Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, B, R, Ca||WB, IH(P), ICC, IP, ACT||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG1κ antibody in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl without preservatives.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 μg|
|Anti-Calpain, small subunit, -Q2618556||Q2618556|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Loss of specific chaperones involved in membrane glycoprotein biosynthesis during the maturation of human erythroid progenitor cells.|
Patterson, ST; Li, J; Kang, JA; Wickrema, A; Williams, DB; Reithmeier, RA
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 14547-57 2009
The production of erythrocytes requires the massive synthesis of red cell-specific proteins including hemoglobin, cytoskeletal proteins, as well as membrane glycoproteins glycophorin A (GPA) and anion exchanger 1 (AE1). We found that during the terminal differentiation of human CD34(+) erythroid progenitor cells in culture, key components of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein translocation (Sec61alpha), glycosylation (OST48), and protein folding machinery, chaperones BiP, calreticulin (CRT), and Hsp90 were maintained to allow efficient red cell glycoprotein biosynthesis. Unexpected was the loss of calnexin (CNX), an ER glycoprotein chaperone, and ERp57, a protein-disulfide isomerase, as well as a major decrease of the cytosolic chaperones, Hsc70 and Hsp70, components normally involved in membrane glycoprotein folding and quality control. AE1 can traffic to the cell surface in mouse embryonic fibroblasts completely deficient in CNX or CRT, whereas disruption of the CNX/CRT-glycoprotein interactions in human K562 cells using castanospermine did not affect the cell-surface levels of endogenous GPA or expressed AE1. These results demonstrate that CNX and ERp57 are not required for major glycoprotein biosynthesis during red cell development, in contrast to their role in glycoprotein folding and quality control in other cells.Full Text Article
|Estrogen administration attenuates immobilization-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in male rats.|
Sugiura, T; Ito, N; Goto, K; Naito, H; Yoshioka, T; Powers, SK
The journal of physiological sciences : JPS 56 393-9 2006
We tested the hypothesis that estrogen administration would retard immobilization-induced muscle atrophy in adult male rats. The rats were injected for 24 days with either estrogen (40 microg/kg(-1), beta-estradiol 3-benzoate in olive oil vehicle), or vehicle alone. At day 14 of estrogen treatment, the hindlimb muscles of one leg were immobilized in plantar flexion position by the use of a plaster cast. Following 10 days of immobilzation, the atrophic and the contralateral soleus muscles were both removed and analyzed to determine the level of muscle atrophy along with the measurement of the protein levels of Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn-SOD), heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), and selected proteases. Compared to placebo animals, estrogen treatment significantly reduced (-35%) muscle atrophy. Further, estrogen significantly abridged the expression of the calcium-activated protease, calpain, in the atrophied hindlimb muscle. In contrast, estrogen treatment did not alter the protein levels of HSP72 in the immobilized soleus muscle. These results support the postulate that estrogen attenuates the rate of disuse muscle atrophy, partly because of reductions in immobilization-induced calcium-activated protease levels.
|Subcellular localization and in vivo subunit interactions of ubiquitous mu-calpain.|
Gil-Parrado, S; Popp, O; Knoch, TA; Zahler, S; Bestvater, F; Felgenträger, M; Holloschi, A; Fernández-Montalván, A; Auerswald, EA; Fritz, H; Fuentes-Prior, P; Machleidt, W; Spiess, E
The Journal of biological chemistry 278 16336-46 2003
Ubiquitously expressed calpains are Ca(2+)-dependent, intracellular cysteine proteases comprising a large catalytic subunit (domains DI-DIV) and a noncovalently bound small regulatory subunit (domains DV and DVI). It is unclear whether Ca(2+)-induced calpain activation is followed by subunit dissociation or not. Here, we have applied advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques to study calpain subunit interactions in living cells using recombinant calpain subunits or domains fused to enhanced cyan and enhanced yellow fluorescent reporter proteins. All of the overexpressed variants of the catalytic subunit (DI-IV, DI-III, and DI-IIb) were active and Ca(2+)-dependent. The intact large subunit, but not its truncated variants, associates with the small subunit under resting and ionomycin-activated conditions. All of the variants were localized in cytoplasm and nuclei, except DI-IIb, which accumulates in the nucleus and in nucleoli as shown by microscopy and cell fractionation. Localization studies with mutated and chimeric variants indicate that nuclear targeting of the DI-IIb variant is conferred by the two N-terminal helices of DI. Only those variants that contain DIII migrated to membranes upon the addition of ionomycin, suggesting that DIII is essential for membrane targeting. We propose that intracellular localization and in particular membrane targeting of activated calpain, but not dissociation of its intact subunits, contribute to regulate its proteolytic activity in vivo.
|The major calpain isozymes are long-lived proteins. Design of an antisense strategy for calpain depletion in cultured cells.|
Zhang, W; Lane, RD; Mellgren, RL
The Journal of biological chemistry 271 18825-30 1996
Calpains are intracellular Ca2+-dependent proteases that are thought to participate in Ca2+-associated signal transduction pathways. It has been proposed that calpains are activated by an autoproteolytic mechanism. If this is true one would expect a relatively short half-life for calpain protein in cells. To test this hypothesis, WI-38 human diploid fibroblasts were pulse-labeled with [35S]methionine, and calpain was immunoprecipitated at various times after chasing with nonradioactive methionine to determine residual radioactivity. The results demonstrated that the two major calpain isozymes, m-calpain and micro-calpain, had metabolic half-lives of approximately 5 days. Calpains were long-lived proteins in several human cell lines, A-431, HeLa, VA-13, C-33A, and TE2 cells. In addition, calpastatin, the calpain-specific inhibitor protein, also had a long metabolic half-life. These observations suggest that the model for calpain activation by autoproteolysis requires re-investigation. Based on a knowledge of calpain metabolic stability, a protocol was devised for chronic exposure of WI-38 cells and HeLa cells to a calpain small subunit antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide. Depletion of calpain small subunit after 5 or more days of treatment led to inhibition of cell proliferation that could be reversed by removal of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide from the culture medium. Together with previous studies, these results indicate a requirement for calpains in mammalian cell proliferation.
|Calpain subunits remain associated during catalysis.|
Zhang, W; Mellgren, RL
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 227 891-6 1996
The Ca2+ dependent cysteine proteases, calpains are heterodimers containing a large (ca. 80 kDa) catalytic subunit and a 25-30 kDa small subunit. Whether calpains remain dimers while catalyzing hydrolysis of protein substrates has been controversial. Now by doing subunit co-immunoprecipitation, we provide direct evidence to resolve this argument. In the presence of Ca2+ concentrations which permit catalytic activity, both subunits of either m- or mu-calpain are co-immunoprecipitated by monoclonal antibodies directed against a single subunit. Furthermore, both subunits can be co-immunoprecipitated during calpain-catalyzed proteolysis of the substrate casein. These results indicate that both major calpain isozymes maintain their heterodimeric form during the catalytic cycle. Thus, small subunit might have a direct role in regulating the physiologic function of either major calpain isozyme.
|Myocardial calpain 2 is inhibited by monoclonal antibodies specific for the small, noncatalytic subunit.|
Mellgren, RL; Lane, RD
Biochimica et biophysica acta 954 154-60 1988
Calpains (EC 188.8.131.52) are nonlysosomal intracellular proteinases which require calcium ion for activity. The calpains are heterodimers composed of a large catalytic subunit and a small subunit which may have a regulatory function during the catalytic cycle. However, whether calpains remain in the dimeric form or dissociate upon exposure to calcium is controversial. To resolve this issue, two monoclonal antibodies which specifically recognize the small calpain subunit were prepared using bovine calpain 2 heterodimer as the antigen. Both antibodies, designated P-1 and P-2, were capable of inhibiting bovine or canine calpain 2, and partially purified human erythrocyte calpain 1. However, neither could produce full inhibition. Further studies with P-1 and bovine calpain 2 indicated that the antibody decreased the calcium requirement for the proteinase. The Km for casein was increased and the Vmax was decreased. The addition of P-1 to the assay mixture several minutes after initiation of proteolytic activity resulted in a rapid inhibition. The P-1 antibody was also capable of decreasing the ability of the protein inhibitor of calpains (calpastatin) to inhibit bovine calpain 2. These studies indicate that the small subunit remains bound to the large subunit during catalysis and may influence its activity.
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