|Phosphorylation of huntingtin reduces the accumulation of its nuclear fragments.|
Simon C Warby,Crystal N Doty,Rona K Graham,Jonathan Shively,Roshni R Singaraja,Michael R Hayden
Molecular and cellular neurosciences
Huntingtin is phosphorylated on serine-421 (S421) by the pro-survival signaling protein kinases Akt and SGK. Phosphorylation of huntingtin at S421 is variable in different regions of the brain with the lowest levels observed in the striatum, which is further reduced by the mutation for Huntington disease (HD). Cleavage of huntingtin by caspase-6 at amino acid 586 is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of HD. Nuclear localization of huntingtin is also an important marker of HD and preventing or delaying its nuclear accumulation is protective in disease models. Phosphorylation influences proteolysis and clearance of many protein substrates. We therefore sought to investigate the influence of huntingtin phosphorylation at S421 on the accumulation of huntingtin-caspase-6 fragments because these fragments are generated in the nucleus and are crucial for the disease phenotype. Using phospho-huntingtin mutants and a cleavage site-specific neo-epitope huntingtin antibody, we demonstrate that phosphorylation at S421 reduces the nuclear accumulation of huntingtin-caspase-6 fragments by reducing huntingtin cleavage by caspase-6, the levels of full-length huntingtin, and its nuclear localization.
|The E3 ligase TTC3 facilitates ubiquitination and degradation of phosphorylated Akt.|
Futoshi Suizu,Yosuke Hiramuki,Fumihiko Okumura,Mami Matsuda,Akiko J Okumura,Noriyuki Hirata,Masumi Narita,Takashi Kohno,Jun Yokota,Miyuki Bohgaki,Chikashi Obuse,Shigetsugu Hatakeyama,Toshiyuki Obata,Masayuki Noguchi
The serine threonine kinase Akt is a core survival factor that underlies a variety of human diseases. Although regulatory phosphorylation and dephosphorylation have been well documented, the other posttranslational mechanisms that modulate Akt activity remain unclear. We show here that tetratricopeptide repeat domain 3 (TTC3) is an E3 ligase that interacts with Akt. TTC3 contains a canonical RING finger motif, a pair of tetratricopeptide motifs, a putative Akt phosphorylation site, and nuclear localization signals, and is encoded by a gene within the Down syndrome (DS) critical region on chromosome 21. TTC3 is an Akt-specific E3 ligase that binds to phosphorylated Akt and facilitates its ubiquitination and degradation within the nucleus. Moreover, DS cells exhibit elevated TTC3 expression, reduced phosphorylated Akt, and accumulation in the G(2)M phase, which can be reversed by TTC3 siRNA or Myr-Akt. Thus, interaction between TTC3 and Akt may contribute to the clinical symptoms of DS.