseline and 1 and 5 weeks after MI. Optical mapping, VT inducibility, and histologic analysis were conducted at follow-up.Treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor improved ejection fraction (57.8% ± 2.5% vs 43.3% ± 1.7% in control; P < .01), but had no effect on VT inducibility. Treatment with GS-6201 improved ejection fraction (55.6% ± 2.6% vs 43.3% ± 1.7% in control; P < .01) and decreased VT inducibility (9.1% vs 68.4% in control; P < .05). Conduction velocities were significantly higher at border and infarct zones in hearts of rats treated with GS-6201 than in those of other groups. The conduction heterogeneity index was also significantly lower in hearts of rats treated with GS-6201. Histologic analysis showed that while both GS-6201 and enalapril decreased fibrosis in the noninfarct zone, only GS-6201 reduced the heterogeneity of fibrosis at the border, which is consistent with its effect on VT reduction.Treatment with an A2BAdoR antagonist at 1 week results in the improvement in cardiac function and decreased substrate for VT. The inhibition of fibrogenesis by A2BAdoR antagonists may be a new target for the prevention of adverse remodeling after MI.
|Low-dose gemcitabine depletes regulatory T cells and improves survival in the orthotopic Panc02 model of pancreatic cancer.|
Shevchenko, I; Karakhanova, S; Soltek, S; Link, J; Bayry, J; Werner, J; Umansky, V; Bazhin, AV
International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive human neoplasms with extremely poor prognosis and a low survival rate. Immunosuppressive cell populations, e.g. regulatory T cells (Treg), appear to be important in PDAC, contributing to patient's poor prognosis. Therefore, we investigated the PDAC microenvironment with a focus on conventional and regulatory T cells in view of their potential therapeutic importance. We found that tumors from the murine Panc02 orthotopic model of PDAC were infiltrated with high numbers of Treg. Remarkably, these cells exhibited the effector/memory phenotype, suggesting their enhanced suppressive activity and higher proliferation capacity. Although we observed a steady increase in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) levels in the tumors, treatment with a specific inhibitor of TGF-β receptor I kinase failed to abrogate Treg accumulation. A CCR4 antagonist did not affect Treg percentage in the tumor either. However, intense Treg cell division in the tumor microenvironment was demonstrated, suggesting local proliferation as a major mechanism of Treg accumulation in PDAC. Notably, this accumulation was reduced by low-dose gemcitabine administration, resulting in a modestly increased survival of PDAC mice. Our results provide an insight into mechanisms of immunosuppression in PDAC, suggesting an important role for proliferative expansion of effector/memory Treg. Low-dose gemcitabine therapy selectively depletes Treg, providing a basis for new modalities of PDAC therapy.