Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, Fe||RIA, WB, IHC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Myosin Antibody, slow muscle, clone NOQ7.5.4D|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at 2-8°C.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Myotubes from severely obese type 2 diabetic subjects accumulate less lipids and show higher lipolytic rate than myotubes from severely obese non-diabetic subjects.|
Bakke, SS; Feng, YZ; Nikoli?, N; Kase, ET; Moro, C; Stensrud, C; Damlien, L; Ludahl, MO; Sandbu, R; Solheim, BM; Rustan, AC; Hjelmesæth, J; Thoresen, GH; Aas, V
PloS one 10 e0119556 2015
About 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes are classified as overweight. However, only about 1/3 of severely obese subjects have type 2 diabetes. This indicates that several severely obese individuals may possess certain characteristics that protect them against type 2 diabetes. We therefore hypothesized that this apparent paradox could be related to fundamental differences in skeletal muscle lipid handling. Energy metabolism and metabolic flexibility were examined in human myotubes derived from severely obese subjects without (BMI 44±7 kg/m2) and with type 2 diabetes (BMI 43±6 kg/m2). Lower insulin sensitivity was observed in myotubes from severely obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Lipolysis rate was higher, and oleic acid accumulation, triacylglycerol content, and fatty acid adaptability were lower in myotubes from severely obese subjects with type 2 diabetes compared to severely obese non-diabetic subjects. There were no differences in lipid distribution and mRNA and protein expression of the lipases HSL and ATGL, the lipase cofactor CGI-58, or the lipid droplet proteins PLIN2 and PLIN3. Glucose and oleic acid oxidation were also similar in cells from the two groups. In conclusion, myotubes established from severely obese donors with established type 2 diabetes had lower ability for lipid accumulation and higher lipolysis rate than myotubes from severely obese donors without diabetes. This indicates that a difference in intramyocellular lipid turnover might be fundamental in evolving type 2 diabetes.
|Lipid in skeletal muscle myotubes is associated to the donors' insulin sensitivity and physical activity phenotypes.|
Bajpeyi, S; Myrland, CK; Covington, JD; Obanda, D; Cefalu, WT; Smith, SR; Rustan, AC; Ravussin, E
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 22 426-34 2014
This study investigated the relationship between in vitro lipid content in myotubes and in vivo whole body phenotypes of the donors such as insulin sensitivity, intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), physical activity, and oxidative capacity.Six physically active donors were compared to six sedentary lean and six T2DM. Lipid content was measured in tissues and myotubes by immunohistochemistry. Ceramides, triacylglycerols, and diacylglycerols (DAGs) were measured by LC-MS-MS and GC-FID. Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (80 mU min?¹ m?²), maximal mitochondrial capacity (ATPmax) by ³¹P-MRS, physical fitness by VO?max and physical activity level (PAL) by accelerometers.Myotubes cultured from physically active donors had higher lipid content (0.047?±?0.003 vs. 0.032?±?0.001 and 0.033?±?0.001AU; P?less than ?0.001) than myotubes from lean and T2DM donors. Lipid content in myotubes was not associated with IMCL in muscle tissue but importantly, correlated with in vivo measures of ATPmax (r?=?0.74; P?less than ?0.001), insulin sensitivity (r?=?0.54; P?less than ?0.05), type-I fibers (r?=?0.50; P?less than ?0.05), and PAL (r?=?0.92; P?less than ?0.0001). DAGs and ceramides in myotubes were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (r?=?-0.55, r?=?-0.73; P?less than ?0.05) and ATPmax (r?=?-0.74, r?=?-0.85; P?less than ?0.01).These results indicate that cultured human myotubes can be used in mechanistic studies to study the in vitro impact of interventions on phenotypes such as mitochondrial capacity, insulin sensitivity, and physical activity.
|Skeletal muscle perilipin 3 and coatomer proteins are increased following exercise and are associated with fat oxidation.|
Covington, JD; Galgani, JE; Moro, C; LaGrange, JM; Zhang, Z; Rustan, AC; Ravussin, E; Bajpeyi, S
PloS one 9 e91675 2014
Lipid droplet-associated proteins such as perilipin 3 (PLIN3) and coatomer GTPase proteins (GBF1, ARF1, Sec23a, and ARFRP1) are expressed in skeletal muscle but little is known so far as to their regulation of lipolysis. We aimed here to explore the effects of lipolytic stimulation in vitro in primary human myotubes as well as in vivo following an acute exercise bout. In vitro lipolytic stimulation by epinephrine (100 ?M) or by a lipolytic cocktail (30 ?M palmitate, 4 ?M forskolin, and 0.5 ?M ionomycin, PFI) resulted in increases in PLIN3 protein content. Coatomer GTPases such as GBF1, ARF1, Sec23a, and ARFRP1 also increased in response to lipolytic stimuli. Furthermore, a long duration endurance exercise bout (20 males; age 24.0 ± 4.5 y; BMI 23.6 ± 1.8 kg/m(2)) increased PLIN3 protein in human skeletal muscle (p = 0.03) in proportion to ex vivo palmitate oxidation (r = 0.45, p = 0.04) and whole body in vivo fat oxidation (r = 0.52, p = 0.03). Protein content of ARF1 was increased (p = 0.04) while mRNA expression was increased for several other coatomers (GBF1, ARF1, and Sec23a, all pless than 0.05). These data provide novel observational insight into the possible relationships between lipolysis and PLIN3 along with these coatomoer GTPase proteins in human skeletal muscle.
|CaMKII content affects contractile, but not mitochondrial, characteristics in regenerating skeletal muscle.|
Eilers, W; Jaspers, RT; de Haan, A; Ferrié, C; Valdivieso, P; Flück, M
BMC physiology 14 7 2014
The multi-meric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is the main CaMK in skeletal muscle and its expression increases with endurance training. CaMK family members are implicated in contraction-induced regulation of calcium handling, fast myosin type IIA expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of an increased CaMKII content for the expression of the contractile and mitochondrial phenotype in vivo. Towards this end we attempted to co-express alpha- and beta-CaMKII isoforms in skeletal muscle and characterised the effect on the contractile and mitochondrial phenotype.Fast-twitch muscle m. gastrocnemius (GM) and slow-twitch muscle m. soleus (SOL) of the right leg of 3-month old rats were transfected via electro-transfer of injected expression plasmids for native ?/? CaMKII. Effects were identified from the comparison to control-transfected muscles of the contralateral leg and non-transfected muscles. ?/? CaMKII content in muscle fibres was 4-5-fold increased 7 days after transfection. The transfection rate was more pronounced in SOL than GM muscle (i.e. 12.6 vs. 3.5%). The overexpressed ?/? CaMKII was functional as shown through increased threonine 287 phosphorylation of ?-CaMKII after isometric exercise and down-regulated transcripts COXI, COXIV, SDHB after high-intensity exercise in situ. ?/? CaMKII overexpression under normal cage activity accelerated excitation-contraction coupling and relaxation in SOL muscle in association with increased SERCA2, ANXV and fast myosin type IIA/X content but did not affect mitochondrial protein content. These effects were observed on a background of regenerating muscle fibres.Elevated CaMKII content promotes a slow-to-fast type fibre shift in regenerating muscle but is not sufficient to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis in the absence of an endurance stimulus.
|Leiomodin-3 dysfunction results in thin filament disorganization and nemaline myopathy.|
Yuen, M; Sandaradura, SA; Dowling, JJ; Kostyukova, AS; Moroz, N; Quinlan, KG; Lehtokari, VL; Ravenscroft, G; Todd, EJ; Ceyhan-Birsoy, O; Gokhin, DS; Maluenda, J; Lek, M; Nolent, F; Pappas, CT; Novak, SM; D'Amico, A; Malfatti, E; Thomas, BP; Gabriel, SB; Gupta, N; Daly, MJ; Ilkovski, B; Houweling, PJ; Davidson, AE; Swanson, LC; Brownstein, CA; Gupta, VA; Medne, L; Shannon, P; Martin, N; Bick, DP; Flisberg, A; Holmberg, E; Van den Bergh, P; Lapunzina, P; Waddell, LB; Sloboda, DD; Bertini, E; Chitayat, D; Telfer, WR; Laquerrière, A; Gregorio, CC; Ottenheijm, CA; Bönnemann, CG; Pelin, K; Beggs, AH; Hayashi, YK; Romero, NB; Laing, NG; Nishino, I; Wallgren-Pettersson, C; Melki, J; Fowler, VM; MacArthur, DG; North, KN; Clarke, NF
The Journal of clinical investigation 124 4693-708 2014
Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a genetic muscle disorder characterized by muscle dysfunction and electron-dense protein accumulations (nemaline bodies) in myofibers. Pathogenic mutations have been described in 9 genes to date, but the genetic basis remains unknown in many cases. Here, using an approach that combined whole-exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing, we identified homozygous or compound heterozygous variants in LMOD3 in 21 patients from 14 families with severe, usually lethal, NM. LMOD3 encodes leiomodin-3 (LMOD3), a 65-kDa protein expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle. LMOD3 was expressed from early stages of muscle differentiation; localized to actin thin filaments, with enrichment near the pointed ends; and had strong actin filament-nucleating activity. Loss of LMOD3 in patient muscle resulted in shortening and disorganization of thin filaments. Knockdown of lmod3 in zebrafish replicated NM-associated functional and pathological phenotypes. Together, these findings indicate that mutations in the gene encoding LMOD3 underlie congenital myopathy and demonstrate that LMOD3 is essential for the organization of sarcomeric thin filaments in skeletal muscle.
|Remodeling of oxidative energy metabolism by galactose improves glucose handling and metabolic switching in human skeletal muscle cells.|
Kase, ET; Nikoli?, N; Bakke, SS; Bogen, KK; Aas, V; Thoresen, GH; Rustan, AC
PloS one 8 e59972 2013
Cultured human myotubes have a low mitochondrial oxidative potential. This study aims to remodel energy metabolism in myotubes by replacing glucose with galactose during growth and differentiation to ultimately examine the consequences for fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Exposure to galactose showed an increased [(14)C]oleic acid oxidation, whereas cellular uptake of oleic acid uptake was unchanged. On the other hand, both cellular uptake and oxidation of [(14)C]glucose increased in myotubes exposed to galactose. In the presence of the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonylcyanide p-trifluormethoxy-phenylhydrazone (FCCP) the reserve capacity for glucose oxidation was increased in cells grown with galactose. Staining and live imaging of the cells showed that myotubes exposed to galactose had a significant increase in mitochondrial and neutral lipid content. Suppressibility of fatty acid oxidation by acute addition of glucose was increased compared to cells grown in presence of glucose. In summary, we show that cells grown in galactose were more oxidative, had increased oxidative capacity and higher mitochondrial content, and showed an increased glucose handling. Interestingly, cells exposed to galactose showed an increased suppressibility of fatty acid metabolism. Thus, galactose improved glucose metabolism and metabolic switching of myotubes, representing a cell model that may be valuable for metabolic studies related to insulin resistance and disorders involving mitochondrial impairments.
|Variable myopathic presentation in a single family with novel skeletal RYR1 mutation.|
Attali, R; Aharoni, S; Treves, S; Rokach, O; Becker Cohen, M; Fellig, Y; Straussberg, R; Dor, T; Daana, M; Mitrani-Rosenbaum, S; Nevo, Y
PloS one 8 e69296 2013
We describe an autosomal recessive heterogeneous congenital myopathy in a large consanguineous family. The disease is characterized by variable severity, progressive course in 3 of 4 patients, myopathic face without ophthalmoplegia and proximal muscle weakness. Absence of cores was noted in all patients. Genome wide linkage analysis revealed a single locus on chromosome 19q13 with Zmax?=?3.86 at ??=?0.0 and homozygosity of the polymorphic markers at this locus in patients. Direct sequencing of the main candidate gene within the candidate region, RYR1, was performed. A novel homozygous A to G nucleotide substitution (p.Y3016C) within exon 60 of the RYR1 gene was found in patients. ARMS PCR was used to screen for the mutation in all available family members and in an additional 150 healthy individuals. This procedure confirmed sequence analysis and did not reveal the A to G mutation (p.Y3016C) in 300 chromosomes from healthy individuals. Functional analysis on EBV immortalized cell lines showed no effect of the mutation on RyR1 pharmacological activation or the content of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of the RyR1 protein in the patient's muscle concomitant with a reduction of the DHPR?1.1 protein. This novel mutation resulting in RyR1 protein decrease causes heterogeneous clinical presentation, including slow progression course and absence of centrally localized cores on muscle biopsy. We suggest that RYR1 related myopathy should be considered in a wide variety of clinical and pathological presentation in childhood myopathies.
|ACTN3 genotype influences muscle performance through the regulation of calcineurin signaling.|
Seto, JT; Quinlan, KG; Lek, M; Zheng, XF; Garton, F; MacArthur, DG; Hogarth, MW; Houweling, PJ; Gregorevic, P; Turner, N; Cooney, GJ; Yang, N; North, KN
The Journal of clinical investigation 123 4255-63 2013
?-Actinin-3 deficiency occurs in approximately 16% of the global population due to homozygosity for a common nonsense polymorphism in the ACTN3 gene. Loss of ?-actinin-3 is associated with reduced power and enhanced endurance capacity in elite athletes and nonathletes due to "slowing" of the metabolic and physiological properties of fast fibers. Here, we have shown that ?-actinin-3 deficiency results in increased calcineurin activity in mouse and human skeletal muscle and enhanced adaptive response to endurance training. ?-Actinin-2, which is differentially expressed in ?-actinin-3-deficient muscle, has higher binding affinity for calsarcin-2, a key inhibitor of calcineurin activation. We have further demonstrated that ?-actinin-2 competes with calcineurin for binding to calsarcin-2, resulting in enhanced calcineurin signaling and reprogramming of the metabolic phenotype of fast muscle fibers. Our data provide a mechanistic explanation for the effects of the ACTN3 genotype on skeletal muscle performance in elite athletes and on adaptation to changing physical demands in the general population. In addition, we have demonstrated that the sarcomeric ?-actinins play a role in the regulation of calcineurin signaling.
|The CHC22 clathrin-GLUT4 transport pathway contributes to skeletal muscle regeneration.|
Hoshino, S; Sakamoto, K; Vassilopoulos, S; Camus, SM; Griffin, CA; Esk, C; Torres, JA; Ohkoshi, N; Ishii, A; Tamaoka, A; Funke, BH; Kucherlapati, R; Margeta, M; Rando, TA; Brodsky, FM
PloS one 8 e77787 2013
Mobilization of the GLUT4 glucose transporter from intracellular storage vesicles provides a mechanism for insulin-responsive glucose import into skeletal muscle. In humans, clathrin isoform CHC22 participates in formation of the GLUT4 storage compartment in skeletal muscle and fat. CHC22 function is limited to retrograde endosomal sorting and is restricted in its tissue expression and species distribution compared to the conserved CHC17 isoform that mediates endocytosis and several other membrane traffic pathways. Previously, we noted that CHC22 was expressed at elevated levels in regenerating rat muscle. Here we investigate whether the GLUT4 pathway in which CHC22 participates could play a role in muscle regeneration in humans and we test this possibility using CHC22-transgenic mice, which do not normally express CHC22. We observed that GLUT4 expression is elevated in parallel with that of CHC22 in regenerating skeletal muscle fibers from patients with inflammatory and other myopathies. Regenerating human myofibers displayed concurrent increases in expression of VAMP2, another regulator of GLUT4 transport. Regenerating fibers from wild-type mouse skeletal muscle injected with cardiotoxin also showed increased levels of GLUT4 and VAMP2. We previously demonstrated that transgenic mice expressing CHC22 in their muscle over-sequester GLUT4 and VAMP2 and have defective GLUT4 trafficking leading to diabetic symptoms. In this study, we find that muscle regeneration rates in CHC22 mice were delayed compared to wild-type mice, and myoblasts isolated from these mice did not proliferate in response to glucose. Additionally, CHC22-expressing mouse muscle displayed a fiber type switch from oxidative to glycolytic, similar to that observed in type 2 diabetic patients. These observations implicate the pathway for GLUT4 transport in regeneration of both human and mouse skeletal muscle, and demonstrate a role for this pathway in maintenance of muscle fiber type. Extrapolating these findings, CHC22 and GLUT4 can be considered markers of muscle regeneration in humans.
|Grb10 regulates the development of fiber number in skeletal muscle.|
Lowenna J Holt,Nigel Turner,Nancy Mokbel,Sophie Trefely,Timo Kanzleiter,Warren Kaplan,Christopher J Ormandy,Roger J Daly,Gregory J Cooney
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 26 2012
Grb10 is an intracellular adaptor protein that acts as a negative regulator of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptors. Since global deletion of Grb10 in mice causes hypermuscularity, we have characterized the skeletal muscle physiology underlying this phenotype. Compared to wild-type (WT) controls, adult mice deficient in Grb10 have elevated body mass and muscle mass throughout adulthood, up to 12 mo of age. The muscle enlargement is not due to increased myofiber size, but rather an increase in myofiber number (142% of WT, P<0.01). There is no change in myofiber type proportions between WT and Grb10-deficient muscles, nor are the metabolic properties of the muscles altered on Grb10 deletion. Notably, the weight and cross-sectional area of hindlimbs from neonatal mice are increased in Grb10-deficient animals (198 and 137% of WT, respectively, both P<0.001). Functional gene signatures for myogenic signaling and proliferation are up-regulated in Grb10-deficient neonatal muscle. Our findings indicate that Grb10 plays a previously unrecognized role in regulating the development of fiber number during murine embryonic growth. In addition, Grb10-ablated muscle from adult mice shows coordinate gene changes that oppose those of muscle wasting pathologies, highlighting Grb10 as a potential therapeutic target for these conditions.-Holt, L. J., Turner, N., Mokbel, N., Trefely, S., Kanzleiter, T., Kaplan, W., Ormandy, C. J., Daly, R. J., Cooney, G. J. Grb10 regulates the development of fiber number in skeletal muscle.
|Anti-Myosin, slow muscle, clone NOQ7.5.4D - Data Sheet|