|The α4β2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor agonist ispronicline induces c-Fos expression in selective regions of the rat forebrain. |
Julie Jacobsen,Henrik H Hansen,Alexander Kiss,Jens D Mikkelsen
The dominant nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype in the brain is the pentameric receptor containing both α4 and β2 subunits (α4β2). Due to the lack of selective agonists it has not been ruled out what neuronal circuits that are stimulated after systemic administration with nicotine. We used the novel and selective α4β2 receptor agonist ispronicline (10 and 30 mg/kg s.c.) to localise the activated neurons in the rat forebrain using c-Fos-immunoreactivity as a marker of immediate neuronal activity. In the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, a large increase of c-Fos-positive cells was found only within its medial part. In addition, an increased number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells were observed in the central nucleus of the amygdala, and the dorsolateral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The restricted distribution of c-Fos to these areas, all of which are directly or indirectly involved in acute stress regulation after a single dose of ispronicline, supports earlier studies that the α4β2 receptors are strongly involved in nicotine-dependent activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical axis.
|Differential sensitivity of specific neuronal populations of the rat hypothalamus to prolactin action. |
Tony J Sapsford,Ilona C Kokay,Lovisa Ostberg,Robert S Bridges,David R Grattan
The Journal of comparative neurology
Prolactin stimulates dopamine release from neuroendocrine dopaminergic (NEDA) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) to maintain low levels of serum prolactin. Elevated prolactin levels during pregnancy and lactation may mediate actions in other hypothalamic regions such as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral preoptic area (rPOA). We predicted that NEDA neurons would be more sensitive prolactin targets than neurons in other regions because they are required to regulate basal prolactin secretion. Moreover, differences in the accessibility of the ARC to prolactin in blood may influence the responsiveness of this population. Therefore, we compared prolactin-induced signaling in different hypothalamic neuronal populations following either systemic or intracerebroventricular (icv) prolactin administration. Phosphorylation of the signal transduction factor, STAT5 (pSTAT5), was used to identify prolactin-responsive neurons. In response to systemic prolactin, pSTAT5-labeled cells were widely observed in the ARC but absent from the rPOA and PVN. Many of these responsive cells in the ARC were identified as NEDA neurons. The lowest icv prolactin dose (10 ng) induced pSTAT5 in the ARC, but with higher doses (>500 ng) pSTAT5 was detected in numerous regions, including the rPOA and PVN. NEDA neurons were maximally labeled with nuclear pSTAT5 in response to 500 ng prolactin and appeared to be more sensitive than dopaminergic neurons in the rPOA. Subpopulations of oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamus were also found to be differentially sensitive to prolactin. These data suggest that differences in the accessibility of the arcuate nucleus to prolactin, together with intrinsic differences in the NEDA neurons, may facilitate homeostatic feedback regulation of prolactin release.
|Discrete expression of TRPV2 within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system: Implications for regulatory activity within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. |
Anna Wainwright, A Richard Rutter, Guy R Seabrook, Kathryn Reilly, Kevin R Oliver
The Journal of comparative neurology
Transient receptor potential channel proteins (TRPs) constitute a steadily growing family of ion channels with a range of purported functions. It has been demonstrated that TRPV2 is activated by moderate thermal stimuli and, in the rat, is expressed in medium to large diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons. In this study, antisera specific for the human TRPV2 homologue were raised and characterized for immunohistochemical use. Subsequently, thorough investigation was made of the localization of this cation channel in the macaque primate brain. TRPV2-immunoreactive material was highly restrictively localized to hypothalamic paraventricular, suprachiasmatic, and supraoptic nuclei. Confocal double- and triple-labeling studies demonstrated that TRPV2 immunoreactivity is preferentially localized to oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic neurons. Few, if any, cells in these regions expressed TRPV2 immunoreactivity in the absence of oxytocin immunoreactivity or vasopressin immunoreactivity. Expression in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei suggests that TRPV2 is likely to play a fundamental role in mediating cation transport in neurohypophysial neurons. TRPV2 has been shown to be translocated upon cell activation and neurons expressing TRPV2 immunoreactivity in vivo are among those known to engage in sporadic, intense activity. Taken together, these data suggest that this channel may play a vital role in mediating physiological activities associated with oxytocin and vasopressin release such as parturition, lactation, and diuresis. These data may also implicate the involvement of TRPV2 in disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including anxiety, depression, hypertension, and preterm labor.