|Caspase-dependent cleavage of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase ARTD10 interferes with its pro-apoptotic function.|
Herzog, N; Hartkamp, JD; Verheugd, P; Treude, F; Forst, AH; Feijs, KL; Lippok, BE; Kremmer, E; Kleine, H; Lüscher, B
The FEBS journal
ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that regulates various physiological processes, including DNA damage repair, gene transcription and signal transduction. Intracellular ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTDs or PARPs) modify their substrates either by poly- or mono-ADP-ribosylation. Previously we identified ARTD10 (formerly PARP10) as a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, and observed that exogenous ARTD10 but not ARTD10-G888W, a catalytically inactive mutant, interferes with cell proliferation. To expand on this observation, we established cell lines with inducible ARTD10 or ARTD10-G888W. Consistent with our previous findings, induction of the wild-type protein but not the mutant inhibited cell proliferation, primarily by inducing apoptosis. During apoptosis, ARTD10 itself was targeted by caspases. We mapped the major cleavage site at EIAMD406?S, a sequence that was preferentially recognized by caspase-6. Caspase-dependent cleavage inhibited the pro-apoptotic activity of ARTD10, as ARTD10(1-406) and ARTD10(407-1025), either alone or together, were unable to induce apoptosis, despite catalytic activity of the latter. Deletion of the N-terminal RNA recognition motif in ARTD10(257-1025) also resulted in loss of pro-apoptotic activity. Thus our findings indicate that the RNA recognition motif contributes to the pro-apoptotic effect, together with the catalytic domain. We suggest that these two domains must be physically linked to stimulate apoptosis, possibly targeting ARTD10 through the RNA recognition motif to specific substrates that control cell death. Moreover, we established that knockdown of ARTD10 reduced apoptosis in response to DNA-damaging agents. Together, these findings indicate that ARTD10 is involved in the regulation of apoptosis, and that, once apoptosis is activated, ARTD10 is cleaved as part of negative feedback regulation.
|Regulation of NF-?B signalling by the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase ARTD10.|
Verheugd, P; Forst, AH; Milke, L; Herzog, N; Feijs, KL; Kremmer, E; Kleine, H; Lüscher, B
Adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation is a post-translational modification mediated by intracellular and membrane-associated extracellular enzymes and many bacterial toxins. The intracellular enzymes modify their substrates either by poly-ADP-ribosylation, exemplified by ARTD1/PARP1, or by mono-ADP-ribosylation. The latter has been discovered only recently, and little is known about its physiological relevance. The founding member of mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases is ARTD10/PARP10. It possesses two ubiquitin-interaction motifs, a unique feature among ARTD/PARP enzymes. Here, we find that the ARTD10 ubiquitin-interaction motifs bind to K63-linked poly-ubiquitin, a modification that is essential for NF-?B signalling. We therefore studied the role of ARTD10 in this pathway. ARTD10 inhibits the activation of NF-?B and downstream target genes in response to interleukin-1? and tumour necrosis factor-?, dependent on catalytic activity and poly-ubiquitin binding of ARTD10. Mechanistically ARTD10 interferes with poly-ubiquitination of NEMO, which interacts with and is a substrate of ARTD10. Our findings identify a novel regulator of NF-?B signalling and provide evidence for cross-talk between K63-linked poly-ubiquitination and mono-ADP-ribosylation.