Key Spec Table
|Key Applications||Format||Host||Detection Methods|
|Antibody Type||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Product Usage Statements|
|Material Size||1 kit|
|Material Package||10 mL Screen & 2 mL each viral spec. abs.|
References | 12 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Knock-down of superoxide dismutase 1 sensitizes cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells. |
Kim JW, Sahm H, You J, Wang M
Anticancer Res 30 2577-81. 2010
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) has been shown to be one of the factors involved in causing cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer. Reduction of SOD1 expression is expected to restore, at least partially, cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer chemotherapy. Here, we explored the potential of RNAi as a therapy for reversal of cisplatin resistance.
|Role of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 and -4 in children with virus exacerbation of asthma. |
J Santiago, J L Hernández-Cruz, M E Manjarrez-Zavala, R Montes-Vizuet, D P Rosete-Olvera, A M Tapia-Díaz, H Zepeda-Peney, L M Terán
The European respiratory journal : official journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology 32 1243-9 2008
Macrophages play a crucial role in respiratory viral infections. However, the mechanisms by which these cells are recruited locally are not fully understood. The current authors studied the role of the chemokines monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, -2, -3 and -4 on monocyte/macrophage recruitment during respiratory viral infections. Levels of these chemokines were investigated in nasal aspirates from 6-12-yr-old children suffering from respiratory viral infections, caused by rhinoviruses, influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses, adenoviruses and respiratory syncytial virus. MCP-3 and -4 were significantly higher in samples derived from virus-infected children compared with samples from the same children when they had been asymptomatic. Concentrations of both chemokines were found to significantly correlate with the number of recruited nasal macrophages. Chemotaxis assays showed that purified MCP-3 and -4 from nasal aspirates showed biological activity in vitro. There were no significant differences in MCP-1 and -2 levels between both groups. The present data indicates that monocyte chemotactic protein-3 and -4 may have an important role in macrophage recruitment in children with proven upper respiratory viral infections. These chemokines could be potential targets for therapeutic intervention in respiratory viral infections.
|Characteristics and outcome of respiratory syncytial virus infection in patients with leukemia. |
Harrys A Torres, Elizabeth A Aguilera, Gloria N Mattiuzzi, Maria E Cabanillas, Nidhi Rohatgi, Carmen A Sepulveda, Hagop M Kantarjian, Ying Jiang, Amar Safdar, Issam I Raad, Roy F Chemaly
Haematologica 92 1216-23 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known about respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in patients with leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics, and the outcome of RSV infection with or without therapy with aerosolized ribavirin in leukemia patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 52 leukemia patients with RSV infection seen at our institution between October 2000 and March 2005. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 47 years (range, 1-83 years). Most patients were male (65%) and had acute leukemia (65%); 46% had received salvage chemotherapy and 62% corticosteroids before RSV infection. Compared to the 25 patients with upper respiratory tract infection (URI), the 27 patients with pneumonia had a higher median APACHE II score at the time of the first assessment at the hospital for respiratory symptoms (11 vs 16), and a higher rate of corticosteroid treatment in the month preceding the infection (48% vs 74%) (all p or =0.05). Twenty-four (46%) patients received aerosolized ribavirin. Patients who presented with URI and were treated with ribavirin were less likely than non-treated patients to develop pneumonia (68% vs 96%, p0.01) and possibly die of pneumonia (6% vs 36%, p=0.1). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified high APACHE II score and lack of ribavirin treatment as independent predictors of progression to pneumonia (p=0.01). Five patients (10%) died within 30 days of RSV infection; all had pneumonia. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: RSV infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in leukemia patients; treatment with aerosolized ribavirin at the stage of URI may prevent pneumonia in some subsets of patients.
|Clinical and laboratory study of newborns with lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory viruses. |
Vieira, R A, et al.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med., 13: 341-50 (2003) 2003
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory viruses in the neonatal period at admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and to compare the clinical, laboratory and radiological aspects of the clinical course, according to the etiological agent, in the neonatal period. METHODS: Ninety newborns were studied, from January 1999 to January 2001, with bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. The newborns were classified into three groups, according to the etiological agent identified initially: viral infection (group A), mixed viral-bacterial infection (group B), and bacterial infection (group C). RESULTS: The virus was identified in 72 newborns (80.0%); the most prevalent was respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (44.4%), followed by influenza A virus (22.2%). Coughing, wheezing and an interstitial infiltrate were significantly more frequent in newborns with viral infection. Mixed infection was more associated with sepsis. There was a correlation between viral infection and low values of initial and subsequent white blood cell count and C-reactive protein. RSV was the most important virus in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that, although the majority of viral respiratory infections had a favorable course, some patients presented a serious and prolonged clinical manifestation, especially when there was concomitant bacterial infection.
|Respiratory syncytial virus infections during an epidemic period in Salvador, Brazil. Viral antigenic group analysis and description of clinical and epidemiological aspects. |
Moura, Fernanda Edna Araújo, et al.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 98: 739-43 (2003) 2003
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were studied in 482 children from Salvador, BA, Brazil, over a period of 12 months. The epidemic period of RSV infections in Salvador occurred from February (summer) to August (winter), with peaks in May, June, and July. The grouping characteristics of 84 RSV present in nasopharyngeal secretions of children seen at a reference university hospital were analyzed. RSV represented 17.4% of all cases and 54.5% of the positive samples. Sixty-four RSV strains were assigned to group A and 14 to group B. Both groups circulated in the five months of the epidemic period studied. Infections by both groups of RSV were more frequent in children up to one year of age. The incidence of RSV ARI was slightly more frequent in males, although group B had more infected females.
|Detection of human influenza virus in Yucatan, Mexico. |
Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe, et al.
Rev. Invest. Clin., 54: 410-4 2002
OBJECTIVE: Influenza virus is the most common cause of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) world wide. In patients with chronic condition, infection by the influenza virus can cause complications such as pneumonia which may have fatal outcome. The aim of this work was to determine the frequency of human influenza virus in outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and in those patients admitted to hospital with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Yucatan, Mexico (October 1998-July 1999). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Throat swabs were collected from ILI and CAP patients and processed to detect respiratory viruses. All clinical samples were tested for seven respiratory viruses using a rapid indirect immunofluorescence test (IFI). Clinical samples with positive results for influenza virus by IFI were inoculated into chick embryo eggs and/or MDCK cells for viral isolation. All influenza virus isolates were typed using the WHO influenza Kit 1998-1999. RESULTS: A total of 288 clinical samples were collected. Influenza virus type A was diagnosed in 29 clinical samples (10%), no other respiratory viruses were identified. Influenza virus was present with 8.9% (17 out of 189) in ILI patients, whereas with 12.12% (12 out of 99) in CAP patients. Influenza virus was detected from December to July. Six viral isolates were obtained and identified as influenza A (H3N2). CONCLUSION: Human influenza virus is certainly a cause of ARI and pneumonia in Yucatan, Mexico. The results showed that influenza virus contributes to at least 8.9% of the ARI, and more importantly to 12% of CAP patients. Positive cases were present in a different pattern to temperate zones where the peak of incidence occurs during autumn and winter.
|Rapid and sensitive detection of respiratory virus infections for directed antiviral treatment using R-Mix cultures. |
St George, Kirsten, et al.
J. Clin. Virol., 24: 107-15 (2002) 2002
BACKGROUND: The development of new anti-influenza drugs has led to concerns regarding the impact on healthcare costs if they are used indiscriminately. Restricting their use to proven influenza virus infections has the potential to overcome costly inappropriate therapy. However, conventional culture (CC) does not generate results quickly enough to facilitate the timely initiation of treatment, and rapid detection tests have suboptimal sensitivity. We therefore investigated a new rapid culture system (R-Mix) that contains a mixture of two cell lines and detects respiratory viruses within 24 h. OBJECTIVES: To compare the analytical sensitivity of R-Mix with CC and rapid detection methods, for the detection of influenza and other respiratory viruses. To compare the clinical sensitivity of R-Mix with CC and direct antigen detection for the detection of respiratory viruses in primary and acute care settings. STUDY DESIGN: Stock cultures of influenza virus were titrated and tested by R-Mix, ZstatFlu and FLU OIA. Stock cultures of adenovirus and parainfluenza virus type 3 were titrated and tested by R-Mix and CC. Specimens, which had previously tested positive for influenza viruses, were titrated and tested by R-Mix and CC. In symptomatic patients, the majority of whom were from primary care settings, 124 sequential specimens were tested for influenza viruses by immunofluorescent direct antigen detection and R-Mix. A separate set of 111 sequential specimens, from various symptomatic patient groups, were tested for influenza viruses by CC and R-Mix. Additionally, in acute care patients being surveillance tested during periods of immunosuppression, 155 specimens were tested for respiratory viruses (influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1-3, adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)) by CC and R-Mix. RESULTS: With titrated stock cultures, R-Mix showed an analytical limit of detection of ten infectious virus particles per vial for influenza A, compared with 100,000 particles per test for FLU OIA and 1,000,000 for ZstatFlu. R-Mix also showed a 100-fold greater sensitivity for the detection of influenza A and equivalent sensitivity for the detection of influenza B when compared with CC in titrated known positive specimens. Further, it showed equivalent sensitivity to CC for the detection of adenovirus and parainfluenza virus type 3 in titrated stock cultures. Among prospective specimens from symptomatic patients, the sensitivity of R-Mix, CC and direct antigen detection tests (DAT) for influenza virus detection, was 100, 67 and 66%, respectively, and the specificity was 100, 100 and 98%, respectively. In surveillance specimens from immunosuppressed patients, the sensitivities of R-Mix and CC for respiratory virus detection were equivalent. Moreover, R-Mix results were available within 24 h, and by altering the antibody staining reagents either influenza viruses, or all seven major respiratory viruses, could be detected and distinguished in a single test. CONCLUSIONS: R-Mix is a simple, rapid and sensitive system for the detection of influenza viruses that facilitates the restriction of antiviral drugs to patients with culture-confirmed infections.
|Viral etiology of acute respiratory infections among children in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. |
Straliotto, Selir M, et al.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop., 35: 283-91 (2002) 2002
Although acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a major cause of child morbidity and mortality in Southern Brazil, little information is available on their seasonality and viral etiology. This study was conducted on children under 5 years of age with ARI to assess viral etiology in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, from 1990 to 1992. A total of 862 nasopharyngeal secretion (NPS) samples were tested using indirect immunofluorescence. The results showed that 316 (36.6%) NPS samples were positive: 26.2% for RSV, 6% for adenovirus, 1.7% for influenza viruses, 1.5% for parainfluenza viruses, and 1.2% for mixed infection. The mean viral prevalence rates in out-patient services, emergency wards, and in-patient hospital wards were 26.7%, 53% and 42.3%, respectively. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenovirus accounted for 91.4 % of the viral diagnoses. RSV was more frequent in children under one year of age at the three levels of health care and was prevalent in infants under six months. Adenovirus was the most prevalent pathogen in hospitalized children, in 1992. Influenza A virus showed an increased prevalence with age among out-patient children. This study shows the annual occurrence of viral respiratory infections in the coldest months, with a significant annual variation in the frequency of RSV infection.
|Respiratory viral infections in hospitalized children: implications for infection control. |
Lichenstein, Richard, et al.
South. Med. J., 95: 1022-5 (2002) 2002
BACKGROUND: Identification of children with respiratory viral infections may augment infection-control practices on inpatient units. There are clinical syndromes leading to morbidity among hospitalized children, however, in which a viral etiology of the illness might not be considered. METHODS: Virus infection rates among 243 children aged <1 to 19 years hospitalized between October 1993 and April 1994 with asthma, pneumonia, bronchiolitis, fever, apnea, croup, or respiratory distress were evaluated as part of a University of Maryland Medical Center infection-control protocol. Anonymous data collected included admission diagnoses, age, and virus-identification result. RESULTS: Seventy-one children (29%) had a virus identified, including 19 of 123 (15%) with asthma, 4 of 12 (33%) with pneumonia, 27 of 47 (57%) with bronchiolitis, 13 of 41 (32%) with fever, 4 of 9 (44%) with apnea, 2 of 3 (67%) with croup, and 2 of 8 (25%) with unspecified respiratory distress. CONCLUSION: This study reinforces the concept that clinicians should consider respiratory viruses for a broad range of diagnoses. This heightened awareness may help reduce the number of nosocomial respiratory viral infections.
|Clinical patterns and seasonal trends in respiratory syncytial virus hospitalizations in São Paulo, Brazil. |
Vieira, S E, et al.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 43: 125-31 2001
The respiratory viruses are recognized as the most frequent lower respiratory tract pathogens for infants and young children in developed countries but less is known for developing populations. The authors conducted a prospective study to evaluate the occurrence, clinical patterns, and seasonal trends of viral infections among hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract disease (Group A). The presence of respiratory viruses in children's nasopharyngeal was assessed at admission in a pediatric ward. Cell cultures and immunofluorescence assays were used for viral identification. Complementary tests included blood and pleural cultures conducted for bacterial investigation. Clinical data and radiological exams were recorded at admission and throughout the hospitalization period. To better evaluate the results, a non- respiratory group of patients (Group B) was also constituted for comparison. Starting in February 1995, during a period of 18 months, 414 children were included- 239 in Group A and 175 in Group B. In Group A, 111 children (46.4%) had 114 viruses detected while only 5 children (2.9%) presented viruses in Group B. Respiratory Syncytial Virus was detected in 100 children from Group A (41.8%), Adenovirus in 11 (4.6%), Influenza A virus in 2 (0.8%), and Parainfluenza virus in one child (0.4%). In Group A, aerobic bacteria were found in 14 cases (5.8%). Respiratory Syncytial Virus was associated to other viruses and/or bacteria in six cases. There were two seasonal trends for Respiratory Syncytial Virus cases, which peaked in May and June. All children affected by the virus were younger than 3 years of age, mostly less than one year old. Episodic diffuse bronchial commitment and/or focal alveolar condensation were the clinical patterns more often associated to Respiratory Syncytial Virus cases. All children from Group A survived. In conclusion, it was observed that Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most frequent pathogen found in hospitalized children admitted for severe respiratory diseases. Affected children were predominantly infants and boys presenting bronchiolitis and focal pneumonias. Similarly to what occurs in other subtropical regions, the virus outbreaks peak in the fall and their occurrence extends to the winter, which parallels an increase in hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases.
|[Evaluation of a mouse anti-IgG-fluorescein conjugate using indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometry techniques] |
Vilaseca, J C, et al.
Revista cubana de medicina tropical, 49: 120-4 (1997) 1997
An immunoglobulin G of mouse was purified from sera by affinity chromatography in protein A. The rabbits whose sera were able to recognize the antigen injected by double immunodiffusion were immunized with this preparation. The antibodies were precipitated from the rabbit's serum and purified by ion exchange chromatography. This preparation was conjugated to fluorescin isothiocyanate according to the conventional technique. The conjugated obtained was evaluated with the reference strains of Parainfluenza virus 1, 2, 3; Adenovirus; respiratory syncytial virus; and influenza virus A and B, by an indirect immunofluorescence technique and HIV positive samples by flow citometry. Specific monoclonal antibodies were used in both cases. Clinical specimens of patients with acute respiratory infection were evaluated.
|Comparison of two monoclonal antibody kits with cell culture isolation in the detection of respiratory virus antigens. |
Khairullah, N S
The Malaysian journal of pathology, 18: 27-30 (1996) 1996
Two different preparations of monoclonal antibodies developed against respiratory viruses have been evaluated by the immunofluorescence antibody technique. The Chemicon monoclonal antibodies were found to be more efficient at picking up positive specimens with a high sensitivity and specificity than Imagen monoclonal antibodies. However, the overall concordance rate of the monoclonal antibodies was 92.3%-100%. Generally, when compared with cell culture isolation, the immunofluorescence antibody technique was found to be more sensitive. The high quality of the Chemicon monoclonal antibodies contribute to their value in providing definitive diagnosis, within a few hours of specimen collection, thus allowing early management of patients, their contacts and control of hospital infection.
|LIGHT DIAGNOSTICS RESPIRATORY PANEL VIRAL SCREENING AND IDENTIFICATION IFA KIT|
|Respiratory Panel Viral Screening & Identification Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay|