|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Description||Anti-Interleukin-6 Antibody, clone 4B6|
|Presentation||Liquid in PBS containing 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||250 µg|
|参考資料の概要||アプリケーション||Pub Med ID|
|Oral, nasal and pharyngeal exposure to lipopolysaccharide causes a fetal inflammatory response in sheep.|
Maneenil, G; Kemp, MW; Kannan, PS; Kramer, BW; Saito, M; Newnham, JP; Jobe, AH; Kallapur, SG
PloS one 10 e0119281 2015
A fetal inflammatory response (FIR) in sheep can be induced by intraamniotic or selective exposure of the fetal lung or gut to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The oral, nasal, and pharyngeal cavities (ONP) contain lymphoid tissue and epithelium that are in contact with the amniotic fluid. The ability of the ONP epithelium and lymphoid tissue to initiate a FIR is unknown.To determine if FIR occurs after selective ONP exposure to LPS in fetal sheep.Using fetal recovery surgery, we isolated ONP from the fetal lung, GI tract, and amniotic fluid by tracheal and esophageal ligation and with an occlusive glove fitted over the snout. LPS (5 mg) or saline was infused with 24 h Alzet pumps secured in the oral cavity (n = 7-8/group). Animals were delivered 1 or 6 days after initiation of the LPS or saline infusions.The ONP exposure to LPS had time-dependent systemic inflammatory effects with changes in WBC in cord blood, an increase in posterior mediastinal lymph node weight at 6 days, and pro-inflammatory mRNA responses in the fetal plasma, lung, and liver. Compared to controls, the expression of surfactant protein A mRNA increased 1 and 6 days after ONP exposure to LPS.ONP exposure to LPS alone can induce a mild FIR with time-dependent inflammatory responses in remote fetal tissues not directly exposed to LPS.
|Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced chorioamnionitis by Ureaplasma parvum in sheep.|
Snyder, CC; Wolfe, KB; Gisslen, T; Knox, CL; Kemp, MW; Kramer, BW; Newnham, JP; Jobe, AH; Kallapur, SG
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 208 399.e1-8 2013
Ureaplasma colonization in the setting of polymicrobial flora is common in women with chorioamnionitis, and is a risk factor for preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity. We hypothesized that Ureaplasma colonization of amniotic fluid would modulate chorioamnionitis induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Sheep received intraamniotic (IA) injections of media (control) or live Ureaplasma either 7 or 70 days before delivery. Another group received IA LPS 2 days before delivery. To test for interactions, U parvum-exposed animals were challenged with IA LPS, and delivered 2 days later. All animals were delivered preterm at 125 ± 1 day of gestation.Both IA Ureaplasma and LPS induced leukocyte infiltration of chorioamnion. LPS greatly increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase in leukocytes, while Ureaplasma alone caused modest responses. Interestingly, 7-day but not 70-day Ureaplasma exposure significantly down-regulated LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase expression in the chorioamnion.Acute (7-day) U parvum exposure can suppress LPS-induced chorioamnionitis.
|Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced chorioamnionitis in fetal sheep by maternal betamethasone.|
Wolfe, KB; Snyder, CC; Gisslen, T; Kemp, MW; Newnham, JP; Kramer, BW; Jobe, AH; Kallapur, S
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) 20 1447-54 2013
We tested the hypothesis that the order of exposure to maternal betamethasone and intra-amniotic (IA) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) will differentially modulate inflammation in the chorioamnion.Time-mated Merino ewes with singleton fetuses received saline alone, IA LPS alone, maternal betamethasone before LPS, or betamethasone after LPS. We assessed inflammatory markers in the chorioamnion and the amniotic fluid.Inflammatory cell infiltration, expression of myeloperoxidase, serum amyloid A3 (acute phase reactant) in the chorioamnion, and levels of interleukin (IL)-8 in the amniotic fluid increased 7 days after LPS exposure. Betamethasone prior to LPS decreased infiltration of the inflammatory cells, CD3+ T cells, and decreased the levels of IL-1β and IL-8 in the amniotic fluid.Betamethasone 7 days prior to LPS exposure suppressed LPS-induced inflammation. The markers of inflammation largely had returned to the baseline 14 days after LPS exposure.
|Selective exposure of the fetal lung and skin/amnion (but not gastro-intestinal tract) to LPS elicits acute systemic inflammation in fetal sheep.|
Kemp, MW; Kannan, PS; Saito, M; Newnham, JP; Cox, T; Jobe, AH; Kramer, BW; Kallapur, SG
PloS one 8 e63355 2013
Inflammation of the uterine environment (commonly as a result of microbial colonisation of the fetal membranes, amniotic fluid and fetus) is strongly associated with preterm labour and birth. Both preterm birth and fetal inflammation are independently associated with elevated risks of subsequent short- and long-term respiratory, gastro-intestinal and neurological complications. Despite numerous clinical and experimental studies to investigate localised and systemic fetal inflammation following exposure to microbial agonists, there is minimal data to describe which fetal organ(s) drive systemic fetal inflammation. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E.coli in an instrumented ovine model of fetal inflammation and conducted a series of experiments to assess the systemic pro-inflammatory capacity of the three major fetal surfaces exposed to inflammatory mediators in pregnancy (the lung, gastro-intestinal tract and skin/amnion). Exposure of the fetal lung and fetal skin/amnion (but not gastro-intestinal tract) caused a significant acute systemic inflammatory response characterised by altered leucocytosis, neutrophilia, elevated plasma MCP-1 levels and inflammation of the fetal liver and spleen. These novel findings reveal differential fetal organ responses to pro-inflammatory stimulation and shed light on the pathogenesis of fetal systemic inflammation after exposure to chorioamnionitis.
|Regional pulmonary inflammation in an endotoxemic ovine acute lung injury model.|
A Fernandez-Bustamante,R B Easley,M Fuld,D Mulreany,D Chon,J F Lewis,B A Simon
Respiratory physiology & neurobiology 183 2012
The regional distribution of inflammation during acute lung injury (ALI) is not well known. In an ovine ALI model we studied regional alveolar inflammation, surfactant composition, and CT-derived regional specific volume change (sVol) and specific compliance (sC). 18 ventilated adult sheep received IV lipopolysaccharide (LPS) until severe ALI was achieved. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from apical and basal lung regions were obtained at baseline and injury time points, for analysis of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), BAL protein and surfactant composition. Whole lung CT images were obtained in 4 additional sheep. BAL protein and IL-1β were significantly higher in injured apical vs. basal regions. No significant regional surfactant composition changes were observed. Baseline sVol and sC were lower in apex vs. base; ALI enhanced this cranio-caudal difference, reaching statistical significance only for sC. This study suggests that apical lung regions show greater inflammation than basal ones during IV LPS-induced ALI which may relate to differences in regional mechanical events.
|The impact of intermittent umbilical cord occlusions on the inflammatory response in pre-term fetal sheep.|
Andrew P Prout,Martin G Frasch,Ruud Veldhuizen,Rob Hammond,Brad Matushewski,Bryan S Richardson
PloS one 7 2012
Fetal hypoxic episodes may occur antepartum with the potential to induce systemic and cerebral inflammatory responses thereby contributing to brain injury. We hypothesized that intermittent umbilical cord occlusions (UCOs) of sufficient severity but without cumulative acidosis will lead to a fetal inflammatory response. Thirty-one chronically instrumented fetal sheep at ∼0.85 of gestation underwent four consecutive days of hourly UCOs from one to three minutes duration for six hours each day. Maternal and fetal blood samples were taken for blood gases/pH and plasma interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels. Animals were euthanized at the end of experimental study with brain tissue processed for subsequent counting of microglia and mast cells. Intermittent UCOs resulted in transitory fetal hypoxemia with associated acidemia which progressively worsened the longer umbilical blood flow was occluded, but with no cumulative blood gas or pH changes over the four days of study. Fetal arterial IL-1β and IL-6 values showed no significant change regardless of the severity of the UCOs, nor was there any evident impact on the microglia and mast cell counts for any of the brain regions studied. Accordingly, intermittent UCOs of up to three minutes duration with severe, but limited fetal hypoxemia and no cumulative acidemia, do not result in either a systemic or brain inflammatory response in the pre-term ovine fetus. However, fetal IL-1B and IL-6 values were found to be well correlated with corresponding maternal values supporting the placenta as a primary source for these cytokines with related secretion into both circulations. Female fetuses were also found to have higher IL-1β levels than males, indicating that gender may impact on the fetal inflammatory response to various stimuli.
|Interleukin-1 in lipopolysaccharide induced chorioamnionitis in the fetal sheep.|
Clare A Berry,Ilias Nitsos,Noah H Hillman,J Jane Pillow,Graeme R Polglase,Boris W Kramer,Matthew W Kemp,John P Newnham,Alan H Jobe,Suhas G Kallapur
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) 18 2011
We tested the hypothesis that interleukin 1 (IL-1) mediates intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chorioamnionitis in preterm fetal sheep. Time-mated Merino ewes with singleton fetuses received IL-1α, LPS, or saline (control) by intra-amniotic injection 1 to 2 days before operative delivery at 124 ± 1 days gestational age (N = 5-9/group; term = 150 days). Recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1ra) was given into the amniotic fluid 3 hours before intra-amniotic LPS or saline to block IL-1 signaling. Inflammation in the chorioamnion was determined by histology, cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA), protein expression, and by quantitation of activated inflammatory cells. Intra-amniotic IL-1 and LPS both induced chorioamnionitis. However, IL-1 blockade with IL-1ra did not decrease intra-amniotic LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs, numbers of inflammatory cells, myeloperoxidase, or monocyte chemotactic protein-1-expressing cells in the chorioamnion. We conclude that IL-1 and LPS both can cause chorioamnionitis, but IL-1 is not an important mediator of LPS-induced chorioamnionitis in fetal sheep.
|Chronic fetal exposure to Ureaplasma parvum suppresses innate immune responses in sheep.|
Kallapur, SG; Kramer, BW; Knox, CL; Berry, CA; Collins, JJ; Kemp, MW; Nitsos, I; Polglase, GR; Robinson, J; Hillman, NH; Newnham, JP; Chougnet, C; Jobe, AH
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 187 2688-95 2011
The chorioamnionitis associated with preterm delivery is often polymicrobial with ureaplasma being the most common isolate. To evaluate interactions between the different proinflammatory mediators, we hypothesized that ureaplasma exposure would increase fetal responsiveness to LPS. Fetal sheep were given intra-amniotic (IA) injections of media (control) or Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 either 7 or 70 d before preterm delivery. Another group received an IA injection of Escherichia coli LPS 2 d prior to delivery. To test for interactions, IA U. parvum-exposed animals were challenged with IA LPS and delivered 2 d later. All animals were delivered at 124 ± 1-d gestation (term = 150 d). Compared with the 2-d LPS exposure group, the U. parvum 70 d + LPS group had 1) decreased lung pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and 2) fewer CD3(+) T lymphocytes, CCL2(+), myeloperoxidase(+), and PU.1(+) cells in the lung. Interestingly, exposure to U. parvum for 7 d did not change responses to a subsequent IA LPS challenge, and exposure to IA U. parvum alone induced mild lung inflammation. Exposure to U. parvum increased pulmonary TGF-β1 expression but did not change mRNA expression of either the receptor TLR4 or some of the downstream mediators in the lung. Monocytes from fetal blood and lung isolated from U. parvum 70 d + LPS but not U. parvum 7 d + LPS animals had decreased in vitro responsiveness to LPS. These results are consistent with the novel finding of downregulation of LPS responses by chronic but not acute fetal exposures to U. parvum. The findings increase our understanding of how chorioamnionitis-exposed preterm infants may respond to lung injury and postnatal nosocomial infections.
|Systemic and cerebral inflammatory response to umbilical cord occlusions with worsening acidosis in the ovine fetus.|
Andrew P Prout,Martin G Frasch,Ruud A W Veldhuizen,Rob Hammond,Michael G Ross,Bryan S Richardson
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 202 2010
We hypothesized that repetitive umbilical cord occlusions (UCOs) with worsening acidosis will lead to a fetal inflammatory response.
|Anti-Interleukin-6, clone 4B6 - Data Sheet|