|Kolaviron protects apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells exposed to Atrazine.|
Abarikwu SO, Farombi EO, Kashyap MP, Pant AB.
Free radical research
Abstract Kolaviron (KV), a natural biflavonoid obtained from the seeds of Garcinia kola, has been documented for its wide pharmacological window, including anti-apoptotic activities. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood at the cellular level. This study investigates the anti-apoptotic activity of KV in PC12 cells, a rat pheochromocytoma, exposed to endocrine disruptor-atrazine (ATZ). KV (60 μM) treatment for 24 h shows significant anti-apoptotic responses in PC12 cells exposed to ATZ (232 μM) for 24 h. KV treatment recovers the ATZ-induced levels of malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species (ROS), caspase-3 activity and depleted levels of glutathione and catalase activity. However, KV was found to be ineffective to restore the ATZ-induced expression (mRNA) and activity of glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR). KV treatment also demonstrates significant restoration in ATZ-induced alterations in the expression of apoptosis markers viz., p53, Bax, Bcl2, caspase-3, caspase-9, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), c-Jun and c-fos. Flow cytometric analysis confirms the involvement of ROS in the mediation of ATZ-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Together, these data suggest that KV has the therapeutic potential against chemical-induced apoptotic cell death in the neuronal system.
|Monocrotophos induced apoptosis in PC12 cells: role of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome p450s.|
Kashyap MP, Singh AK, Kumar V, Tripathi VK, Srivastava RK, Agrawal M, Khanna VK, Yadav S, Jain SK, Pant AB
Monocrotophos (MCP) is a widely used organophosphate (OP) pesticide. We studied apoptotic changes and their correlation with expression of selected cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in PC12 cells exposed to MCP. A significant induction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in glutathione (GSH) levels were observed in cells exposed to MCP. Following the exposure of PC12 cells to MCP (10(-5) M), the levels of protein and mRNA expressions of caspase-3/9, Bax, Bcl(2), P(53), P(21), GSTP1-1 were significantly upregulated, whereas the levels of Bclw, Mcl1 were downregulated. A significant induction in the expression of CYP1A1/1A2, 2B1/2B2, 2E1 was also observed in PC12 cells exposed to MCP (10(-5) M), whereas induction of CYPs was insignificant in cells exposed to 10(-6) M concentration of MCP. We believe that this is the first report showing altered expressions of selected CYPs in MCP-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. These apoptotic changes were mitochondria mediated and regulated by caspase cascade. Our data confirm the involvement of specific CYPs in MCP-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and also identifies possible cellular and molecular mechanisms of organophosphate pesticide-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells.Full Text Article