Key Spec Table
|Key Applications||Format||Host||Detection Methods|
|Antibody Type||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Product Usage Statements|
|Material Size||1 mL|
References | 14 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Tyrosine residues at the carboxyl terminus of Vav1 play an important role in regulation of its biological activity. |
Galit Lazer,Liron Pe'er,Marganit Farago,Kazuya Machida,Bruce J Mayer,Shulamit Katzav
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 2010
The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav1 is an essential signal transducer protein in the hematopoietic system, where it is expressed physiologically. It is also involved in several human malignancies. Tyrosine phosphorylation at the Vav1 amino terminus plays a central role in regulating its activity; however, the role of carboxyl terminal tyrosine residues is unknown. We found that mutation of either Tyr-826 (Y826F) or Tyr-841 (Y841F) to phenylalanine led to loss of Vav1 GEF activity. When these Vav1 mutants were ectopically expressed in pancreatic cancer cells lacking Vav1, they failed to induce growth in agar, indicating loss of transforming potential. Furthermore, although Y841F had no effect on Vav1-stimulated nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activity, Y826F doubled NFAT activity when compared with Vav1, suggesting that Tyr-826 mediates an autoinhibitory effect on NFAT activity. SH2 profiling revealed that Shc, Csk, Abl, and Sap associate with Tyr-826, whereas SH2-B, Src, Brk, GTPase-activating protein, and phospholipase C-gamma associate with Tyr-841. Although the mutations in the Tyr-826 and Tyr-841 did not affect the binding of the carboxyl SH3 of Vav1 to other proteins, binding to several of the proteins identified by the SH2 profiling was lost. Of interest is Csk, which associates with wild-type Vav1 and Y841F, yet it fails to associate with Y826F, suggesting that loss of binding between Y826F and Csk might relieve an autoinhibitory effect, leading to increased NFAT. Our data indicate that GEF activity is critical for the function of Vav1 as a transforming protein but not for NFAT stimulation. The association of Vav1 with other proteins, detected by SH2 profiling, might affect other Vav1-dependent activities, such as NFAT stimulation.Full Text Article
|Evaluation of insecticidal activity of diterpenes and lignans from Aristolochia malmeana against Anticarsia gemmatalis. |
Gisele B Messiano,Leandro Vieira,Marcos B Machado,Lucia M X Lopes,Sergio A de Bortoli,Julio Zukerman-Schpector
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 56 2008
The insecticidal activity of hexane extracts from the roots and leaves of Aristolochia malmeana was evaluated against Anticarsia gemmatalis larvae by topical application. Extract from the roots was the most active and caused 50% mortality in larvae at 308.4 microg/microL. From this extract, a clerodane diterpene, (-)-kolavenic acid, and three lignans, (-)-kusunokinin, (-)-hinokinin, and (8 S,8' R,9 S)-cubebin, were isolated by chromatography and partition procedures and then evaluated for their insecticidal activities either individually or in pairs. (-)-Kusunokinin showed higher activity against A. gemmatalis (LD10=9.3, LD50=230.1 microg/microL) than the crude extract, and its activity was dose-dependent, whereas the other constituents did not exhibit any significant activity. Together with (-)-kusunokinin and (-)-hinokinin, (-)-copalic acid, (-)-2-oxokolavenic acid, (-)- ent-6-beta-hydroxy-copalic acid, (8 R,8' R,9 R)- and (8 R,8' R,9 S)-cubebins, (-)-fargesin, and (-)-phillygenin were isolated from the hexane extract of the leaves. The compounds were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.
|High histone acetylation and decreased polycomb repressive complex 2 member levels regulate gene specific transcriptional changes during early embryonic stem cell differentiation induced by retinoic acid. |
Elliot R Lee,Fern E Murdoch,Michael K Fritsch
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 25 2007
Histone modifications play a crucial role during embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. During differentiation, binding of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which mediates trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (K27me3), is lost on developmental genes that are transcriptionally induced. We observed a global decrease in K27me3 in as little as 3 days after differentiation of mouse ES cells induced by retinoic acid (RA) treatment. The global levels of the histone K27 methyltransferase EZH2 also decreased with RA treatment. A loss of EZH2 binding and K27me3 was observed locally on PRC2 target genes induced after 3 days of RA, including Nestin. In contrast, direct RA-responsive genes that are rapidly induced, such as Hoxa1, showed a loss of EZH2 binding and K27me3 after only a few hours of RA treatment. Following differentiation induced by leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF) withdrawal without RA, Hoxa1 was not transcriptionally activated. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of EZH2 resulted in loss of K27me3 during LIF withdrawal, but the Hoxa1 gene remained transcriptionally silent after loss of this repressive mark. Induction of histone hyperacetylation overrode the repressive K27me3 modification and resulted in Hoxa1 gene expression. Together, these data show that there are multiple temporal phases of derepression of PRC2 target genes during ES cell differentiation and that other epigenetic marks (specifically, increased acetylation of histones H3 and H4), in addition to derepression, are important for gene-specific transcriptional activation. This report demonstrates the temporal interplay of various epigenetic changes in regulating gene expression during early ES cell differentiation.
|The role of histone acetylation in regulating early gene expression patterns during early embryonic stem cell differentiation. |
McCool, KW; Xu, X; Singer, DB; Murdoch, FE; Fritsch, MK
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 6696-706 2007
We have examined the role of histone acetylation in the very earliest steps of differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells in response to withdrawal of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) as a differentiation signal. The cells undergo dramatic changes in morphology and an ordered program of gene expression changes representing differentiation to all three germ layers over the first 3-5 days of LIF withdrawal. We observed a global increase in acetylation on histone H4 and to a lesser extent on histone H3 over this time period. Treatment of the cells with trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, induced changes in morphology, gene expression, and histone acetylation that mimicked differentiation induced by withdrawal of LIF. We examined localized histone acetylation in the regulatory regions of genes that were transcriptionally either active in undifferentiated cells, induced during differentiation, or inactive under all treatments. There was striking concordance in the histone acetylation patterns of specific genes induced by both TSA and LIF withdrawal. Increased histone acetylation in local regions correlated best with induction of gene expression. Finally, TSA treatment did not support the maintenance or progression of differentiation. Upon removal of TSA, the cells reverted to the undifferentiated phenotype. We concluded that increased histone acetylation at specific genes played a role in their expression, but additional events are required for maintenance of differentiated gene expression and loss of the pluripotent state.
|Upregulation of acid-sensing ion channel ASIC1a in spinal dorsal horn neurons contributes to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. |
Bo Duan,Long-Jun Wu,Yao-Qing Yu,Yu Ding,Liang Jing,Lin Xu,Jun Chen,Tian-Le Xu
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 2007
Development of chronic pain involves alterations in peripheral nociceptors as well as elevated neuronal activity in multiple regions of the CNS. Previous pharmacological and behavioral studies suggest that peripheral acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) contribute to pain sensation, and the expression of ASIC subunits is elevated in the rat spinal dorsal horn (SDH) in an inflammatory pain model. However, the cellular distribution and the functional consequence of increased ASIC subunit expression in the SDH remain unclear. Here, we identify the Ca2+-permeable, homomeric ASIC1a channels as the predominant ASICs in rat SDH neurons and downregulation of ASIC1a by local rat spinal infusion with specific inhibitors or antisense oligonucleotides markedly attenuated complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity. Moreover, in vivo electrophysiological recording showed that the elevated ASIC1a activity is required for two forms of central sensitization: C-fiber-induced wind-up and CFA-induced hypersensitivity of SDH nociceptive neurons. Together, our results reveal that increased ASIC activity in SDH neurons promotes pain by central sensitization. Specific blockade of Ca2+-permeable ASIC1a channels thus may have antinociceptive effect by reducing or preventing the development of central sensitization induced by inflammation.
|Activity of PXD101, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in preclinical ovarian cancer studies. |
Xiaozhong Qian,William J LaRochelle,Gulshan Ara,Frank Wu,Kamille Dumong Petersen,Annemette Thougaard,Maxwell Sehested,Henri S Lichenstein,Michael Jeffers
Molecular cancer therapeutics 5 2006
Histone deacetylase inhibitors represent a promising new class of anticancer agents. In the current investigation, we examined the activity of PXD101, a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor, used alone or in combination with clinically relevant chemotherapeutics (docetaxel, paclitaxel, and carboplatin), in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models of ovarian cancer. In vitro activity was examined in ovarian cancer and multidrug-resistant cell lines grown in monolayer culture, and in primary clinical ovarian cancer specimens grown in three-dimensional organoid culture. PXD101 was found to inhibit in vitro cancer cell growth at sub- to low micromolar IC(50) potency, exhibited synergistic activity when used in combination with relevant chemotherapeutics, and effectively inhibited the growth of multidrug-resistant cells. In vivo, PXD101 displayed single-agent antitumor activity on human A2780 ovarian cancer s.c. xenografts which was enhanced via combination therapy with carboplatin. In support of these findings, PXD101 was shown to increase the acetylation of alpha-tubulin induced by docetaxel and the phosphorylation of H2AX induced by carboplatin. Taken together, these results support the clinical evaluation of PXD101 used alone or in combination therapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
|Synthesis of light-activated antisense oligodeoxynucleotide. |
XinJing Tang,Ivan J Dmochowski
Nature protocols 1 2006
The activity of a 20-mer antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (asODN) is transiently blocked by attaching a partially complementary sense strand (sODN) via a heterobifunctional photocleavable linker (PL). The asODN-PL-sODN conjugate forms a DNA hairpin-like structure that is considerably more stable than the corresponding asODN/sODN duplex. In conjugate form, the asODN is prevented from hybridizing to exogenous RNA or DNA molecules. Activity is restored after modest exposure to UV light (lambda approximately 365 nm). Here, we provide a detailed procedure for synthesizing photoactive asODNs in good yields. Synthesis, purification and analysis of the light-activated asODN can be completed within 1-2 weeks.
|Nanostructured ordering of fluorescent markers and single proteins on substrates. |
Juergen Groll,Krystyna Albrecht,Peter Gasteier,Silke Riethmueller,Ulrich Ziener,Martin Moeller
Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology 6 2005
Highly ordered hexagonal nanopatterns of gold clusters on glass substrates were used as anchoring points for the specific attachment of fluorescence dyes and proteins labeled with fluorescence dyes. Thiol- or disulfide-containing linker molecules were used for the binding to the gold dots. In order to ensure specific binding on the gold dots only, the surface area in between the dots was protected against unspecific adsorption. For the attachment of polar low-molecular-weight fluorescence dyes, an octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer was prepared on the surface in between the gold dots, whereas a layer prepared from star-shaped poly(ethylene oxide-stat-propylene oxide) prepolymers was used to prevent unspecific adsorption of proteins between the gold dots. Fluorescence microscopy proved the specific binding of the dyes as well as of the proteins. Scanning force microscopy studies show that each gold dot is only capable of binding one protein at a time.
|Structural and functional properties of chicken lysozyme fused serine-rich heptapeptides at the C-terminus. |
Xiaohua Xu,Orie Kashima,Akira Saito,Hiroyuki Azakami,Akio Kato
Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 68 2004
Two serine-rich heptapeptides, Ser-Ser-Ser-Lys-Ser-Ser-Ser (S6K) and Ser-Ser-Ser-Ser-Ser-Ser-Ser (S7), were fused to the C-terminus of chicken lysozyme (Lz) by genetic modification to improve the functional properties of lysozyme. The cDNAs of S6K-lysozyme (S6K-Lz) and S7-lysozyme (S7-Lz) were inserted into the expression vector of Pichia pastoris and secreted in yeast cultivation medium. The secretion amounts of S6K-Lz and S7-Lz were about 60% of that of wild-type lysozyme (Wt-Lz). The CD spectra showed that the conformation of S6K-Lz and S7-Lz was conserved regardless of the attachment of serine-rich peptides. The denaturation curves of S6K-Lz and S7-Lz also showed that the conformational changes were very small. The lytic activity of S6K-Lz and S7-Lz was almost the same as that of Wt-Lz, while the bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli of S6K-Lz and S7-Lz was greatly increased. The acetic acid-urea PAGE of phosphatase-treated S6K-Lz and S7-Lz indicated the possibility of phosphorylation of the fused serine-rich heptapeptides.
|Proteasome-dependent degradation of cyclin D1 in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+)-induced cell cycle arrest. |
Jie Bai,Hajime Nakamura,Shugo Ueda,Yong-Won Kwon,Toru Tanaka,Sadayuki Ban,Junji Yodoi
The Journal of biological chemistry 279 2004
1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)), an active metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, induces cell death and inhibition of cell proliferation in various cells. However, the mechanism whereby MPP(+) inhibits cell proliferation is still unclear. In this study, we found that MPP(+) suppressed the proliferation with accumulation in G(1) phase without inducing cell death in p53-deficient MG63 osteosarcoma cells. MPP(+) induced hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein and rapidly down-regulated the protein but not mRNA levels of cyclin D1 in MG63 cells. The down-regulation of cyclin D1 protein was suppressed by a proteasome inhibitor, MG132. The cyclin D1 down-regulation by MPP(+) was also observed in p53-positive PC12, HeLa S3, and HeLa rho(0) cells, which are a subclone of HeLa S3 lacking mitochondrial DNA. Moreover, MPP(+) dephosphorylated Akt in PC12 cells, which was rescued by the pretreatment with nerve growth factor. In addition, the pretreatment with nerve growth factor or lithium chloride, a glycogen synthase kinase-3beta inhibitor, suppressed the cyclin D1 down-regulation caused by MPP(+). Our results demonstrate that MPP(+) induces cell cycle arrest independently of its mitochondrial toxicity or the p53 status of the target cells, but rather through the proteasome- and phosphatidylinositol 3-Akt-glycogen synthase kinase-3beta-dependent cyclin D1 degradation.
|Characterization of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from papillomatous digital dermatitis lesions in dairy cattle. |
Darren J Trott,Michelle R Moeller,Richard L Zuerner,Jesse P Goff,W Ray Waters,David P Alt,Richard L Walker,Michael J Wannemuehler
Journal of clinical microbiology 41 2003
Four spirochete strains were isolated from papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) lesions in Iowa dairy cattle and compared with two previously described spirochete strains isolated from dairy cattle in California. These six strains shared an identical 16S ribosomal DNA sequence that was 98% similar to Treponema phagedenis and 99% similar to the uncultivated PDD spirochete sequence DDLK-4. The whole-cell protein profiles resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of these six strains were similar. However, these strains showed differences in the antigenic diversity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Genetic diversity was also detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA digests, revealing differences among five of the six strains. Serum immunoglobulin G antibodies from dairy cattle with active PDD lesions reacted with the LPS of all but one PDD spirochete strain. Likewise, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cattle with active PDD lesions produced blastogenic responses to one of the two California isolates. Both antibody and lymphocyte blastogenic responses were reduced in convalescent dairy cattle, suggesting the immune response to these spirochetes has short duration. These results demonstrate genetic and antigenic diversity among T. phagedenis-like treponemes and provide further evidence for the involvement of these spirochetes in the pathogenesis of PDD.Full Text Article
|Signal pathway involved in the development of hypoxic preconditioning in rat hepatocytes. |
R Carini,M G De Cesaris,R Splendore,D Vay,C Domenicotti,M P Nitti,D Paola,M A Pronzato,E Albano
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 33 2001
Ischemic preconditioning improves liver resistance to hypoxia and reduces reperfusion injury following transplantation. However, the intracellular signals that mediate the development of liver hypoxic preconditioning are largely unknown. We have investigated the signal pathway leading to preconditioning in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were preconditioned by 10-minute incubation under hypoxic conditions followed by 10 minutes of reoxygenation and subsequently exposed to 90 minutes of hypoxia. Preconditioning reduced hepatocyte killing by hypoxia by about 35%. A similar protection was also obtained by preincubation with chloro-adenosine or with A(2A)-adenosine receptor agonist CGS21680, whereas A(1)-adenosine receptor agonist N-phenyl-isopropyladenosine (R-PIA) was inactive. Conversely, the development of preconditioning was blocked by A(2)-receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX), but not by A(1)-receptor antagonist 8-cyclopenthyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX). In either preconditioned or CGS21680-treated hepatocytes a selective activation of delta and epsilon protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms was also evident. Inhibition of heterotrimeric G(i) protein or of phospholypase C by, respectively, pertussis toxin or U73122, prevented PKC activation as well as the development of preconditioning. MEK inhibitor PD98509 did not interfere with preconditioning that was instead blocked by p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580. The direct activation of p38 MAPK by anisomycin A mimicked the protection against hypoxic injury given by preconditioning. Consistently, an increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was observed in preconditioned or CGS21680-treated hepatocytes, and this effect was abolished by PKC-blocker, chelerythrine. We propose that a signal pathway involving A(2A)-adenosine receptors, G(i)-proteins, phospholypase C, delta- and epsilon-PKCs, and p38 MAPK, is responsible for the development of liver ischemic preconditioning.
|Method to detect substitutions in the interferon-sensitivity-determining region of hepatitis C virus 1b for prediction of response to interferon therapy. |
S Nishiguchi,T Ueda,T Itoh,M Enomoto,M Tanaka,N Tatsumi,K Fukuda,A Tamori,D Habu,T Takeda,S Otani,S Shiomi
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 33 2001
Substitutions deduced by direct sequencing in the interferon-sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are related to patients' responses to interferon (IFN), but sequencing is time consuming and results are only for the dominant virus. We developed a rapid method to detect such changes. With serum from 50 patients with chronic hepatitis C (genotype 1b) given IFN-alpha, a way to detect changes in ISDR by hybridization with oligonucleotide probes that had a prototype nucleotide sequence of HCV-J was established. Hybridization intensity was expressed as optical density (OD(NS5A)). The method was checked with serum from 100 more patients. In the study of 50 patients, all 21 with the prototype sequences had a high OD(NS5A) (> or = 0.4), and all 8 patients with a mutant-type sequence had low values (< or = 0.2). Twelve (95% confidence interval, 36-81%) of 20 patients with OD(NS5A) of <0.4 and 2 (1%-22%) of 30 patients with OD(NS5A) > or = 0.4 had complete responses (CR). All nine (66%-100%) patients with OD(NS5A) <0.4 and little HCV RNA (<100 kIU/mL) had CR, but none (0%-14%) of the 24 patients with high values from both predictors had CR. In the study of 100 patients, OD(NS5A) and the HCV RNA level were independent predictors of the effects of IFN. By multivariate analysis, the odds ratio for a CR in patients with OD(NS5A) of > or = 0.4 was 0.015 (0. 001-0.190) compared with the other patients (P =.001). In conclusion, our method should be useful in identification of prototype strains, which generally resist IFN therapy.
|Inhomogeneous disappearance of myofilament-related cytoskeletal proteins in stunned myocardium of guinea pig. |
Y Matsumura,E Saeki,M Inoue,M Hori,T Kamada,H Kusuoka
Circulation research 79 1996
The decrease in Ca2+ responsiveness of myofilaments in stunned myocardium implies that there may be structural changes in proteins composing the contractile machinery. To elucidate the lesion in stunned myocardium, isolated guinea pig hearts were subjected to global ischemia at 37 degrees C and reperfused. SDS-PAGE revealed that the contents of desmin, alpha-actinin, and spectrin decreased in the myofibrillar fraction isolated from hearts reperfused after 60-minute ischemia compared with nonischemic control hearts. To examine the change of cytoskeletal proteins in stunned myocardium, immunohistochemical studies with antibodies against these proteins were performed after 15 minutes of ischemia. In stunned myocardium, the staining was largely intact, but there were some lesions where desmin was not stained and alpha-actinin and spectrin were only weakly identified. The percentage of normally stained areas in the myocardium (percent stained area), quantified by image processing, was significantly lower in stunned myocardium (79.6 +/- 3.6%, mean +/- SEM) than in nonischemic control myocardium (96.5 +/- 0.7%). Percent recovery of developed pressure significantly correlated with percent stained area (r = .82, P < .001). In hearts subjected to 15-minute ischemia but not reperfused, or in hearts reperfused with Ca(2+)-free solution after 15-minute ischemia, staining by the antibodies remained intact, suggesting that the change of the cytoskeletal proteins is mediated by Ca2+ overload during reperfusion. In hearts treated with the protease inhibitor leupeptin (50 mumol/L) or calpain inhibitor I (100 mumol/L), both developed pressure and staining were well preserved. These results indicate that contractile dysfunction in stunned myocardium has a strong correlation with the disappearance of cytoskeletal proteins that may be mediated by a Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular protease activated during reperfusion. The disruption of cytoskeletal proteins is a possible mechanism for stunning, although it may be a secondary effect of protease activation.
|LIGHT DIAGNOSTICS™ A9 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY, ~25 tests, included in kit #3350|