Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R||ELISA, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Serotonin Transporter Antibody|
|Presentation||Affinity purified immunoglobulin. Liquid in 100 mM Tris, pH 7.5 with 0.2% BSA and 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||50 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Effect of the 5-HT4 receptor and serotonin transporter on visceral hypersensitivity in rats.|
Yan, C; Xin-Guang, L; Hua-Hong, W; Jun-Xia, L; Yi-Xuan, L
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas me?dicas e biolo?gicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofi?sica ... [et al.] 45 948-54 2012
Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in motor and sensory abnormalities associated with irritable bowel syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of the 5-HT(4) receptor and the serotonin transporter (SERT) as well as their roles in chronic visceral hypersensitivity using a rat model. Neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats received intracolonic injections of 0.5% acetic acid (0.3-0.5 mL at different times) between postnatal days 8 and 21 to establish an animal model of visceral hypersensitivity. On day 43, the threshold intensity for a visually identifiable contraction of the abdominal wall and body arching were recorded during rectal distention. Histological evaluation and the myeloperoxidase activity assay were performed to determine the severity of inflammation. The 5-HT(4) receptor and SERT expression of the ascending colon were monitored using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses; the plasma 5-HT levels were measured using an ELISA method. As expected, transient colonic irritation at the neonatal stage led to visceral hypersensitivity, but no mucosal inflammation was later detected during adulthood. Using this model, we found reduced SERT expression (0.298 ± 0.038 vs 0.634 ± 0.200, P less than 0.05) and increased 5-HT(4) receptor expression (0.308 ± 0.017 vs 0.298 ± 0.021, P less than 0.05). Treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1), days 36-42), tegaserod (1 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1), day 43), or the combination of both, reduced visceral hypersensitivity and plasma 5-HT levels. Fluoxetine treatment increased 5-HT(4) receptor expression (0.322 ± 0.020 vs 0.308 ± 0.017, P less than 0.01) but not SERT expression (0.219 ± 0.039 vs 0.298 ± 0.038, P = 0.654). These results indicate that both the 5-HT(4) receptor and SERT play a role in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity, and its mechanism may be involved in the local 5-HT level.
|Fate map of serotonin transporter-expressing cells in developing mouse thyroid.|
Spina A, Rea S, De Pasquale V, Mastellone V, Avallone L, Pavone LM.
Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) 294 384-90 2011
A Cre/loxP-based fate mapping approach was used to follow the regions of the mouse thyroid labeled by the serotonin transporter SERT. Reporter gene expression (lacZ) is activated by Cre expression from the SERT locus in SERT(Cre/+) ;ROSA26R compound mouse embryos. Cell labeling, first detected in the thyroid primordium at the E10.5 prenatal stage, was followed until the postnatal day P30. The co-localization of lacZ staining in the same cells that express the transcription factors Nkx2.1 and Pax8 at the E12.5 stage confirms their identity as thyroid cell precursors. SERT immunohistochemistry on thyroid sections of E18.5 embryos showed SERT expression in thyroid follicular cells. Western blotting analysis confirmed the expression of the protein in adult thyroid tissue and cultured FRTL-5 cells. These results describe the fate of SERT-expressing cells during thyroid development, suggesting an active role of SERT in the development and functions of mammalian thyroid. They also highlight the possibility to use the SERT-Cre mouse line as a good Cre driver in early thyroid development. Anat Rec, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
|Regulation of serotonin transport in human platelets by tyrosine kinase Syk.|
Martina Pavanetto,Alessandro Zarpellon,Christian Borgo,Arianna Donella-Deana,Renzo Deana
Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology 27 2011
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of numerous neuro-physiological processes. The circulating level of 5-HT is regulated by the membrane transporter SERT present both in the presynaptic nerve terminals and blood platelets. 5-HT transport is a process tightly regulated by a variety of factors including protein phosphorylation. Aim of this study was to ascertain if also the SERT Tyr-phosphorylation mediated by Syk-kinase concurs to the regulation of SERT activity. Indeed we found that 5-HT uptake decreased upon platelet exposure to piceatannol or Syk-inhibitor II, two structurally unrelated inhibitors of the tyrosine-kinase Syk. Tyr-phosphorylation of anti-SERT-immuno-stained proteins in membrane extracts and in anti-SERT-immuno-precipitates, decreased upon platelet treatment with piceatannol, in parallel with a reduction of Syk-activity. Syk was immuno-revealed in the anti-SERT immuno-precipitates, which displayed a piceatannol-sensitive kinase activity towards SERT itself and the Syk-substrate ?-sinuclein. Syk inhibitors also caused a decrease of the monensin-induced 5-HT-efflux from platelets and of imipramine binding to them. It is concluded that, in addition to the phosphorylation of SERT mediated by various other kinases, also that catalyzed by Syk might play an important role in the 5-HT transport, likely favoring the transporter conformation exposing the neurotransmitter binding sites.
|Expression of the serotonin transporter SERT in the genital tract of cattle.|
Luigi M Pavone, Simona Tafuri, Roberta Lo Muto, Anna Spina, Alla E Lychkova, Vincenzo Mastellone, Alfredo Vittoria, Luigi Avallone, Norma Staiano, Luigi M Pavone, Simona Tafuri, Roberta Lo Muto, Anna Spina, Alla E Lychkova, Vincenzo Mastellone, Alfredo Vittoria, Luigi Avallone, Norma Staiano, Luigi M Pavone, Simona Tafuri, Roberta Lo Muto, Anna Spina, Alla E Lychkova, Vincenzo Mastellone, Alfredo Vittoria, Luigi Avallone, Norma Staiano
Regulatory peptides 154 1-4 2009
Both prostate and vestibular glands of mammals contain neuroendocrine cells which synthesize, store and release growth factors including neuropeptides and biogenic amines such as serotonin. An increase of the secretory products by these cells has been correlated to tumour progression and poor prognosis. Serotonin mediates a wide range of physiological functions by binding to multiple receptors on cell surface. However, the entire serotonergic system is mainly regulated by the serotonin transporter SERT which modulates serotonin concentration in extracellular fluid. Primarily located in serotonergic neurons, SERT is also expressed in various cell types in the periphery. In this study, we found a wide distribution of SERT in the parenchymal cells of both the prostate and the vestibular glands of cattle using immunohistochemistry. The expression of SERT mRNA transcripts was assessed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, thus suggesting that SERT is locally synthesized. Furthermore, Western blotting analysis showed the presence of two isoforms of the protein (70 and 140 kDa), probably corresponding to the high mannose-type SERT and its dimeric form. Our results provide the first evidence for SERT expression in the mammalian genital tract, thus highlighting a new potential target for the therapy of the genital tract cancers.
|Serotonin transporter gene deficiency is associated with sudden death of newborn mice through activation of TGF-beta1 signalling.|
Pavone LM, Spina A, Rea S, Santoro D, Mastellone V, Lombardi P, Avallone L
Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 47 691-697 2009
The serotonin transporter (SERT) gene has been proposed as a candidate gene responsible for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In this study, for the first time we obtained a SERT-knockout (KO) mouse model which reproduces SIDS phenotype. SERT-KO mice were generated by mating SERT(Cre/+) heterozygous mice. The SERT-KO mouse embryos at the pre-natal stage E18.5 were lacking of SERT mRNA and protein expression in the heart. A premature death of 75% of SERT-KO mice occurred in the first week after birth. LacZ staining of whole mounts and tissue sections of the heart from SERT(Cre/+);ROSA26R adult mice and E18.5 embryos demonstrated a marked localized expression of SERT in the right ventricle, the conal region, the vasculature, the atrial septum, the ventricular valves, and the sinoatrial node of the conduction system. These data suggest a cardiac phenotype for the sudden death of SERT-KO mice. Histological analysis of heart sections showed that SERT-KO mice develop cardiac fibrosis. Increased collagen accumulation in the myocardium and the valvular and perivascular regions, and enhanced expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin were detected in the heart of SERT-KO mice versus wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, higher expression levels of the 5-HT2A receptor and increased levels of phospho-SMAD2/3 and phospho-ERK1/2 were detected in SERT-KO mouse heart versus WT mice. Overall, our findings provide i) new insights into the role of SERT gene in SIDS, and ii) the first in vivo validation of the molecular mechanism involving the activation of TGF-beta1 signalling in the cardiac fibrosis.
|The cellular distribution of serotonin transporter is impeded on serotonin-altered vimentin network.|
Ahmed, BA; Bukhari, IA; Jeffus, BC; Harney, JT; Thyparambil, S; Ziu, E; Fraer, M; Rusch, NJ; Zimniak, P; Lupashin, V; Tang, D; Kilic, F
PloS one 4 e4730 2009
The C-terminus of the serotonin transporter (SERT) contains binding domains for different proteins and is critical for its functional expression. In endogenous and heterologous expression systems, our proteomic and biochemical analysis demonstrated that an intermediate filament, vimentin, binds to the C-terminus of SERT. It has been reported that 5HT-stimulation of cells leads to disassembly and spatial reorientation of vimentin filaments.We tested the impact of 5HT-stimulation on vimentin-SERT association and found that 5HT-stimulation accelerates the translocation of SERT from the plasma membrane via enhancing the level of association between phosphovimentin and SERT. Furthermore a progressive truncation of the C-terminus of SERT was performed to map the vimentin-SERT association domain. Deletion of up to 20, but not 14 amino acids arrested the transporters at intracellular locations. Although, truncation of the last 14 amino acids, did not alter 5HT uptake rates of transporter but abolished its association with vimentin. To understand the involvement of 5HT in phosphovimentin-SERT association from the plasma membrane, we further investigated the six amino acids between Delta14 and Delta20, i.e., the SITPET sequence of SERT. While the triple mutation on the possible kinase action sites, S(611), T(613), and T(616) arrested the transporter at intracellular locations, replacing the residues with aspartic acid one at a time altered neither the 5HT uptake rates nor the vimentin association of these mutants. However, replacing the three target sites with alanine, either simultaneously or one at a time, had no significant effect on 5HT uptake rates or the vimentin association with transporter.Based on our findings, we propose that phosphate modification of the SITPET sequence differentially, one at a time exposes the vimentin binding domain on the C-terminus of SERT. Conversely, following 5HT stimulation, the association between vimentin-SERT is enhanced which changes the cellular distribution of SERT on an altered vimentin network.
|Treadmill exercise enhances passive avoidance learning in rats: the role of down-regulated serotonin system in the limbic system.|
Hsiun-Ing Chen,Li-Chun Lin,Lung Yu,Yu-Fan Liu,Yu-Min Kuo,A-Min Huang,Jih-Ing Chuang,Fong-Sen Wu,Pao-Chi Liao,Chauying J Jen
Neurobiology of learning and memory 89 2008
While serotonin (5-HT) may impair learning and memory, exercise has been reported to improve them. Whether chronic exercise can facilitate fear memory via regulating the serotonin system is unknown. We examined the effects of 4-week treadmill exercise training on levels of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the protein expression of its receptor 5-HT(1A) and transporter in the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results demonstrated that treadmill exercise (1) improved the passive avoidance learning performance; (2) decreased the 5-HT level in the hippocampus; (3) decreased the expression of 5-HT(1A) receptor in the amygdala without altering the transporter expression. Moreover, pretreatment with 0.1 mg/kg 8-hydroxy-di-n-propylamino tetralin, a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, impaired the passive avoidance performance and completely abolished the exercise-enhanced fear memory. Our results suggest that down-regulation of the 5-HT system in the limbic system, i.e., the reduction of the hippocampus 5-HT content and the amygdala 5-HT(1A) receptor expression, may be involved in the exercise-enhanced fear memory.
|Psychostimulants differentially regulate serotonin transporter expression in thalamocortical neurons.|
Whitworth, Terri L, et al.
J. Neurosci., 22: RC192 (2002) 2002
5-HT transporters (SERTs) are transiently expressed in thalamocortical neurons during development, permitting these glutamatergic neurons to co-release 5-HT as a "borrowed" transmitter. The high level of SERT expression in these neurons is likely important in the serotonergic modulation of neocortical circuits and provides a system for examining endogenous SERT regulation. We tested the hypothesis that developmental expression of SERT in thalamocortical neurons is regulated by psychostimulants that are agonists and antagonists of SERT. Cultured thalamocortical neurons from embryonic day 18 rats were examined for SERT expression until P15. In untreated cultures, SERT protein levels peaked at postnatal day 3 (P3) and were absent by P10. Chronic treatment with SERT substrates (5-HT, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) increased both peak SERT protein levels (fourfold) and the time course of SERT expression. SERT substrates also shifted the relative functional expression of SERT by redistributing intracellular SERT protein to the plasma membrane. The subcellular redistribution was prevented by PKC activators. SERT antagonists (e.g., fluoxetine, cocaine) reduced total SERT expression levels and the time course of SERT expression. These data (1) show that endogenous SERT is differentially regulated by 5-HT and psychostimulants, (2) indicate that SERT modulation occurs via changes in both total SERT protein levels and subcellular redistribution of the transporter, and (3) suggest that some of the actions of drugs of abuse in neocortical development may be attributable to alterations in SERT expression and concomitant changes in 5-HT signaling.
|Anti-Serotonin Transporter - Data Sheet|