|IgE-dependent activation of sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 and secretion of sphingosine 1-phosphate requires Fyn kinase and contributes to mast cell responses.|
Olivera, Ana, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 281: 2515-25 (2006)
Engagement of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI) on mast cells results in the production and secretion of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid metabolite present in the lungs of allergen-challenged asthmatics. Herein we report that two isoforms of sphingosine kinase (SphK1 and SphK2) are expressed and activated upon FcepsilonRI engagement of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC). Fyn kinase is required for FcepsilonRI coupling to SphK1 and -2 and for subsequent S1P production. Normal activation of SphK1 and -2 was restored by expression of wild type Fyn but only partly with a kinase-defective Fyn, indicating that induction of SphK1 and SphK2 depended on both catalytic and noncatalytic properties of Fyn. Downstream of Fyn, the requirements for SphK1 activation differed from that of SphK2. Whereas SphK1 was considerably dependent on the adapter Grb2-associated binder 2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase, SphK2 showed minimal dependence on these molecules. Fyn-deficient BMMC were defective in chemotaxis and, as previously reported, in degranulation. These functional responses were partly reconstituted by the addition of exogenous S1P to FcepsilonRI-stimulated cells. Taken together with our previous study, which demonstrated delayed SphK activation in Lyn-deficient BMMC, we propose a cooperative role between Fyn and Lyn kinases in the activation of SphKs, which contributes to mast cell responses.
|Extracellular export of sphingosine kinase-1a contributes to the vascular S1P gradient.|
Venkataraman, Krishnan, et al.
Biochem. J., 397: 461-71 (2006)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), produced by Sphks (sphingosine kinases), is a multifunctional lipid mediator that regulates immune cell trafficking and vascular development. Mammals maintain a large concentration gradient of S1P between vascular and extravascular compartments. Mechanisms by which S1P is released from cells and concentrated in the plasma are poorly understood. We recently demonstrated [Ancellin, Colmont, Su, Li, Mittereder, Chae, Stefansson, Liau and Hla (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 6667-6675] that Sphk1 activity is constitutively secreted by vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, we show that among the five Sphk isoforms expressed in endothelial cells, the Sphk-1a isoform is selectively secreted in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney cells) and human umbilical-vein endothelial cells. In sharp contrast, Sphk2 is not secreted. The exported Sphk-1a isoform is enzymatically active and produced sufficient S1P to induce S1P receptor internalization. Wild-type mouse plasma contains significant Sphk activity (179 pmol x min(-1) x g(-1)). In contrast, Sphk1-/- mouse plasma has undetectable Sphk activity and approx. 65% reduction in S1P levels. Moreover, human plasma contains enzymatically active Sphk1 (46 pmol x min(-1) x g(-1)). These results suggest that export of Sphk-1a occurs under physiological conditions and may contribute to the establishment of the vascular S1P gradient.