Key Spec Table
|Key Applications||Format||Host||Detection Methods|
|Antibody Type||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Product Usage Statements|
|Material Size||1 mL|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Acute chemokine response in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of children with enterovirus 71-associated brainstem encephalitis. |
Shih-Min Wang, Huan-Yao Lei, Chun-Keung Yu, Jen-Ren Wang, Ih-Jen Su, Ching-Chuan Liu
The Journal of infectious diseases 198 1002-6 2008
BACKGROUND: Brainstem encephalitis (BE) is a serious neurological complication of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. The present study was designed to determine the characteristics of the chemokine response in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with EV71-associated BE. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with BE were studied. They consisted of 12 with uncomplicated BE, 9 with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation, and 10 with pulmonary edema (PE); 13 healthy control subjects were also studied. Plasma and CSF concentrations of various chemokines were determined by a particle-based flow cytometry immunoassay. RESULTS: Plasma levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma-induced protein (IP)-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG), and interleukin (IL)-8 were significantly higher in patients with PE than in those with uncomplicated BE. CSF levels of MIG were significantly higher in patients with PE than in those with uncomplicated BE and ANS dysregulation. The ratios of mean CSF to plasma levels for MCP-1 and IL-8 were highest in patients with uncomplicated BE and tended to fall with increasing severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of the chemokine cascade in the central nervous system compartment appears to play an important role in the elicitation of the immune response to EV71. The chemokine CSF to plasma ratios suggest that IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, and possibly MIG-but not RANTES-are synthesized in the brain in response to encephalitis.
|Critical management in patients with severe enterovirus 71 infection. |
Jieh-Neng Wang, Chih-Ta Yao, Cheng-Nan Yeh, Chao-Ching Huang, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Jing-Ming Wu
Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society 48 250-6 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze clinical details occurring in children with severe enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection and synthesize the critical care experience for patients with severe EV71 infection. METHODS: A retrospective clinical, laboratory, and hemodynamic study was performed in a pediatric intensive care unit in a university hospital. From March 1998 to April 2000, seven consecutive pediatric patients with severe EV71 infection were retrospectively analyzed as the comparison group. From May 2000 to March 2003, eight consecutive patients with severe EV71 infection who had received the protocol therapy were enrolled as the study group. Detailed information about clinical treatment and pharmacological therapy was collected for comparison. RESULTS: The clinical presentations and laboratory findings between the comparison and the study groups were not significantly different. The amount of intravenous fluid in the first 24 h was significantly higher in the comparison group (9.2+/-5.0 vs 4.9+/-1.3 mL/kg per h). More patients in the study group received low doses of dopamine infusion, patients in the comparison group received more epinephrine, and none of them received milrinone. The acute-stage and long-term survival rates were higher in the study group (100% vs 43%, 87% vs 29%). CONCLUSION: Early cardiopulmonary support may prevent the vicious cycle of cardiopulmonary failure and improve the clinical outcome of severe EV71 infection. Milrinone may be the ideal inotropic agent for these patients. Echocardiography, a central line, and an arterial line could be an alternate method to replace direct intracardiac hemodynamic monitoring for guiding critical management.
|Modulation of cytokine production by intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with enterovirus 71-associated brainstem encephalitis. |
Shih-Min Wang, Huan-Yao Lei, Mei-Chih Huang, Ling-Yao Su, Hui-Chen Lin, Chun-Keung Yu, Jung-Lung Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu
Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 37 47-52 2006
BACKGROUND: Several epidemics of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections occurred in Taiwan since 1998. OBJECTIVES: We performed the study to determine the changes in cytokine profiles associated with administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in patients with EV71-associated brainstem encephalitis complicated by autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction and pulmonary edema. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma cytokine concentrations (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13) were monitored on admission and within 12-24h after administration of IVIG in a cohort of children (n=22) with virologically confirmed EV71 infection, from March 2000 through April 2004. RESULT: Plasma levels of IFN-gamma, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-13 levels significantly decreased in patients with pulmonary edema after administration of IVIG, P0.05. Plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly decreased in patients with ANS dysregulation after administration of IVIG, P0.05. Administration of IVIG was not associated with significant changes in plasma concentration of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 IL-10, IL-13 and TNF-alpha in patients with ANS dysregulation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that IVIG might be considered to have a therapeutic role in EV71-associated brainstem encephalitis. A clinical trial is needed to support this hypothesis.
|Cardiac complications of enterovirus rhombencephalitis. |
Y C Fu, C S Chi, Y T Chiu, S L Hsu, B Hwang, S L Jan, P Y Chen, F L Huang, Y Chang
Archives of disease in childhood 89 368-73 2004
BACKGROUND: Epidemics of enterovirus 71 infection have caused the death of many children throughout the world. Rhombencephalitis, brain stem encephalitis, and heart failure were present in all of the fatal cases. However, no evidence of myocarditis was noted in the heart specimens, and the mechanism of heart failure remains unknown. AIMS: To characterise the presentation of cardiac complications in children with enterovirus rhombencephalitis and discuss its pathogenesis. METHODS: Ninety one consecutive patients with enterovirus rhombencephalitis underwent echocardiography. Of these, 17 patients (nine male, eight female; median age 14 months, range 4-57 months) with left ventricular dysfunction were studied. RESULTS: Tachycardia was noted in all patients and systemic hypertension in 12. Muscle-brain fraction of creatine kinase was >5% in 14 patients. Plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine levels were significantly raised in the three patients in whom these were analysed. Electrocardiographic abnormalities were noted in eight patients. Pulmonary oedema was complicated in 15 patients. The initial ejection fraction of the left ventricle was 22-58% (mean 37%, SD 11%). All patients deteriorated to hypotensive shock within 12 hours and 13 died. Heart specimens from seven patients showed no evidence of myocarditis, but significant coagulative myocytolysis, myofibrillar degeneration, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Acute heart failure was noted in 19% of patients with enterovirus rhombencephalitis, which had a fatality rate of 77%. It was not caused by myocarditis but possibly by neurogenic cardiac damage.Full Text Article
|Acute flaccid paralysis in infants and young children with enterovirus 71 infection: MR imaging findings and clinical correlates. |
C Y Chen, Y C Chang, C C Huang, C C Lui, K W Lee, S C Huang
AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology 22 200-5 2001
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is now considered an important cause of childhood acute flaccid paralysis. The purpose of our study was to determine whether EV71-infection-related acute flaccid paralysis in infants and young children has characteristic MR imaging patterns. METHODS: Seven infants and young children with acute paralysis of the upper or lower extremities and positive EV71 cultures underwent spinal MR studies during an outbreak of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Taiwan in 1998. RESULTS: Acute paralysis was observed in one upper extremity in two patients, in one lower extremity in three patients, and in both lower extremities in two patients. None of the patients had sensory impairment or bulbar palsy. MR studies showed unilateral or bilateral hyperintense lesions in the anterior horn regions of the cord on T2-weighted images in six patients. No abnormal signal was present in one patient. Two of three patients who received intravenous injections of contrast material had ventral root enhancement on T1-weighted images. One of them also had enhancement of the unilateral anterior horn cells. At clinical follow-up, both patients with bilateral anterior horn abnormalities had residual motor weakness, whereas only one of the five patients with unilateral involvement had residual weakness. CONCLUSION: EV71 radiculomyelitis tends to be unilateral and to specifically involve both the anterior horn cells of the cord and the ventral roots. MR imaging allows early detection of spinal cord and root lesions.
|Comparison of heart failure in children with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis and cats with norepinephrine cardiotoxicity. |
Y-C Fu,C-S Chi,N-N Lin,C-C Cheng,S-L Jan,B Hwang,S-L Hsu,C-L Gong,Y-T Chen,Y-T Chiu
Pediatric cardiology 27 2001
The mechanism of heart failure in patients with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis (brain stem encephalitis) remains unknown. Our previous reports hypothesized that a catecholamine storm induced by rhombencephalitis may account for the heart failure. The aim of this study was to develop a novel feline model of norepinephrine cardiotoxicity and compare the resulting heart failure to that in children with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis. Nine of 75 children (12%) with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis (5 boys and 4 girls; age, 4-28 months; median age, 16 months) were complicated with left ventricular hypokinesia (ejection fraction, 31 +/- 9%). Six cats (weight, 3.03 +/- 0.64 kg) were administered intravenous norepinephrine 30 microg/kg/min for 3 hours. Echocardiography assessed the left ventricular diameter and function before and after the administration of norepinephrine. Pathology studies included hematoxylin and eosin stain and in situ terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay. In the feline model, norepinephrine induced significant left ventricular dilatation (end diastolic diameter from 1.18 +/- 0.19 to 1.62 +/- 0.22 cm, p = 0.001; endsystolic diameter from 0.54 +/- 0.09 to 1.36 +/- 0.32 cm, p = < 0.001) and hypokinesia (ejection fraction from 87.5 +/- 4.1 to 35.2 +/- 16.3%, p = 0.001). Heart specimens from 4 patients and six cats showed similar pathology findings, including myocardial hemorrhage, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and coagulative myocytolysis, which is characterized by sarcoplasmic coagulation, granulation, vacuolization, myofibrillar waving, and disruption. Both groups showed no significant inflammatory reaction. In conclusion, heart failure in patients with enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis is similar to that in cats with norepinephrine cardiotoxicity. Norepinephrine cardiotoxicity may play a role in the pathogenesis of heart failure in enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis.
|Neurologic complications in children with enterovirus 71 infection. |
C C Huang, C C Liu, Y C Chang, C Y Chen, S T Wang, T F Yeh
The New England journal of medicine 341 936-42 1999
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 infection causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease in young children, which is characterized by several days of fever and vomiting, ulcerative lesions in the oral mucosa, and vesicles on the backs of the hands and feet. The initial illness resolves but is sometimes followed by aseptic meningitis, encephalomyelitis, or even acute flaccid paralysis similar to paralytic poliomyelitis. METHODS: We describe the neurologic complications associated with the enterovirus 71 epidemic that occurred in Taiwan in 1998. At three major hospitals we identified 41 children with culture-confirmed enterovirus 71 infection and acute neurologic manifestations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 4 patients with acute flaccid paralysis and 24 with rhombencephalitis. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 2.5 years (range, 3 months to 8.2 years). Twenty-eight patients had hand-foot-and-mouth disease (68 percent), and 6 had herpangina (15 percent). The other seven patients had no skin or mucosal lesions. Three neurologic syndromes were identified: aseptic meningitis (in 3 patients); brain-stem encephalitis, or rhombencephalitis (in 37); and acute flaccid paralysis (in 4), which followed rhombencephalitis in 3 patients. In 20 patients with rhombencephalitis, the syndrome was characterized by myoclonic jerks and tremor, ataxia, or both (grade I disease). Ten patients had myoclonus and cranial-nerve involvement (grade II disease). In seven patients the brain-stem infection produced transient myoclonus followed by the rapid onset of respiratory distress, cyanosis, poor peripheral perfusion, shock, coma, loss of the doll's eye reflex, and apnea (grade III disease); five of these patients died within 12 hours after admission. In 17 of the 24 patients with rhombencephalitis who underwent MRI, T2-weighted scans showed high-intensity lesions in the brain stem, most commonly in the pontine tegmentum. At follow-up, two of the patients with acute flaccid paralysis had residual limb weakness, and five of the patients with rhombencephalitis had persistent neurologic deficits, including myoclonus (in one child), cranial-nerve deficits (in two), and ventilator-dependent apnea (in two). CONCLUSIONS: In the 1998 enterovirus 71 epidemic in Taiwan, the chief neurologic complication was rhombencephalitis, which had a fatality rate of 14 percent. The most common initial symptoms were myoclonic jerks, and MRI usually showed evidence of brainstem involvement.
|LIGHT DIAGNOSTICS ENTEROVIRUS 71 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY multi languages|
|LIGHT DIAGNOSTICS™ ENTEROVIRUS 71 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY|