Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||EMSA, WB, ICC||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Protein A purified immunoglobulin presented in 0.02M phosphate buffer, pH 7.6, 0.25M NaCl, and 0.1% Sodium Azide before the addition of glycerol to 30%.|
|Application||Detect Hox A9 with Anti-Hox A9 Antibody (Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody), that has been shown to work in EMSA, WB, ICC.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-Hox A9 (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2123712||2123712|
|Anti-Hox A9 (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2387521||2387521|
|Anti-Hox A9 (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2005585||2005585|
|Anti-Hox A9 (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2193156||2193156|
|Anti-Hox A9 (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2295658||2295658|
|Anti-Hox A9 - 0609039658||0609039658|
|Anti-Hox A9 - 1962112||1962112|
|Anti-Hox A9 - 20333||20333|
|Anti-Hox A9 - 33450||33450|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Musashi2 sustains the mixed-lineage leukemia-driven stem cell regulatory program.|
Park, SM; Gönen, M; Vu, L; Minuesa, G; Tivnan, P; Barlowe, TS; Taggart, J; Lu, Y; Deering, RP; Hacohen, N; Figueroa, ME; Paietta, E; Fernandez, HF; Tallman, MS; Melnick, A; Levine, R; Leslie, C; Lengner, CJ; Kharas, MG
The Journal of clinical investigation 125 1286-98 2015
Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are found in most aggressive myeloid diseases and contribute to therapeutic resistance. Leukemia cells exhibit a dysregulated developmental program as the result of genetic and epigenetic alterations. Overexpression of the RNA-binding protein Musashi2 (MSI2) has been previously shown to predict poor survival in leukemia. Here, we demonstrated that conditional deletion of Msi2 in the hematopoietic compartment results in delayed leukemogenesis, reduced disease burden, and a loss of LSC function in a murine leukemia model. Gene expression profiling of these Msi2-deficient animals revealed a loss of the hematopoietic/leukemic stem cell self-renewal program and an increase in the differentiation program. In acute myeloid leukemia patients, the presence of a gene signature that was similar to that observed in Msi2-deficent murine LSCs correlated with improved survival. We determined that MSI2 directly maintains the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) self-renewal program by interacting with and retaining efficient translation of Hoxa9, Myc, and Ikzf2 mRNAs. Moreover, depletion of MLL target Ikzf2 in LSCs reduced colony formation, decreased proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Our data provide evidence that MSI2 controls efficient translation of the oncogenic LSC self-renewal program and suggest MSI2 as a potential therapeutic target for myeloid leukemia.
|Isolated Hoxa9 overexpression predisposes to the development of lymphoid but not myeloid leukemia.|
Beachy, SH; Onozawa, M; Silverman, D; Chung, YJ; Rivera, MM; Aplan, PD
Experimental hematology 41 518-529.e5 2013
Hoxa9 is expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, although this expression is usually diminished as these cells undergo differentiation. In addition, aberrant expression of Hoxa9 is strongly associated with both T cell and myeloid leukemia in mice and humans. Despite this strong association, enforced expression of Hoxa9 in murine bone marrow or thymus has only shown a modest ability to transform cells. To investigate this question, we used Vav regulatory elements to generate a transgenic mouse that targets Hoxa9 overexpression to all hematopoietic tissues. High-level expression of the Hoxa9 transgene in the hematopoietic compartment was associated with embryonic lethality, as no pups from founders that expressed high levels of the transgene were born live. However, offspring of an additional founder line, which expressed lower levels of Hoxa9, developed a precursor T cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, accompanied by spontaneous Notch1 mutations. In contrast to most murine models of leukemia associated with Hoxa9 overexpression, the Vav-Hoxa9 mice did not overexpress other Hoxa cluster genes, mir196b (a microRNA that is embedded in the Hoxa locus), Meis1, or Pbx3. The Hoxa9 transgenic mouse reported in this study provides a suitable system for the study of Hoxa9 collaborators that drive myeloid and lymphoid malignant transformation.
|Immune mediators regulate CFTR expression through a bifunctional airway-selective enhancer.|
Zhang, Z; Leir, SH; Harris, A
Molecular and cellular biology 33 2843-53 2013
An airway-selective DNase-hypersensitive site (DHS) at kb -35 (DHS-35kb) 5' to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is evident in many lung cell lines and primary human tracheal epithelial cells but is absent from intestinal epithelia. The DHS-35kb contains an element with enhancer activity in 16HBE14o- airway epithelial cells and is enriched for monomethylated H3K4 histones (H3K4me1). We now define a 350-bp region within DHS-35kb which has full enhancer activity and binds interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) and nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) in vitro and in vivo. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of IRF1 or overexpression of IRF2, an antagonist of IRF1, reduces CFTR expression in 16HBE14o- cells. NF-Y is critical for maintenance of H3K4me1 enrichment at DHS-35kb since depletion of NF-YA, a subunit of NF-Y, reduces H3K4me1 enrichment at this site. Moreover, depletion of SETD7, an H3K4 monomethyltransferase, reduces both H3K4me1 and NF-Y occupancy, suggesting a requirement of H3K4me1 for NF-Y binding. NF-Y depletion also represses Sin3A and reduces its occupancy across the CFTR locus, which is accompanied by an increase in p300 enrichment at multiple sites. Our results reveal that the DHS-35kb airway-selective enhancer element plays a pivotal role in regulation of CFTR expression by two independent regulatory mechanisms.
|An MLL-dependent network sustains hematopoiesis.|
Artinger, Erika L, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., (2013) 2013
The histone methyltransferase Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) is essential to maintain hematopoietic stem cells and is a leukemia protooncogene. Although clustered homeobox genes are well-characterized targets of MLL and MLL fusion oncoproteins, the range of Mll-regulated genes in normal hematopoietic cells remains unknown. Here, we identify and characterize part of the Mll-dependent transcriptional network in hematopoietic stem cells with an integrated approach by using conditional loss-of-function models, genomewide expression analyses, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and functional rescue assays. The Mll-dependent transcriptional network extends well beyond the previously appreciated Hox targets, is comprised of many characterized regulators of self-renewal, and contains target genes that are both dependent and independent of the MLL cofactor, Menin. Interestingly, PR-domain containing 16 emerged as a target gene that is uniquely effective at partially rescuing Mll-deficient hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. This work highlights the tissue-specific nature of regulatory networks under the control of MLL/Trithorax family members and provides insight into the distinctions between the participation of MLL in normal hematopoiesis and in leukemia.
|Integrative epigenomic analysis identifies biomarkers and therapeutic targets in adult B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia.|
Geng, H; Brennan, S; Milne, TA; Chen, WY; Li, Y; Hurtz, C; Kweon, SM; Zickl, L; Shojaee, S; Neuberg, D; Huang, C; Biswas, D; Xin, Y; Racevskis, J; Ketterling, RP; Luger, SM; Lazarus, H; Tallman, MS; Rowe, JM; Litzow, MR; Guzman, ML; Allis, CD; Roeder, RG; Müschen, M; Paietta, E; Elemento, O; Melnick, AM
Cancer discovery 2 1004-23 2012
Genetic lesions such as BCR-ABL1, E2A-PBX1, and MLL rearrangements (MLLr) are associated with unfavorable outcomes in adult B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Leukemia oncoproteins may directly or indirectly disrupt cytosine methylation patterning to mediate the malignant phenotype. We postulated that DNA methylation signatures in these aggressive B-ALLs would point toward disease mechanisms and useful biomarkers and therapeutic targets. We therefore conducted DNA methylation and gene expression profiling on a cohort of 215 adult patients with B-ALL enrolled in a single phase III clinical trial (ECOG E2993) and normal control B cells. In BCR-ABL1-positive B-ALLs, aberrant cytosine methylation patterning centered around a cytokine network defined by hypomethylation and overexpression of IL2RA(CD25). The E2993 trial clinical data showed that CD25 expression was strongly associated with a poor outcome in patients with ALL regardless of BCR-ABL1 status, suggesting CD25 as a novel prognostic biomarker for risk stratification in B-ALLs. In E2A-PBX1-positive B-ALLs, aberrant DNA methylation patterning was strongly associated with direct fusion protein binding as shown by the E2A-PBX1 chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing (ChIP-seq), suggesting that E2A-PBX1 fusion protein directly remodels the epigenome to impose an aggressive B-ALL phenotype. MLLr B-ALL featured prominent cytosine hypomethylation, which was linked with MLL fusion protein binding, H3K79 dimethylation, and transcriptional upregulation, affecting a set of known and newly identified MLL fusion direct targets with oncogenic activity such as FLT3 and BCL6. Notably, BCL6 blockade or loss of function suppressed proliferation and survival of MLLr leukemia cells, suggesting BCL6-targeted therapy as a new therapeutic strategy for MLLr B-ALLs.We conducted the first integrative epigenomic study in adult B-ALLs, as a correlative study to the ECOG E2993 phase III clinical trial. This study links for the first time the direct actions of oncogenic fusion proteins with disruption of epigenetic regulation mediated by cytosine methylation. We identify a novel clinically actionable biomarker in B-ALLs: IL2RA (CD25), which is linked with BCR-ABL1 and an inflammatory signaling network associated with chemotherapy resistance. We show that BCL6 is a novel MLL fusion protein target that is required to maintain the proliferation and survival of primary human adult MLLr cells and provide the basis for a clinical trial with BCL6 inhibitors for patients with MLLr.
|Smad4 binds Hoxa9 in the cytoplasm and protects primitive hematopoietic cells against nuclear activation by Hoxa9 and leukemia transformation.|
Quéré, R; Karlsson, G; Hertwig, F; Rissler, M; Lindqvist, B; Fioretos, T; Vandenberghe, P; Slovak, ML; Cammenga, J; Karlsson, S
Blood 117 5918-30 2011
We studied leukemic stem cells (LSCs) in a Smad4(-/-) mouse model of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) induced either by the HOXA9 gene or by the fusion oncogene NUP98-HOXA9. Although Hoxa9-Smad4 complexes accumulate in the cytoplasm of normal hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells (HSPCs) transduced with these oncogenes, there is no cytoplasmic stabilization of HOXA9 in Smad4(-/-) HSPCs, and as a consequence increased levels of Hoxa9 is observed in the nucleus leading to increased immortalization in vitro. Loss of Smad4 accelerates the development of leukemia in vivo because of an increase in transformation of HSPCs. Therefore, the cytoplasmic binding of Hoxa9 by Smad4 is a mechanism to protect Hoxa9-induced transformation of normal HSPCs. Because Smad4 is a potent tumor suppressor involved in growth control, we developed a strategy to modify the subcellular distribution of Smad4. We successfully disrupted the interaction between Hoxa9 and Smad4 to activate the TGF-? pathway and apoptosis, leading to a loss of LSCs. Together, these findings reveal a major role for Smad4 in the negative regulation of leukemia initiation and maintenance induced by HOXA9/NUP98-HOXA9 and provide strong evidence that antagonizing Smad4 stabilization by these oncoproteins might be a promising novel therapeutic approach in leukemia.
|Leukemic fusion genes MLL/AF4 and AML1/MTG8 support leukemic self-renewal by controlling expression of the telomerase subunit TERT.|
A Gessner,M Thomas,P Garrido Castro,L Büchler,A Scholz,T H Brümmendorf,N Martinez Soria,J Vormoor,J Greil,O Heidenreich
Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 24 2010
MLL/AF4 and AML/MTG8 represent two leukemic fusion genes, which are most frequently found in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), respectively. We examined the influence of MLL/AF4 and AML1/MTG8 fusion genes on the expression of TERT coding for the telomerase protein subunit, and subsequently telomerase activity in t(4;11)-positive ALL and t(8;21)-positive cell lines, respectively. MLL/AF4 suppression diminished telomerase activity and expression of TERT. Blocking pro-apoptotic caspase activation in conjunction with MLL/AF4 knockdown enhanced the inhibition of TERT gene expression, which suggests that MLL/AF4 depletion does not reduce TERT expression levels by inducing apoptosis. Knockdown of HOXA7, a direct transcriptional target of MLL/AF4 fusion gene, caused a reduction of telomerase and TERT to an extent similar to that observed with MLL/AF4 suppression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of SEM cells, using ectopically expressed FLAG-tagged Hoxa7, indicates HOXA7 binding site in the TERT promoter region. Furthermore, suppression of the AML1/MTG8 fusion gene was associated with severely reduced clonogenicity, induction of replicative senescence, impaired TERT expression and accelerated telomere shortening. We thus present findings that show a mechanistic link between leukemic fusion proteins, essential for development and maintenance of leukemia, and telomerase, a key element of both normal and malignant self-renewal.
|Haematopoietic malignancies caused by dysregulation of a chromatin-binding PHD finger.|
Wang, GG; Song, J; Wang, Z; Dormann, HL; Casadio, F; Li, H; Luo, JL; Patel, DJ; Allis, CD
Nature 459 847-51 2009
Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation (H3K4me) has been proposed as a critical component in regulating gene expression, epigenetic states, and cellular identities1. The biological meaning of H3K4me is interpreted by conserved modules including plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers that recognize varied H3K4me states. The dysregulation of PHD fingers has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancers and immune or neurological disorders. Here we report that fusing an H3K4-trimethylation (H3K4me3)-binding PHD finger, such as the carboxy-terminal PHD finger of PHF23 or JARID1A (also known as KDM5A or RBBP2), to a common fusion partner nucleoporin-98 (NUP98) as identified in human leukaemias, generated potent oncoproteins that arrested haematopoietic differentiation and induced acute myeloid leukaemia in murine models. In these processes, a PHD finger that specifically recognizes H3K4me3/2 marks was essential for leukaemogenesis. Mutations in PHD fingers that abrogated H3K4me3 binding also abolished leukaemic transformation. NUP98-PHD fusion prevented the differentiation-associated removal of H3K4me3 at many loci encoding lineage-specific transcription factors (Hox(s), Gata3, Meis1, Eya1 and Pbx1), and enforced their active gene transcription in murine haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Mechanistically, NUP98-PHD fusions act as 'chromatin boundary factors', dominating over polycomb-mediated gene silencing to 'lock' developmentally critical loci into an active chromatin state (H3K4me3 with induced histone acetylation), a state that defined leukaemia stem cells. Collectively, our studies represent, to our knowledge, the first report that deregulation of the PHD finger, an 'effector' of specific histone modification, perturbs the epigenetic dynamics on developmentally critical loci, catastrophizes cellular fate decision-making, and even causes oncogenesis during mammalian development.
|HOXA9 modulates its oncogenic partner Meis1 to influence normal hematopoiesis.|
Yu-Long Hu, Steve Fong, Christina Ferrell, Corey Largman, Wei-Fang Shen, YL Hu, S Fong, C Ferrell, C Largman, WF Shen
Molecular and cellular biology 29 5181-92 2009
While investigating the mechanism of action of the HOXA9 protein, we serendipitously identified Meis1 as a HOXA9 regulatory target. Since HOXA9 and MEIS1 play key developmental roles, are cooperating DNA binding proteins and leukemic oncoproteins, and are important for normal hematopoiesis, the regulation of Meis1 by its partner protein is of interest. Loss of Hoxa9 caused downregulation of the Meis1 mRNA and protein, while forced HOXA9 expression upregulated Meis1. Hoxa9 and Meis1 expression was correlated in hematopoietic progenitors and acute leukemias. Meis1(+/-) Hoxa9(-/-) deficient mice, generated to test HOXA9 regulation of endogenous Meis1, were small and had reduced bone marrow Meis1 mRNA and significant defects in fluorescence-activated cell sorting-enumerated monocytes, mature and pre/pro-B cells, and functional B-cell progenitors. These data indicate that HOXA9 modulates Meis1 during normal murine hematopoiesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis did not reveal direct binding of HOXA9 to Meis1 promoter/enhancer regions. However, Creb1 and Pknox1, whose protein products have previously been reported to induce Meis1, were shown to be direct targets of HOXA9. Loss of Hoxa9 resulted in a decrease in Creb1 and Pknox1 mRNA, and forced expression of CREB1 in Hoxa9(-/-) bone marrow cells increased Meis1 mRNA almost as well as HOXA9, suggesting that CREB1 may mediate HOXA9 modulation of Meis1 expression.Full Text Article
|Cul4A is required for hematopoietic cell viability and its deficiency leads to apoptosis.|
Waning, DL; Li, B; Jia, N; Naaldijk, Y; Goebel, WS; HogenEsch, H; Chun, KT
Blood 112 320-9 2008
In vitro studies indicate that Cul4A ubiquitin ligases target for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis regulators of cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, development, and DNA repair. In hematopoietic cell lines, studies by our group and others showed that Cul4A ligases regulate proliferation and differentiation in maturing myeloid and erythroid cells. In vivo, Cul4A-deficient embryos die in utero. Cul4A haploinsufficient mice are viable but have fewer erythroid and primitive myeloid progenitors. Yet, little more is known about Cul4A function in vivo. To examine Cul4A function in adults, we generated mice with interferon-inducible deletion of Cul4A. Cul4A deficiency resulted in DNA damage and apoptosis of rapidly dividing cells, and mutant mice died within 3 to 10 days after induction with dramatic atrophy of the intestinal villi, bone marrow, and spleen, and with hematopoietic failure. Cul4A deletion in vivo specifically increased cellular levels of the Cul4A ligase targets Cdt1 and p27(Kip1) but not other known targets. Bone marrow transplantation studies with Cul4A deletion in engrafted cells specifically isolated analysis of Cul4A function to hematopoietic cells and resulted in hematopoietic failure. These recipients died within 9 to 11 days, demonstrating that in hematopoietic cells, Cul4A is essential for survival.