|Pinhole micro-SPECT/CT for noninvasive monitoring and quantitation of oncolytic virus dispersion and percent infection in solid tumors.|
Penheiter, AR; Griesmann, GE; Federspiel, MJ; Dingli, D; Russell, SJ; Carlson, SK
The purpose of our study was to validate the ability of pinhole micro-single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) to: 1) accurately resolve the intratumoral dispersion pattern and 2) quantify the infection percentage in solid tumors of an oncolytic measles virus encoding the human sodium iodide symporter (MV-NIS). Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) RNA level and dispersion pattern were determined in control and MV-NIS-infected BxPC-3 pancreatic tumor cells and mouse xenografts using quantitative, real-time, reverse transcriptase, polymerase chain reaction, autoradiography and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Mice with BxPC-3 xenografts were imaged with (123)I or (99)TcO(4) micro-SPECT/CT. Tumor dimensions and radionuclide localization were determined with imaging software. Linear regression and correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship between tumor infection percentage and radionuclide uptake (% injected dose per gram) above background and a highly significant correlation was observed (r(2)=0.947). A detection threshold of 1.5-fold above the control tumor uptake (background) yielded a sensitivity of 2.7% MV-NIS-infected tumor cells. We reliably resolved multiple distinct intratumoral zones of infection from non-infected regions. Pinhole micro-SPECT/CT imaging using the NIS reporter demonstrated precise localization and quantitation of oncolytic MV-NIS infection, and can replace more time-consuming and expensive analyses (for example, autoradiography and IHC) that require animal killing.
|Quantitative molecular imaging of viral therapy for pancreatic cancer using an engineered measles virus expressing the sodium-iodide symporter reporter gene.|
Carlson, SK; Classic, KL; Hadac, EM; Dingli, D; Bender, CE; Kemp, BJ; Russell, SJ
AJR. American journal of roentgenology
Our objectives were to, first, determine the oncolytic potential of an engineered measles virus expressing the sodium-iodide symporter gene (MV-NIS) for intratumoral (i.t.) therapy of pancreatic cancer and, second, evaluate NIS as a reporter gene for in vivo monitoring and quantitation of MV-NIS delivery, viral spread, and gene expression in this tumor model.Cultured human pancreatic cancer cells were infected with MV-NIS. Light microscopy, cell viability, and iodide uptake assays were used to confirm viral infection and NIS gene expression and function in vitro. Human pancreatic tumor xenografts were established in mice and infected via i.t. MV-NIS injections. NIS-mediated i.t. iodide uptake was quantitated by (123)I micro-SPECT/CT. i.t. MV-NIS infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry of excised pancreatic xenografts. The oncolytic efficacy of MV-NIS was determined by measurement of tumor growth and mouse survival.Infection of human pancreatic cancer cell lines with MV-NIS in vitro resulted in syncytia formation, marked iodide uptake, and ultimately cell death. Tumor xenografts infected with MV-NIS concentrated radioiodine, allowing serial quantitative imaging with (123)I micro-SPECT/CT. i.t. MV-NIS therapy of human pancreatic cancer xenografts resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume and increased survival time of the treated mice compared with the control mice.MV-NIS efficiently infects human pancreatic tumor cells and results in sufficient radioiodine uptake to enable noninvasive serial imaging and quantitation of the intensity, distribution, and time course of NIS gene expression. MV-NIS also shows oncolytic activity in human pancreatic cancer xenografts: Tumor growth is reduced and survival is increased in mice treated with the virus.Full Text Article