|Insulin-like growth factors.|
LeRoith, D and Roberts, C T
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 692: 1-9 (1993)
The purpose of this review has been to emphasize, in general terms, the major aspects of the structure, expression, and regulation of the IGF-I and IGF-II genes. The complex organization of these genes provides ample opportunities for control of gene expression at multiple levels. It is important to realize that regulation at one level can influence regulation at a different level. While such regulatory interactions are characteristic of both the IGF-I and IGF-II genes, they are particularly evident in the case of IGF-I gene expression. For example, the choice of transcription start site influences the length and the sequence of the 5'-UTR, which can influence mRNA translatability and prepeptide sequence, which may influence the amounts of protein produced and, potentially, the intracellular processing and secretion of the final gene product, the mature hormone. Another example is provided by the alternative splicing of E-peptide-encoding exons, which determines the primary structure of the prohormone, which could influence its processing, stability, or function. Thus, this complex gene organization may reflect the need to carefully control, through a multilevel process, the synthesis, processing, and secretion of these important regulatory peptides.
|Structure and activity dependence of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor II on disulfide bond pairing.|
Smith, M C, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 264: 9314-21 (1989)
The complete peptide map of purified folded recombinant human insulin-like growth factor II (rhIGF-II) was determined to verify its sequence and disulfide bonding scheme. Each peptide generated by digestion with pepsin was purified and characterized by amino acid analysis, amino acid sequence analysis, and fast atom bombardment/mass spectrometry. Some peptides were also sequenced using tandem mass spectrometry. The rhIGF-II peptide map was compared to that of rat insulin-like growth factor II and to that of a disulfide-bonded isomer of rhIGF-II. The data obtained in these studies are consistent with the conclusion that the rhIGF-II obtained from Escherichia coli has the correct amino acid composition, sequence, and the native disulfide-bonded structure. The binding affinities of these forms of recombinant IGF-II for IGF carrier proteins were measured in an IGF binding protein assay. The disulfide isomer of rhIGF-II was 160-fold less potent than native rhIGF-II in the competitive protein binding assay. These studies illustrate the need to characterize recombinant polypeptides containing disulfide bonds to allow the native structure to be verified before characterizing the biological properties of such molecules in hopes of elucidating their physiologic functions.