|Differential transcription factor use by the KIR2DL4 promoter under constitutive and IL-2/15-treated conditions.|
Steven R Presnell,Lei Zhang,Corrin N Chlebowy,Ahmad Al-Attar,Charles T Lutz
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
KIR2DL4 is unique among human KIR genes in expression, cellular localization, structure, and function, yet the transcription factors required for its expression have not been identified. Using mutagenesis, EMSA, and cotransfection assays, we identified two redundant Runx binding sites in the 2DL4 promoter as essential for constitutive 2DL4 transcription, with contributions by a cyclic AMP response element (CRE) and initiator elements. IL-2- and IL-15-stimulated human NK cell lines increased 2DL4 promoter activity, which required functional Runx, CRE, and Ets sites. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Runx3 and Ets1 bind the 2DL4 promoter in situ. 2DL4 promoter activity had similar transcription factor requirements in T cells. Runx, CRE, and Ets binding motifs are present in 2DL4 promoters from across primate species, but other postulated transcription factor binding sites are not preserved. Differences between 2DL4 and clonally restricted KIR promoters suggest a model that explains the unique 2DL4 expression pattern in human NK cells.
|Generation of constitutively active p90 ribosomal S6 kinase in vivo. Implications for the mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase family.|
C E Poteet-Smith, J A Smith, D A Lannigan, T A Freed, T W Sturgill
The Journal of biological chemistry
p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs), containing two distinct kinase catalytic domains, are phosphorylated and activated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). The amino-terminal kinase domain (NTD) of RSK phosphorylates exogenous substrates, whereas the carboxyl-terminal kinase domain (CTD) autophosphorylates Ser-386. A conserved putative autoinhibitory alpha helix is present in the carboxyl-terminal tail of the RSK isozymes ((697)HLVKGAMAATYSALNR(712) of RSK2). Here, we demonstrate that truncation (Delta alpha) or mutation (Y707A) of this helix in RSK2 resulted in constitutive activation of the CTD. In vivo, both mutants enhanced basal Ser-386 autophosphorylation by the CTD above that of wild type (WT). The enhanced Ser-386 autophosphorylation was attributed to disinhibition of the CTD because a CTD dead mutation (K451A) eliminated Ser-386 autophosphorylation even in conjunction with Delta alpha and Y707A. Constitutive activity of the CTD appears to enhance NTD activity even in the absence of ERK phosphorylation because basal phosphorylation of S6 peptide by Delta alpha and Y707A was approximately 4-fold above that of WT. A RSK phosphorylation motif antibody detected a 140-kDa protein (pp140) that was phosphorylated upon epidermal growth factor or insulin treatment. Ectopic expression of Delta alpha or Y707A resulted in increased basal phosphorylation of pp140 compared with that of WT, presenting the possibility that pp140 is a novel RSK substrate. Thus, it is clear that the CTD regulates NTD activity in vivo as well as in vitro.