Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||ICC, IHC, IH(P), WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Affinity purified rabbit polyclonal in buffer containing Tris-citrate/phosphate, pH 7-8 containing 0.1% sodium azide|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µg|
Anti-Myostatin Antibody, Near CT SDS
|Anti-Myostatin, Near C-terminus - 1983674||1983674|
|Anti-Myostatin, Near C-terminus - 2026369||2026369|
|Anti-Myostatin, Near C-terminus - LV1544996||LV1544996|
|Anti-Myostatin, Near C-terminus - NG1849462||NG1849462|
|Anti-Myostatin, Near C-terminus - NG1869822||NG1869822|
|Anti-Myostatin, Near C-terminus - NMM1613226||NMM1613226|
|Anti-Myostatin, Near C-terminus - NMM1644083||NMM1644083|
|Anti-Myostatin, Near C-terminus - NMM1679628||NMM1679628|
|Anti-Myostatin, Near C-terminus - NMM1698683||NMM1698683|
|Anti-Myostatin, Near C-terminus - NMM1721978||NMM1721978|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Muscle atrophy reversed by growth factor activation of satellite cells in a mouse muscle atrophy model.|
Hauerslev, S; Vissing, J; Krag, TO
PloS one 9 e100594 2014
Muscular dystrophies comprise a large group of inherited disorders that lead to progressive muscle wasting. We wanted to investigate if targeting satellite cells can enhance muscle regeneration and thus increase muscle mass. We treated mice with hepatocyte growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor under three conditions: normoxia, hypoxia and during myostatin deficiency. We found that hepatocyte growth factor treatment led to activation of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K protein synthesis pathway, up-regulation of the myognic transcription factors MyoD and myogenin, and subsequently the negative growth control factor, myostatin and atrophy markers MAFbx and MuRF1. Hypoxia-induced atrophy was partially restored by hepatocyte growth factor combined with leukemia inhibitory factor treatment. Dividing satellite cells were three-fold increased in the treatment group compared to control. Finally, we demonstrated that myostatin regulates satellite cell activation and myogenesis in vivo following treatment, consistent with previous findings in vitro. Our results suggest, not only a novel in vivo pharmacological treatment directed specifically at activating the satellite cells, but also a myostatin dependent mechanism that may contribute to the progressive muscle wasting seen in severely affected patients with muscular dystrophy and significant on-going regeneration. This treatment could potentially be applied to many conditions that feature muscle wasting to increase muscle bulk and strength.
|Highly specific detection of myostatin prodomain by an immunoradiometric sandwich assay in serum of healthy individuals and patients.|
Breitbart, A; Scharf, GM; Duncker, D; Widera, C; Gottlieb, J; Vogel, A; Schmidt, S; Brandes, G; Heuft, HG; Lichtinghagen, R; Kempf, T; Wollert, KC; Bauersachs, J; Heineke, J
PloS one 8 e80454 2013
Myostatin is a muscle derived factor that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Induction of myostatin expression was observed in rodent models of muscle wasting and in cachectic patients with cancer or pulmonary disease. Therefore, there is an increasing interest to use serum myostatin as a biomarker.We established an immunoradiometric sandwich assay (IRMA), which uses a commercially available chicken polyclonal, affinity purified antibody directed against human myostatin prodomain. We determined the serum concentrations of myostatin prodomain in 249 healthy individuals as well as 169 patients with heart failure, 53 patients with cancer and 44 patients with chronic pulmonary disease.The IRMA had a detection limit of 0.7ng/ml, an intraassay imprecision of ≤14.1% and an interassay imprecision of ≤ 18.9%. The specificity of our assay was demonstrated by size exclusion chromatography, detection of myostatin by Western-blotting and a SMAD-dependent transcriptional-reporter assay in the signal-rich serum fractions, as well as lack of interference by unspecific substances like albumin, hemoglobin or lipids. Myostatin prodomain was stable at room temperature and resistant to freeze-thaw cycles. Apparently healthy individuals over the age of 55 had a median myostatin prodomain serum concentration of 3.9ng/ml (25(th)-75(th) percentiles, 2-7ng/ml) and we could not detect increased levels in patients with stable chronic heart failure or cancer related weight loss. In contrast, we found strongly elevated concentrations of myostatin prodomain (median 26.9ng/ml, 25(th)-75(th) percentiles, 7-100ng/ml) in the serum of underweight patients with chronic pulmonary disease.We established a highly specific IRMA for the quantification of myostatin prodomain concentration in human serum. Our assay could be useful to study myostatin as a biomarker for example in patients with chronic pulmonary disease, as we detected highly elevated myostatin prodomain serum levels in underweight individuals of this group.
|A Nitrate Ester of Sedative Alkyl Alcohol Improves Muscle Function and Structure in a Murine Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.|
Wang, Guqi and Lu, Qilong
Mol. Pharm., (2013) 2013
Nitric oxide (NO) has major physiological and cellular effects on muscle growth, repair, and function. In most muscle biopsies from humans with myopathies, sarcolemma-localized neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is either reduced or not detected, particularly in dystrophin-deficient Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Abnormal NO signaling at the sarcolemmal level is integrally involved in the pathogenesis and accounts, at least in part, for the muscle weakness of DMD. Dystrophic muscle fibers exhibit an increased susceptibility to contraction-induced membrane damage. Muscle relaxants function to prevent muscle wasting by decreasing nerve impulses and reducing calcium influx that regulates tensing or tightening of muscle fibers. We have recently developed a new class of nitric esters that combines the pharmacological functions of NO and muscle relaxation. Here, we report the synthesis and properties of the nitric ester (MMPN) of 2-methyl-2-n-propyl-1,3-propanediol (MPP) and its effect in mdx dystrophic mice, a murine model of DMD. MMPN produced significant improvements in biochemical, pathological, and functional phenotypes in the mouse model. The endurance of exercise was extended by 47% in time to exhaustion and 84% in running distance. Serum CK level was decreased by 30%. Additionally, MMPN decreased intracellular free calcium concentration without causing skeletal muscle weakness. No hepatic or renal toxicities were observed during the study. Our investigations unveil a potential new treatment for muscular diseases.
|Protein turnover and cellular stress in mildly and severely affected muscles from patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I.|
Hauerslev, S; Sveen, ML; Vissing, J; Krag, TO
PloS one 8 e66929 2013
Patients with Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I) are characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting primarily in the proximal muscles, while distal muscles often are spared. Our aim was to investigate if wasting could be caused by impaired regeneration in the proximal compared to distal muscles. Biopsies were simultaneously obtained from proximal and distal muscles of the same patients with LGMD2I (n = 4) and healthy subjects (n = 4). The level of past muscle regeneration was evaluated by counting internally nucleated fibers and determining actively regenerating fibers by using the developmental markers embryonic myosin heavy chain (eMHC) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and also assessing satellite cell activation status by myogenin positivity. Severe muscle histopathology was occasionally observed in the proximal muscles of patients with LGMD2I whereas distal muscles were always relatively spared. No difference was found in the regeneration markers internally nucleated fibers, actively regenerating fibers or activation status of satellite cells between proximal and distal muscles. Protein turnover, both synthesis and breakdown, as well as cellular stress were highly increased in severely affected muscles compared to mildly affected muscles. Our results indicate that alterations in the protein turnover and myostatin levels could progressively impair the muscle mass maintenance and/or regeneration resulting in gradual muscular atrophy.
|Greater insulin sensitivity in calorie restricted rats occurs with unaltered circulating levels of several important myokines and cytokines.|
Sharma, N; Castorena, CM; Cartee, GD
Nutrition & metabolism 9 90 2012
Calorie restriction (CR; ~60% of ad libitum, AL intake) has been associated with substantial alterations in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Recently, several proteins that are secreted by nontraditional endocrine tissues, including skeletal muscle and other tissues, have been discovered to modulate energy metabolism, body composition, and insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of CR by rats on plasma levels of six of these newly recognized metabolic hormones (BDNF, FGF21, IL-1β, myonectin, myostatin, and irisin). Body composition of 9-month old male Fischer-344/Brown Norway rats (AL and CR groups) was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Blood sampled from the carotid artery of unanesthetized rats was used to measure concentrations of glucose and plasma proteins. As expected, CR versus AL rats had significantly altered body composition (reduced percent fat mass, increased percent lean mass) and significantly improved insulin sensitivity (based on the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index). Also consistent with previous reports, CR compared to AL rats had significantly greater plasma levels of adiponectin and corticosterone. However, there were no significant diet-related differences in plasma levels of BDNF, FGF21, IL-1β, myonectin, myostatin, or irisin. In conclusion, these results indicate that alterations in plasma concentration of these six secreted proteins are not essential for the CR-related improvement in insulin sensitivity in rats.
|Myostatin is associated with age-related human muscle stem cell dysfunction.|
McKay, BR; Ogborn, DI; Bellamy, LM; Tarnopolsky, MA; Parise, G
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 26 2509-21 2012
Human aging is accompanied by a progressive loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia). We tested the hypothesis that older males (OMs, 70±4 yr, n=9) would have a blunted myogenic response to a physiological stimulus compared to younger controls (21±3 yr, n=9). Subjects completed an acute bout of intense unilateral muscle loading. Young healthy males matched for body mass and activity level served as the control group. Muscle biopsies and blood were obtained before and at 3, 24, and 48 h after muscle loading. The muscle stem cell response was analyzed using flow cytometry, immunofluorescent microscopy, and standard protein and mRNA analysis. OMs had 35% fewer basal stem cells and a type II fiber-specific impairment in stem cell content and proliferation. Myogenic determination factor staining and cell cycle analysis illustrated a severely blunted progression through the myogenic program. Myostatin protein and mRNA were 2-fold higher in OMs. Stem cell-specific myostatin levels were not different at baseline; however, there were 67% more myostatin-positive type II-associated stem cells in OMs at 24 h. These data illustrate an age-related impairment of stem cell function in a fiber type-specific manner. The greater colocalization of myostatin with stem cells provides a mechanism for the impaired myogenic capacity of aged muscle.
|Differential expression of mature microRNAs involved in muscle maintenance of hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus: a model of muscle atrophy resistance.|
Kornfeld, SF; Biggar, KK; Storey, KB
Genomics, proteomics & bioinformatics 10 295-301 2012
Muscle wasting is common in mammals during extended periods of immobility. However, many small hibernating mammals manage to avoid muscle atrophy despite remaining stationary for long periods during hibernation. Recent research has highlighted roles for short non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of stress tolerance. We proposed that they could also play an important role in muscle maintenance during hibernation. To explore this possibility, a group of 10 miRNAs known to be normally expressed in skeletal muscle of non-hibernating mammals were analyzed by RT-PCR in hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus. We then compared the expression of these miRNAs in euthermic control bats and bats in torpor. Our results showed that compared to euthermic controls, significant, albeit modest (1.2-1.6 fold), increases in transcript expression were observed for eight mature miRNAs, including miR-1a-1, miR-29b, miR-181b, miR-15a, miR-20a, miR-206 and miR-128-1, in the pectoral muscle of torpid bats. Conversely, expression of miR-21 decreased by 80% during torpor, while expression of miR-107 remained unaffected. Interestingly, these miRNAs have been either validated or predicted to affect multiple muscle-specific factors, including myostatin, FoxO3a, HDAC4 and SMAD7, and are likely involved in the preservation of pectoral muscle mass and functionality during bat hibernation.
|Immunolocalization of myostatin (GDF-8) following musculoskeletal injury and the effects of exogenous myostatin on muscle and bone healing.|
Elkasrawy, M; Immel, D; Wen, X; Liu, X; Liang, LF; Hamrick, MW
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 60 22-30 2012
The time course and cellular localization of myostatin expression following musculoskeletal injury are not well understood; therefore, the authors evaluated the temporal and spatial localization of myostatin during muscle and bone repair following deep penetrant injury in a mouse model. They then used hydrogel delivery of exogenous myostatin in the same injury model to determine the effects of myostatin exposure on muscle and bone healing. Results showed that a "pool" of intense myostatin staining was observed among injured skeletal muscle fibers 12-24 hr postsurgery and that myostatin was also expressed in the soft callus chondrocytes 4 days following osteotomy. Hydrogel delivery of 10 or 100 µg/ml recombinant myostatin decreased fracture callus cartilage area relative to total callus area in a dose-dependent manner by 41% and 80% (pless than 0.05), respectively, compared to vehicle treatment. Myostatin treatment also decreased fracture callus total bone volume by 30.6% and 38.8% (pless than 0.05), with the higher dose of recombinant myostatin yielding the greatest decrease in callus bone volume. Finally, exogenous myostatin treatment caused a significant dose-dependent increase in fibrous tissue formation in skeletal muscle. Together, these findings suggest that early pharmacological inhibition of myostatin is likely to improve the regenerative potential of both muscle and bone following deep penetrant musculoskeletal injury.
|Myostatin expression during human muscle hypertrophy and subsequent atrophy: increased myostatin with detraining.|
J G Jespersen,A Nedergaard,L L Andersen,P Schjerling,J L Andersen
Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 21 2011
Myostatin is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, but its role in human skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy is sparsely described. Muscle biopsies were obtained from young male subjects before and after 30 and 90 days of resistance training as well as after 3, 10, 30, 60 and 90 days of subsequent detraining. Myostatin mRNA increased significantly with detraining. We observed a 28 kDa myostatin immunoreactive protein, which, however, was also present in myostatin knock out mice skeletal muscle. As a novel finding we consistently detected a 10 kDa band, which may represent a mature myostatin monomer under reducing conditions or a novel, unknown myostatin form. Further, we observed a significant increase in this 10 kDa band after 3 days of detraining preceding the rapid type II fiber atrophy, in which almost half of the acquired fiber area was lost after only 10 days of detraining. Accordingly, an increase in the level of the 10 kDa protein is associated with rapid type II fiber atrophy, suggesting myostatin-mediated specific type II fiber atrophy, which in combination with our mRNA data support a role for myostatin in the negative regulation of adult human skeletal muscle mass.
|Elevation of myostatin and FOXOs in prolonged muscular impairment induced by eccentric contractions in rat medial gastrocnemius muscle.|
Eisuke Ochi,Tatsuro Hirose,Kenji Hiranuma,Seok-Ki Min,Naokata Ishii,Koichi Nakazato
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 108 2010
This study aimed to investigate torque deficit and activation of protein synthesis and/or protein degradation signaling pathways during the early and recovery phase after high- and low-velocity eccentric contractions (ECs). Male Wistar rats (n = 36) were randomly divided into fast angular velocity ECs group (FAST; 180 degrees/s; n = 12), slow ECs group (SLOW; 30 degrees/s; n = 12), and control group (control; n = 12). ECs comprised four sets of five forced dorsiflexions combined with electrical stimulation of the plantar flexors. Isometric tetanic torque was measured before and after ECs. Tissue contents of Akt(P) (P, phosphorylated), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)(P), 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (P70S6k), P70S6k(P), forkhead transcription factor 1 of the O class (FOXO1), FOXO1(P), FOXO3, FOXO3(P), myostatin, and activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) were measured. The isometric tetanic torque after ECs was significantly lower in FAST than in SLOW (days 1, 3, and 5, P < 0.05; day 2, P < 0.01). The ratio of P70S6k(P) against total P70S6k on days 2 and 7 was significantly higher in SLOW than in the control. The ratio of FOXO1 against total FOXO1, the ratio of FOXO3a against total FOXO3a, and myostatin on days 2 and 7 were significantly higher in FAST than in the control, while that of ActRIIB on day 7 was significantly lower in SLOW than in the other two groups. These results suggest that EC intensity plays a key role in impairment of muscular function and activation of protein synthesis and/or protein degradation signaling pathways.
|Anti-Myostatin, Near C-terminus - Data Sheet|