|Developmental and injury-induced expression of alpha1beta1 and alpha6beta1 integrins in the rat spinal cord.|
Baker, KA; Hagg, T
Loss and damage to blood vessels are thought to contribute to secondary tissue loss after spinal cord injury. Integrins might be therapeutic targets to protect the vasculature and/or promote angiogenesis, as their activation can promote tubule formation and survival of endothelial cells in vitro. Here, we show that immunostaining with an antibody against the alpha1beta1 integrin heterodimer is present only in blood vessels from postnatal day 1 (P1) through adulthood in Sprague-Dawley rats. After a spinal cord contusion at T9 in adults, the area of alpha1beta1 integrin positive blood vessels increases within 11 mm from the injury site at 3 days post-injury and remains prominent within the injured core only at 7 days. Staining for the alpha6beta1 integrin heterodimer increases in blood vessels between P10 and adulthood and is present in preganglionic neurons of the intermediolateral cell column (IML) at all ages. The alpha6beta1 integrin is also expressed by motor neurons postnatally, and oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs), as previously reported. After the contusion, the area of alpha6beta1-stained blood vessels is increased at 3 days and most prominently, 1 mm from the injury site, followed by a significant reduction at 7 days, when alpha6beta1 integrin staining is most prominent around the injured core. Staining is also present in a subset of microglia and/or macrophages. These results raise the possibility that alpha1beta1 and alpha6beta1 integrins in blood vessels might be targeted to reduce blood vessel loss and promote angiogenesis, which may promote tissue sparing after spinal cord injury.
|Involvement of alpha1beta1 integrin in insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated protection of PC12 neuronal processes from tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced injury.|
Jin Ying Wang, Maja Grabacka, Cezary Marcinkiewicz, Izabella Staniszewska, Francesca Peruzzi, Kamel Khalili, Shohreh Amini, Krzysztof Reiss
Journal of neuroscience research
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) supports neuronal survival against a wide variety of insults. This includes tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-mediated neuronal damage, which represents one of the factors suspected to play a role in HIV-associated dementia (HAD). PC12 neurons engineered to express human IGF-1R (PC12/IGF-1R) maintain neuronal processes on collagen IV for several weeks. However, prolonged treatment with TNFalpha caused degeneration of neuronal processes, with no apparent signs of apoptosis. In this process, TNFalpha did not affect IGF-1-mediated phosphorylation of IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, or Erks. In addition, PC12/IGF-1R cells were found to express predominantly alpha1beta1 integrin, which has high affinity to collagen IV. The treatment of PC12/IGF-1R neurons with a specific alpha1beta1 integrin inhibitor, obtustatin, also caused loss of neuronal processes, accompanied by a quick cell detachment and extensive apoptosis. In the presence of IGF-1, both TNFalpha-induced and obtustatin-induced degeneration of neuronal processes were effectively inhibited. Furthermore, TNFalpha-mediated neuronal degeneration correlated with decreased attachment of PC12/IGF-1R cells to collagen IV and with a reduced level of alpha1beta1 integrin, consistent with a role for this surface protein in the maintenance of neuronal processes. Thus the neuroprotective effects of IGF-1 are not restricted to its antiapoptotic properties but also involve an additional neuroprotective mechanism, by which IGF-1 counteracts the negative effect of TNFalpha on alpha1beta1 integrin-mediated attachment to collagen IV.