Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, H, M, Yeast (S. cerevisiae)||WB, Mplex, ChIP||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Protein A Purified immunoglobulin in 30% glycerol, 0.07M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.105 M NaCl, 0.035% sodium azide as a preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Pharmacological targeting of the β-amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain.|
Branca, C; Sarnico, I; Ruotolo, R; Lanzillotta, A; Viscomi, AR; Benarese, M; Porrini, V; Lorenzini, L; Calzà, L; Imbimbo, BP; Ottonello, S; Pizzi, M
Scientific reports 4 4618 2014
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD) is a product of APP processing with transcriptional modulation activity, whose overexpression causes various Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related dysfunctions. Here we report that 1-(3',4'-dichloro-2-fluoro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid) (CHF5074), a compound that favorably affects neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation and memory deficit in transgenic mouse models of AD, interacts with the AICD and impairs its nuclear activity. In neuroglioma-APPswe cells, CHF5074 shifted APP cleavage from Aβ42 to the less toxic Aβ38 peptide without affecting APP-C-terminal fragment, nor APP levels. As revealed by photoaffinity labeling, CHF5074 does not interact with γ-secretase, but binds to the AICD and lowers its nuclear translocation. In vivo treatment with CHF5074 reduced AICD occupancy as well as histone H3 acetylation levels and transcriptional output of the AICD-target gene KAI1. The data provide new mechanistic insights on this compound, which is under clinical investigation for AD treatment/prevention, as well as on the contribution of the AICD to AD pathology.
|Melatonin induces histone hyperacetylation in the rat brain.|
Niles, Lennard P, et al.
Neurosci. Lett., (2013) 2013
We have reported that melatonin induces histone hyperacetylation in mouse neural stem cells, suggesting an epigenetic role for this pleiotropic hormone. To support such a role, it is necessary to demonstrate that melatonin produces similar effects in vivo. Histone acetylation, following chronic treatment with melatonin (4μg/ml in drinking water for 17 days), was examined by western blotting in selected rat brain regions. Melatonin induced significant increases in histone H3 and histone H4 acetylation in the hippocampus. Histone H4 was also hyperacetylated in the striatum, but there were no significant changes in histone H3 acetylation in this brain region. No significant changes in the acetylation of either histone H3 or H4 were observed in the midbrain and cerebellum. An examination of kinase activation, which may be related to these changes, revealed that melatonin treatment increased the levels of phospho-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) in the hippocampus and striatum, but phospho-Akt (protein kinase B) levels were unchanged. These findings suggest that chromatin remodeling and associated changes in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression underlie the multiple physiological effects of melatonin.
|Epigenetics of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension following intrauterine growth retardation rat: epigenetics in PAH following IUGR.|
Xu, XF; Lv, Y; Gu, WZ; Tang, LL; Wei, JK; Zhang, LY; Du, LZ
Respiratory research 14 20 2013
Accumulating evidence reveals that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) can cause varying degrees of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) later in life. Moreover, epigenetics plays an important role in the fetal origin of adult disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of epigenetics in the development of PAH following IUGR.The IUGR rats were established by maternal undernutrition during pregnancy. Pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVEC) were isolated from the rat lungs by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). We investigated epigenetic regulation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene in PVEC of 1-day and 6-week IUGR rats, and response of IUGR rats to hypoxia.The maternal nutrient restriction increased the histone acetylation and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) binding levels in the ET-1 gene promoter of PVEC in IUGR newborn rats, and continued up to 6 weeks after birth. These epigenetic changes could result in an IUGR rat being highly sensitive to hypoxia later in life, causing more significant PAH or pulmonary vascular remodeling.These findings suggest that epigenetics is closely associated with the development of hypoxic PAH following IUGR, further providing a new insight for improved prevention and treatment of IUGR-related PAH.
|1B/(-)IRE DMT1 expression during brain ischemia contributes to cell death mediated by NF-κB/RelA acetylation at Lys310.|
Rosaria Ingrassia,Annamaria Lanzillotta,Ilenia Sarnico,Marina Benarese,Francesco Blasi,Laura Borgese,Fabjola Bilo,Laura Depero,Alberto Chiarugi,Pier Franco Spano,Marina Pizzi
PloS one 7 2012
The molecular mechanisms responsible for increasing iron and neurodegeneration in brain ischemia are an interesting area of research which could open new therapeutic approaches. Previous evidence has shown that activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) through RelA acetylation on Lys310 is the prerequisite for p50/RelA-mediated apoptosis in cellular and animal models of brain ischemia. We hypothesized that the increase of iron through a NF-κB-regulated 1B isoform of the divalent metal transporter-1 (1B/DMT1) might contribute to post-ischemic neuronal damage. Both in mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and in neuronally differentiated SK-N-SH cells exposed to oxygen-glucose-deprivation (OGD), 1A/DMT1 was only barely expressed while the 1B/DMT1 without iron-response-element (-IRE) protein and mRNA were early up-regulated. Either OGD or over-expression of 1B/(-)IRE DMT1 isoform significantly increased iron uptake, as detected by total reflection X-ray fluorescence, and iron-dependent cell death. Iron chelation by deferoxamine treatment or (-)IRE DMT1 RNA silencing displayed significant neuroprotection against OGD which concomitantly decreased intracellular iron levels. We found evidence that 1B/(-)IRE DMT1 was a target gene for RelA activation and acetylation on Lys310 residue during ischemia. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the 1B/DMT1 promoter showed there was increased interaction with RelA and acetylation of H3 histone during OGD exposure of cortical neurons. Over-expression of wild-type RelA increased 1B/DMT1 promoter-luciferase activity, the (-)IRE DMT1 protein, as well as neuronal death. Expression of the acetylation-resistant RelA-K310R construct, which carried a mutation from lysine 310 to arginine, but not the acetyl-mimic mutant RelA-K310Q, down-regulated the 1B/DMT1 promoter, consequently offering neuroprotection. Our data showed that 1B/(-)IRE DMT1 expression and intracellular iron influx are early downstream responses to NF-κB/RelA activation and acetylation during brain ischemia and contribute to the pathogenesis of stroke-induced neuronal damage.
|Plant flavone apigenin inhibits HDAC and remodels chromatin to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells: In vitro and in vivo study.|
Mitali Pandey,Parminder Kaur,Sanjeev Shukla,Ata Abbas,Pingfu Fu,Sanjay Gupta
Molecular carcinogenesis 51 2012
Apigenin (4',5,7,-trihydroxyflavone), an anticancer agent, selectively toxic to cancer cells induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. Our studies indicate that apigenin-mediated growth inhibitory responses are due to inhibition of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) in prostate cancer cells. Treatment of PC-3 and 22Rv1 cells with apigenin (20-40 µM) resulted in the inhibition of HDAC enzyme activity, specifically HDAC1 and HDAC3 at the protein and message level. Apigenin-mediated HDAC inhibition resulted in global histone H3 and H4 acetylation, as well as localized hyperacetylation of histone H3 on the p21/waf1 promoter. A corresponding increase was observed in p21/waf1 and bax protein and mRNA expression after apigenin exposure, consistent with the use of HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A. The downstream events demonstrated cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in both cancer cells. Studies of PC-3 xenografts in athymic nude mice further demonstrated that oral intake of apigenin at doses of 20 and 50 µg/mouse/d over an 8-wk period resulted in a marked reduction in tumor growth, HDAC activity, and HDAC1 and HDAC3 protein expression at both doses of apigenin. An increase in p21/waf1 expression was observed in apigenin-fed mice, compared to the control group. Furthermore, apigenin intake caused a significant decrease in bcl2 expression with concomitant increase in bax, shifting the bax/bcl2 ratio in favor of apoptosis. Our findings confirm for the first time that apigenin inhibits class I HDACs, particularly HDAC1 and HDAC3 and its exposure results in reversal of aberrant epigenetic events that promote malignancy. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
|All-Trans Retinoic Acid Induces Chromatin Remodeling at the Promoter of the Mouse Liver, Bone, and Kidney Alkaline Phosphatase Gene in C3H10T 1/2 Cells.|
Yang Wan,Songhai Yang,Fenyong Sun,Jiayi Wang,Qiongyu Chen,An Hong
Biochemical genetics 50 2012
The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) gene is an important marker of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Although the molecular mechanisms of increased ALP expression in response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) have been reported, the role of ATRA in chromatin structure changes remains unknown. Our results show that the expression of mouse liver, bone, and kidney ALP (mL/B/K-ALP) induced by ATRA in C3H10T 1/2 cells was related to the retinoic acid nuclear receptors, RARα and RARβ, which are not involved in the MAPK pathway. DNase I hypersensitivity analysis revealed an inducible hypersensitive site in the mL/B/K-ALP promoter at ~520 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed a cascade of transcription cofactor recruitment events during ATRA-induced upregulation of mL/B/K-ALP. Together, our results provide a link between ATRA-induced mL/B/K-ALP gene transcription and chromatin remodeling.
|Serum starvation induces DRAM expression in liver cancer cells via histone modifications within its promoter locus.|
Ni, P; Xu, H; Chen, C; Wang, J; Liu, X; Hu, Y; Fan, Q; Hou, Z; Lu, Y
PloS one 7 e50502 2012
DRAM is a lysosomal membrane protein and is critical for p53-mediated autophagy and apoptosis. DRAM has a potential tumor-suppressive function and is downregulated in many human cancers. However, the regulation of DRAM expression is poorly described so far. Here, we demonstrated that serum deprivation strongly induces DRAM expression in liver cancer cells and a core DNA sequence in the DRAM promoter is essential for its responsiveness to serum deprivation. We further observed that euchromatin markers for active transcriptions represented by diacetyl-H3, tetra-acetyl-H4 and the trimethyl-H3K4 at the core promoter region of DRAM gene are apparently increased in a time-dependent manner upon serum deprivation, and concomitantly the dimethyl-H3K9, a herterochromatin marker associated with silenced genes, was time-dependently decreased. Moreover, the chromatin remodeling factor Brg-1 is enriched at the core promoter region of the DRAM gene and is required for serum deprivation induced DRAM expression. These observations lay the ground for further investigation of the DRAM gene expression.
|Green tea polyphenols induce p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells through two distinct mechanisms.|
Gupta, K; Thakur, VS; Bhaskaran, N; Nawab, A; Babcook, MA; Jackson, MW; Gupta, S
PloS one 7 e52572 2012
Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 is commonly observed in human prostate cancer and is associated with therapeutic resistance. We have previously demonstrated that green tea polyphenols (GTP) induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells irrespective of p53 status. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these observations remain elusive. Here we investigated the mechanisms of GTP-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells stably-transfected with short hairpin-RNA against p53 (LNCaPshp53) and control vector (LNCaPshV). GTP treatment induced p53 stabilization and activation of downstream targets p21/waf1 and Bax in a dose-dependent manner specifically in LNCaPshV cells. However, GTP-induced FAS upregulation through activation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase resulted in FADD phosphorylation, caspase-8 activation and truncation of BID, leading to apoptosis in both LNCaPshV and LNCaPshp53 cells. In parallel, treatment of cells with GTP resulted in inhibition of survival pathway, mediated by Akt deactivation and loss of BAD phosphorylation more prominently in LNCaPshp53 cells. These distinct routes of cell death converged to a common pathway, leading to loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytochrome c release and activation of terminal caspases, resulting in PARP-cleavage. GTP-induced apoptosis was attenuated with JNK inhibitor, SP600125 in both cell lines; whereas PI3K-Akt inhibitor, LY294002 resulted in increased cell death prominently in LNCaPshp53 cells, establishing the role of two distinct pathways of GTP-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, GTP exposure resulted in inhibition of class I HDAC protein, accumulation of acetylated histone-H3 in total cellular chromatin, resulting in increased accessibility of transcription factors to bind with the promoter sequences of p21/waf1 and Bax, regardless of the p53 status of cells, consistent with effects elicited by an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A. These results demonstrate that GTP induces prostate cancer cell death by two distinct mechanisms regardless of p53 status, thus identifying specific well-defined molecular mechanisms that may be targeted by chemopreventive and/or therapeutic strategies.
|Nsi1 plays a significant role in the silencing of ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.|
Ha, CW; Sung, MK; Huh, WK
Nucleic acids research 40 4892-903 2012
In eukaryotic cells, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) forms the basis of the nucleolus. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 100-200 copies of a 9.1-kb rDNA repeat exist as a tandem array on chromosome XII. The stability of this highly repetitive array is maintained through silencing. However, the precise mechanisms that regulate rDNA silencing are poorly understood. Here, we report that S. cerevisiae Ydr026c, which we name NTS1 silencing protein 1 (Nsi1), plays a significant role in rDNA silencing. By studying the subcellular localization of 159 nucleolar proteins, we identified 11 proteins whose localization pattern is similar to that of Net1, a well-established rDNA silencing factor. Among these proteins is Nsi1, which is associated with the NTS1 region of rDNA and is required for rDNA silencing at NTS1. In addition, Nsi1 physically interacts with the known rDNA silencing factors Net1, Sir2 and Fob1. The loss of Nsi1 decreases the association of Sir2 with NTS1 and increases histone acetylation at NTS1. Furthermore, Nsi1 contributes to the longevity of yeast cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that Nsi1 is a new rDNA silencing factor that contributes to rDNA stability and lifespan extension in S. cerevisiae.
|Green tea polyphenols causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by suppressing class I histone deacetylases.|
Thakur, VS; Gupta, K; Gupta, S
Carcinogenesis 33 377-84 2012
Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) reactivate epigenetically silenced genes in cancer cells and trigger cell cycle arrest and apoptosis; however, the mechanisms whereby these effects occur are not well understood. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiproliferative effects of GTP, which may be similar to those of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Exposure of human prostate cancer LNCaP cells (harboring wild-type p53) and PC-3 cells (lacking p53) with 10-80 μg/ml of GTP for 24 h resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of class I HDAC enzyme activity and its protein expression. GTP treatment causes an accumulation of acetylated histone H3 in total cellular chromatin, resulting in increased accessibility to bind with the promoter sequences of p21/waf1 and Bax, consistent with the effects elicited by an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A. GTP treatment also resulted in increased expression of p21/waf1 and Bax at the protein and message levels in these cells. Furthermore, treatment of cells with proteasome inhibitor, MG132 together with GTP prevented degradation of class I HDACs, compared with cells treated with GTP alone, indicating increased proteasomal degradation of class I HDACs by GTP. These alterations were consistent with G(0)-G(1) phase cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in both cell lines. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanisms of GTP action in human prostate cancer cells irrespective of their p53 status and suggest a novel approach to prevention and/or therapy of prostate cancer achieved via HDAC inhibition.