|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Sh||ELISA, WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Rabbit serum. Liquid containing 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|参考資料の概要||アプリケーション||Pub Med ID|
|Oral, nasal and pharyngeal exposure to lipopolysaccharide causes a fetal inflammatory response in sheep.|
Maneenil, G; Kemp, MW; Kannan, PS; Kramer, BW; Saito, M; Newnham, JP; Jobe, AH; Kallapur, SG
PloS one 10 e0119281 2015
A fetal inflammatory response (FIR) in sheep can be induced by intraamniotic or selective exposure of the fetal lung or gut to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The oral, nasal, and pharyngeal cavities (ONP) contain lymphoid tissue and epithelium that are in contact with the amniotic fluid. The ability of the ONP epithelium and lymphoid tissue to initiate a FIR is unknown.To determine if FIR occurs after selective ONP exposure to LPS in fetal sheep.Using fetal recovery surgery, we isolated ONP from the fetal lung, GI tract, and amniotic fluid by tracheal and esophageal ligation and with an occlusive glove fitted over the snout. LPS (5 mg) or saline was infused with 24 h Alzet pumps secured in the oral cavity (n = 7-8/group). Animals were delivered 1 or 6 days after initiation of the LPS or saline infusions.The ONP exposure to LPS had time-dependent systemic inflammatory effects with changes in WBC in cord blood, an increase in posterior mediastinal lymph node weight at 6 days, and pro-inflammatory mRNA responses in the fetal plasma, lung, and liver. Compared to controls, the expression of surfactant protein A mRNA increased 1 and 6 days after ONP exposure to LPS.ONP exposure to LPS alone can induce a mild FIR with time-dependent inflammatory responses in remote fetal tissues not directly exposed to LPS.
|Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced chorioamnionitis by Ureaplasma parvum in sheep.|
Snyder, CC; Wolfe, KB; Gisslen, T; Knox, CL; Kemp, MW; Kramer, BW; Newnham, JP; Jobe, AH; Kallapur, SG
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 208 399.e1-8 2013
Ureaplasma colonization in the setting of polymicrobial flora is common in women with chorioamnionitis, and is a risk factor for preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity. We hypothesized that Ureaplasma colonization of amniotic fluid would modulate chorioamnionitis induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Sheep received intraamniotic (IA) injections of media (control) or live Ureaplasma either 7 or 70 days before delivery. Another group received IA LPS 2 days before delivery. To test for interactions, U parvum-exposed animals were challenged with IA LPS, and delivered 2 days later. All animals were delivered preterm at 125 ± 1 day of gestation.Both IA Ureaplasma and LPS induced leukocyte infiltration of chorioamnion. LPS greatly increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase in leukocytes, while Ureaplasma alone caused modest responses. Interestingly, 7-day but not 70-day Ureaplasma exposure significantly down-regulated LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase expression in the chorioamnion.Acute (7-day) U parvum exposure can suppress LPS-induced chorioamnionitis.
|Selective exposure of the fetal lung and skin/amnion (but not gastro-intestinal tract) to LPS elicits acute systemic inflammation in fetal sheep.|
Kemp, MW; Kannan, PS; Saito, M; Newnham, JP; Cox, T; Jobe, AH; Kramer, BW; Kallapur, SG
PloS one 8 e63355 2013
Inflammation of the uterine environment (commonly as a result of microbial colonisation of the fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and fetus) is strongly associated with preterm labour and birth. Both preterm birth and fetal inflammation are independently associated with elevated risks of subsequent short- and long-term respiratory, gastro-intestinal and neurological complications. Despite numerous clinical and experimental studies to investigate localised and systemic fetal inflammation following exposure to microbial agonists, there is minimal data to describe which fetal organ(s) drive systemic fetal inflammation. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E.coli in an instrumented ovine model of fetal inflammation and conducted a series of experiments to assess the systemic pro-inflammatory capacity of the three major fetal surfaces exposed to inflammatory mediators in pregnancy (the lung, gastro-intestinal tract and skin/amnion). Exposure of the fetal lung and fetal skin/amnion (but not gastro-intestinal tract) caused a significant acute systemic inflammatory response characterised by altered leucocytosis, neutrophilia, elevated plasma MCP-1 levels and inflammation of the fetal liver and spleen. These novel findings reveal differential fetal organ responses to pro-inflammatory stimulation and shed light on the pathogenesis of fetal systemic inflammation after exposure to chorioamnionitis.
|Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced chorioamnionitis in fetal sheep by maternal betamethasone.|
Wolfe, KB; Snyder, CC; Gisslen, T; Kemp, MW; Newnham, JP; Kramer, BW; Jobe, AH; Kallapur, S
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) 20 1447-54 2013
We tested the hypothesis that the order of exposure to maternal betamethasone and intra-amniotic (IA) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) will differentially modulate inflammation in the chorioamnion.Time-mated Merino ewes with singleton fetuses received saline alone, IA LPS alone, maternal betamethasone before LPS, or betamethasone after LPS. We assessed inflammatory markers in the chorioamnion and the amniotic fluid.Inflammatory cell infiltration, expression of myeloperoxidase, serum amyloid A3 (acute phase reactant) in the chorioamnion, and levels of interleukin (IL)-8 in the amniotic fluid increased 7 days after LPS exposure. Betamethasone prior to LPS decreased infiltration of the inflammatory cells, CD3+ T cells, and decreased the levels of IL-1β and IL-8 in the amniotic fluid.Betamethasone 7 days prior to LPS exposure suppressed LPS-induced inflammation. The markers of inflammation largely had returned to the baseline 14 days after LPS exposure.
|Chronic fetal exposure to Ureaplasma parvum suppresses innate immune responses in sheep.|
Kallapur, SG; Kramer, BW; Knox, CL; Berry, CA; Collins, JJ; Kemp, MW; Nitsos, I; Polglase, GR; Robinson, J; Hillman, NH; Newnham, JP; Chougnet, C; Jobe, AH
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 187 2688-95 2011
The chorioamnionitis associated with preterm delivery is often polymicrobial with ureaplasma being the most common isolate. To evaluate interactions between the different proinflammatory mediators, we hypothesized that ureaplasma exposure would increase fetal responsiveness to LPS. Fetal sheep were given intra-amniotic (IA) injections of media (control) or Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 either 7 or 70 d before preterm delivery. Another group received an IA injection of Escherichia coli LPS 2 d prior to delivery. To test for interactions, IA U. parvum-exposed animals were challenged with IA LPS and delivered 2 d later. All animals were delivered at 124 ± 1-d gestation (term = 150 d). Compared with the 2-d LPS exposure group, the U. parvum 70 d + LPS group had 1) decreased lung pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and 2) fewer CD3(+) T lymphocytes, CCL2(+), myeloperoxidase(+), and PU.1(+) cells in the lung. Interestingly, exposure to U. parvum for 7 d did not change responses to a subsequent IA LPS challenge, and exposure to IA U. parvum alone induced mild lung inflammation. Exposure to U. parvum increased pulmonary TGF-β1 expression but did not change mRNA expression of either the receptor TLR4 or some of the downstream mediators in the lung. Monocytes from fetal blood and lung isolated from U. parvum 70 d + LPS but not U. parvum 7 d + LPS animals had decreased in vitro responsiveness to LPS. These results are consistent with the novel finding of downregulation of LPS responses by chronic but not acute fetal exposures to U. parvum. The findings increase our understanding of how chorioamnionitis-exposed preterm infants may respond to lung injury and postnatal nosocomial infections.
|Post-natal Changes in Testicular Concentrations of Interleukin-1 Alpha and Beta and Interleukin-6 during Sexual Maturation in Bulls.|
Bagu ET, Gordon JR, Rawlings NC
Reprod Domest Anim 2009
Contents Based on observations in laboratory animals interleukins could be regulators of testicular development. The objects of this study were to see if interleukins (IL-1 and IL-6) are present in the developing bull testis and to establish the temporal patterns of concentrations of IL-1 and IL-6 in the bovine testis during development. Separate groups of six bull calves were castrated every 4 weeks from 5 to 33 weeks of age, and at 56 weeks of age. Mean testicular IL-1 alpha concentrations decreased (p < 0.01) from 5 to 9 weeks of age and 13 to 21 weeks of age. Mean testicular IL-1 beta concentrations decreased (p < 0.01) from 13 to 17 weeks of age and from 29 to 33 weeks of age. Mean IL-1 bioactivity increased from 13 to 17 weeks of age, decreased to 21 weeks, increased to 25 weeks, decreased to 29 weeks and decreased from 33 to 56 weeks of age (p < 0.05). Mean testicular IL-6 concentrations decreased (p < 0.05) from 9 to 13 weeks of age, increased (p < 0.05) to 21 weeks, decreased (p < 0.05) to 25 weeks, increased (p < 0.05) to 29 weeks and decreased (p < 0.01) to 56 weeks of age. In conclusion, testicular IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 were found in the bovine testis and concentrations were age dependent. Testicular IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta concentrations were highest in the early post-natal period; however, IL-1 bioactivity and IL-6 concentrations were greatest in the immediate pre-pubertal period. These findings suggest a functional role for interleukins in testicular development in the bull.
|Progesterone improves acute recovery after traumatic brain injury in the aged rat.|
Sarah M Cutler,Milos Cekic,Darren M Miller,Bushra Wali,Jacob W VanLandingham,Donald G Stein
Journal of neurotrauma 24 2007
Recent evidence has demonstrated that treatment with progesterone can attenuate many of the pathophysiological events following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young adult rats, but this effect has not been investigated in aged animals. In this study, 20-month-old male Fischer 344 rats with bilateral contusions of the frontal cortex (n = 4 per group) or sham operations received 8, 16, or 32 mg/kg of progesterone or vehicle. Locomotor activity was measured at 72 h to assess behavioral recovery. Brain tissue was harvested at 24, 48, and 72 h, and Western blotting was performed for inflammatory and apoptotic factors. Edema was assessed at 48 h by measuring brain water content. Injured animals treated with 8 and 16 mg/kg progesterone showed decreased expression of COX-2, IL-6, and NFkappaB at all time points, indicating a reduction in the acute inflammatory process compared to vehicle. The 16 mg/kg group also showed reduced apoptosis at all time points as well as decreased edema and improved locomotor outcomes. Thus, in aged male rats, treatment with 16 mg/kg progesterone improves short-term motor recovery and attenuates edema, secondary inflammation, and cell death after TBI.
|Induction of interleukin-6 and interleukin-12 in bovine B lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages by a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN 2059) containing the GTCGTT motif.|
Y Zhang, L K Shoda, K A Brayton, D M Estes, G H Palmer, W C Brown
Journal of interferon cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 21 871-81 2001
Bacterial DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) that contain unmethylated CpG dinucleotides flanked by certain bases (CpG ODN) have been shown to activate murine and human B cells and to induce proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). However, the CpG ODN sequences optimal for mice and humans are different. In the current study, the effects of CpG ODN, which were defined to stimulate strong responses in either mouse or human leukocytes, were compared for stimulation of bovine B lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage cytokine mRNA expression. The optimal CpG ODN was then tested for induction of cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and purified B lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages. At a high ODN concentration (40 microM), all but two CpG ODN tested stimulated B cell proliferation, which was dependent on unmethylated CpG motifs. CpG ODN 2059 containing the GTCGTT motif shown to activate human leukocytes also promoted the highest level of bovine B cell proliferation at a lower concentration (10 microM) when compared with CpG ODN containing AACGTT or GACGTT motifs active for murine leukocytes. Furthermore, ODN 2059 induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by B lymphocytes and IL-6 and IL-12 production by PBMC, monocytes, and macrophages. In contrast, IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production was either very low or undetectable. Consistent with increased IL-12 production, ODN 2059 also stimulated interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by PBMC. Importantly, the levels of cytokines induced by ODN 2059 were comparable to those generated in response to Escherichia coli DNA. The weak TNF-alpha response combined with the vigorous IL-6 and IL-12 response to ODN 2059 indicate the potential use of this CpG ODN as an adjuvant to enhance both antibody-mediated and IFN-gamma-mediated macrophage activation, which are important for protection against disease caused by intracellular pathogens of cattle.
|Anti-Interleukin-6 - Data Sheet|