Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R||IHC||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Liquid rabbit antiserum with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months after date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|A thermogenic secondary sexual character in male sea lamprey.|
Chung-Davidson, YW; Priess, MC; Yeh, CY; Brant, CO; Johnson, NS; Li, K; Nanlohy, KG; Bryan, MB; Brown, CT; Choi, J; Li, W
The Journal of experimental biology 216 2702-12 2013
Secondary sexual characters in animals are exaggerated ornaments or weapons for intrasexual competition. Unexpectedly, we found that a male secondary sexual character in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a thermogenic adipose tissue that instantly increases its heat production during sexual encounters. This secondary sexual character, developed in front of the anterior dorsal fin of mature males, is a swollen dorsal ridge known as the 'rope' tissue. It contains nerve bundles, multivacuolar adipocytes and interstitial cells packed with small lipid droplets and mitochondria with dense and highly organized cristae. The fatty acid composition of the rope tissue is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The cytochrome c oxidase activity is high but the ATP concentration is very low in the mitochondria of the rope tissue compared with those of the gill and muscle tissues. The rope tissue temperature immediately rose up to 0.3°C when the male encountered a conspecific. Mature males generated more heat in the rope and muscle tissues when presented with a mature female than when presented with a male (paired t-test, Pless than 0.05). On average, the rope generated 0.027±0.013 W cm(-3) more heat than the muscle in 10 min. Transcriptome analyses revealed that genes involved in fat cell differentiation are upregulated whereas those involved in oxidative-phosphorylation-coupled ATP synthesis are downregulated in the rope tissue compared with the gill and muscle tissues. Sexually mature male sea lamprey possess the only known thermogenic secondary sexual character that shows differential heat generation toward individual conspecifics.
|Evidence for involvement of Wnt signalling in body polarities, cell proliferation, and the neuro-sensory system in an adult ctenophore.|
Jager, M; Dayraud, C; Mialot, A; Quéinnec, E; le Guyader, H; Manuel, M
PloS one 8 e84363 2013
Signalling through the Wnt family of secreted proteins originated in a common metazoan ancestor and greatly influenced the evolution of animal body plans. In bilaterians, Wnt signalling plays multiple fundamental roles during embryonic development and in adult tissues, notably in axial patterning, neural development and stem cell regulation. Studies in various cnidarian species have particularly highlighted the evolutionarily conserved role of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway in specification and patterning of the primary embryonic axis. However in another key non-bilaterian phylum, Ctenophora, Wnts are not involved in early establishment of the body axis during embryogenesis. We analysed the expression in the adult of the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus of 11 orthologues of Wnt signalling genes including all ctenophore Wnt ligands and Fz receptors and several members of the intracellular ?-catenin pathway machinery. All genes are strongly expressed around the mouth margin at the oral pole, evoking the Wnt oral centre of cnidarians. This observation is consistent with primary axis polarisation by the Wnts being a universal metazoan feature, secondarily lost in ctenophores during early development but retained in the adult. In addition, local expression of Wnt signalling genes was seen in various anatomical structures of the body including in the locomotory comb rows, where their complex deployment suggests control by the Wnts of local comb polarity. Other important contexts of Wnt involvement which probably evolved before the ctenophore/cnidarian/bilaterian split include proliferating stem cells and progenitors irrespective of cell types, and developing as well as differentiated neuro-sensory structures.
|Role of key aromatic residues in the ligand-binding domain of alpha7 nicotinic receptors in the agonist action of beta-amyloid.|
Tong, M; Arora, K; White, MM; Nichols, RA
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 34373-81 2011
Soluble ?-amyloid (A?) resides in certain regions of the brain at or near picomolar concentration, rising in level during the prodromic stage of Alzheimer disease. Recently, we identified the homomeric ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7-nAChR) as one possible functional target for picomolar A?. This study was aimed at addressing which residues in ?7-nAChRs potentially interact with A? to regulate the presynaptic function of this receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out to study the key aromatic residues in the mouse ?7-nAChR agonist-binding pocket. Mutations of tyrosine188 resulted in a decrease in activation of presynaptic ?7-nAChRs by ACh and A? but with no change in response to nicotine, indicating the critical role of Tyr-188 in presynaptic regulation by A?. Coimmunoprecipitation additionally revealed direct binding of A? to ?7-nAChRs and to the Tyr-188 mutant receptor. In contrast, mutations of Tyr-195 in ?7-nAChR led to decreased activation by nicotine without apparent effects on ACh- or A?-induced responses. Agonist-induced responses of Tyr-93 mutant ?7-nAChRs indicated possible interactions of nicotine and A? with its hydroxyl group, but there was no change in presynaptic responses after mutation of Trp-149. All of the mutants were shown to be expressed on the plasma membrane using cell surface labeling. Together, these results directly demonstrate an essential role for the aromatic residue Tyr-188 as a key component in the agonist binding domain for the activation of ?7-nAChRs by A?.
|Adenovirus type 5 early region 1B 55K oncoprotein-dependent degradation of cellular factor Daxx is required for efficient transformation of primary rodent cells.|
Schreiner, S; Wimmer, P; Groitl, P; Chen, SY; Blanchette, P; Branton, PE; Dobner, T
Journal of virology 85 8752-65 2011
Early region 1B 55K (E1B-55K) from adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) is a multifunctional regulator of lytic infection and contributes in vitro to complete cell transformation of primary rodent cells in combination with Ad5 E1A. Inhibition of p53 activated transcription plays a key role in processes by which E1B-55K executes its oncogenic potential. Nevertheless, additional functions of E1B-55K or further protein interactions with cellular factors of DNA repair, transcription, and apoptosis, including Mre11, PML, and Daxx, may also contribute to the transformation process. In line with previous results, we performed mutational analysis to define a Daxx interaction motif within the E1B-55K polypeptide. The results from these studies showed that E1B-55K/Daxx binding is not required for inhibition of p53-mediated transactivation or binding and degradation of cellular factors (p53/Mre11). Surprisingly, these mutants lost the ability to degrade Daxx and showed reduced transforming potential in primary rodent cells. In addition, we observed that E1B-55K lacking the SUMO-1 conjugation site (SCS/K104R) was sufficient for Daxx interaction but no longer capable of E1B-55K-dependent proteasomal degradation of the cellular factor Daxx. These results, together with the observation that E1B-55K SUMOylation is required for efficient transformation, provides evidence for the idea that SUMO-1-conjugated E1B-55K-mediated degradation of Daxx plays a key role in adenoviral oncogenic transformation. We assume that the viral protein contributes to cell transformation through the modulation of Daxx-dependent pathways. This further substantiates the assumption that further mechanisms for efficient transformation of primary cells can be separated from functions required for the inhibition of p53-stimulated transcription.
|Adenovirus type 5 early region 1B 156R protein promotes cell transformation independently of repression of p53-stimulated transcription.|
Sieber, T; Dobner, T
Journal of virology 81 95-105 2007
Early region 1B (E1B) of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) encodes at least five different polypeptides generated by alternative splicing of a common mRNA precursor. Two of these gene products, E1B-19K and E1B-55K, are individually capable of cooperating with the Ad5 E1A proteins to completely transform rodent cells in culture. Substantial evidence suggests that these two E1B proteins contribute to cell transformation by antagonizing growth arrest and apoptosis. Here, we performed genetic and biochemical analyses to assess the attributes of the remaining E1B proteins (E1B-156R, E1B-93R, and E1B-84R). Our results show that E1B-156R, which comprises the 79 amino-terminal and 77 carboxy-terminal amino acids of E1B-55K, also enhances focal transformation of primary rat cells in cooperation with E1A. Since E1B-156R seemed unable to relocalize p53 and inhibit its transactivating function, it must be assumed that it contributes to transformation independently of repression of p53-stimulated transcription. Furthermore, we discovered that E1B-156R contains a functional transcriptional repression domain and binds Ad5 E4orf6 and the cellular apoptosis regulator Daxx. While the ability to bind E4orf6 could indicate further biological functions of E1B-156R in viral infection, the interaction with Daxx might also be linked to its transforming potential. Taken together, these analyses introduce E1B-156R as a novel transformation-promoting E1B protein that acts without repressing p53 transactivation. Moreover, identification of the interaction partners E4orf6 and Daxx provides a first glance of E1B-156R's potential functions.Full Text Article
|Adrenergic signalling between rat taste receptor cells.|
Herness, Scott, et al.
J. Physiol. (Lond.), 543: 601-14 (2002) 2002
|Adrenergic signalling between rat taste receptor cells.|
Herness, Scott, et al.
J. Physiol. (Lond.), 543: 601-14 (2002) 2002
|Immediate early and early lytic cycle proteins are frequent targets of the Epstein-Barr virus-induced cytotoxic T cell response.|
Steven, NM; Annels, NE; Kumar, A; Leese, AM; Kurilla, MG; Rickinson, AB
The Journal of experimental medicine 185 1605-17 1997
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human gamma-herpesvirus, can establish both nonproductive (latent) and productive (lytic) infections. Although the CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to latently infected cells is well characterized, very little is known about T cell controls over lytic infection; this imbalance in our understanding belies the importance of virus-replicative lesions in several aspects of EBV disease pathogenesis. The present work shows that the primary CD8+ CTL response to EBV in infectious mononucleosis patients contains multiple lytic antigen-specific reactivities at levels at least as high as those seen against latent antigens; similar reactivities are also detectable in CTL memory. Clonal analysis revealed individual responses to the two immediate early proteins BZLF1 and BRLF1, and to three (BMLF1, BMRF1, and BALF2) of the six early proteins tested. In several cases, the peptide epitope and HLA-restricting determinant recognized by these CTLs has been defined, one unusual feature being the number of responses restricted through HLA-C alleles. The work strongly suggests that EBV-replicative lesions are subject to direct CTL control in vivo and that immediate early and early proteins are frequently the immunodominant targets. This contrasts with findings in alpha- and beta-herpesvirus systems (herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus) where viral interference with the antigen-processing pathway during lytic infection renders immediate early and early proteins much less immunogenic. The unique capacity of gamma-herpesvirus to amplify the viral load in vivo through a latent growth-transforming infection may have rendered these agents less dependent upon viral replication as a means of successfully colonizing their hosts.
|Immunocytochemical study of catecholaminergic neurons in the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM-P8) brain.|
N Karasawa,I Nagatsu,K Sakai,T Nagatsu,K Watanabe,M Onozuka
Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) 104 1997
The catecholaminergic neurons of senescence-accelerated mice (SAM-P8) were analyzed by immunohistochemical microphotometry in terms of immunoreactivities to aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), dopamine (DA), or noradrenaline (NA). Accelerated senescence-resistant mice (SAM-R1) were used as control mice. The immunoreactivities to AADC, DA, and NA of the catecholaminergic neurons of the SAM-P8 mice were weaker than those of the SAM-R1 mice in all the brain regions. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and their terminal fibers in the substantia nigra as well as in noradrenergic neurons and their proximal dendrites in the locus coeruleus of the SAM-P8 mice. In contrast, there was no difference between the SAM-P8 and SAM-R1 mice in the distribution of AADC-only positive neurons (designated as D neurons in the rat brain by Jaeger et al.) nor in their immunoreactivities. These results may indicate that DA neurons in the substantia nigra and NA neurons in the locus coeruleus degenarate more rapidly during aging in SAM-P8 mice than in control SAM-R1 mice and that D neurons may function as a part of a compensatory system for the decreases in catecholaminergic neurons during aging.
|Spinal projections of the locus coeruleus and the nucleus subcoeruleus in the Harlan and the Sasco Sprague-Dawley rat.|
Sluka, K A and Westlund, K N
Brain Res., 579: 67-73 (1992) 1992
The descending projections of the locus coeruleus (LC) and the nucleus subcoeruleus (SC) to the lumbar spinal cord were examined in rats from two vendors using retrograde transport of fluorescent latex beads. There was a vendor difference observed which agrees with previous findings. The differential dorsal horn and ventral horn projections of the Harlan and the Sasco Sprague-Dawley rats, reported by Fritschy and Grzanna, and Clark and Proudfit were confirmed. In the Harlan rat more cells were labeled in the LC following injections in the dorsal horn. In contrast, in the Sasco rat, more cells were labeled in the LC from injections in the ventral horn. Although, in all studies, the LC in rats from these vendors projected to some extent to both the dorsal and the ventral horn. A difference in labeling was noted also for the depth of placement of the tracer in the dorsal horn. When the site of injection was in the nucleus proprius, a predominantly contralateral projection of the LC was noted. In contrast, when horseradish peroxidase (HRP) gel implants were placed to include the superficial laminae, the cells in the LC were labeled predominantly ipsilaterally. The SC has a major projection to the dorsal horn in the Harlan rats while cells in the SC were predominantly labeled following ventral horn injection in the Sasco rats. These cells send mostly ipsilateral projections to the dorsal and ventral horn of the spinal cord. Double labeled studies confirmed that 91% of LC and 86% of SC neurons projecting to the spinal cord were noradrenergic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
|Anti-Norepinephrine - Data Sheet|