|Real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay for detection of mumps virus RNA in clinical specimens. |
Jennifer D Boddicker, Paul A Rota, Trisha Kreman, Andrea Wangeman, Louis Lowe, Kimberly B Hummel, Robert Thompson, William J Bellini, Michael Pentella, Lucy E Desjardin
Journal of clinical microbiology
The mumps virus is a negative-strand RNA virus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Mumps infection results in an acute illness with symptoms including fever, headache, and myalgia, followed by swelling of the salivary glands. Complications of mumps can include meningitis, deafness, pancreatitis, orchitis, and first-trimester abortion. Laboratory confirmation of mumps infection can be made by the detection of immunoglobulin M-specific antibodies to mumps virus in acute-phase serum samples, the isolation of mumps virus in cell culture, or by detection of the RNA of the mumps virus by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. We developed and validated a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid mumps diagnosis in a clinical setting. This assay used oligonucleotide primers and a TaqMan probe targeting the mumps SH gene, as well as primers and a probe that targeted the human RNase P gene to assess the presence of PCR inhibitors and as a measure of specimen quality. The test was specific, since it did not amplify a product from near-neighbor viruses, as well as sensitive and accurate. Real-time RT-PCR results showed 100% correlation with results from viral culture, the gold standard for mumps diagnostic testing. Assay efficiency was over 90% and displayed good precision after performing inter- and intraassay replicates. Thus, we have developed and validated a molecular method for rapidly diagnosing mumps infection that may be used to complement existing techniques.Full Text Article
|Complex array of cytokines released by vasoactive intestinal peptide. |
Douglas E Brenneman, Terry M Phillips, Janet Hauser, Joanna M Hill, Catherine Y Spong, Illana Gozes
A complex mixture of five cytokines has been shown to be released by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Cytokines were measured in paired samples of culture medium and astroglial cytosol by capillary electrophoresis. This is the first description of VIP-mediated release for TNF-alpha, IL-3, G-CSF and M-CSF from astrocyte cultures. Kinetic studies after VIP treatment demonstrated a gradual but incomplete depletion of cytosolic cytokine levels, with differences observed among the cytokines. Significant increases in release were apparent within 15-30 min for all cytokines. As the recognized VIP receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2) are linked to adenylate cyclase and also interact with pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP-38), both this homologous peptide and 8-bromo cAMP were investigated and compared to VIP-mediated release. Treatment with 1 mM 8-bromo cAMP produced cytokine release similar in amount to 0.1 nM PACAP-38, but significantly less (50%) in comparison to 0.1 nM VIP. PACAP-38 and VIP exhibited similar EC(50)'s for the release of G-CSF and TNF-alpha; however, the maximal release was 4-6 times greater for VIP than for PACAP-38. This similarity in potency suggested a VPAC-like receptor; however, the greater efficacy for VIP in comparison to PACAP-38, combined with a lack of cAMP production at subnanomolar concentrations of VIP, suggested a mechanism not currently associated with VPAC receptors. For M-CSF, IL-3 and IL-6, the EC(50)'s of VIP were 3-30 times more potent than those of PACAP-38 in producing release. These studies suggested that multiple mechanisms mediate cytokine release in astrocytes: (1) a low efficacy release produced by PACAP-38 that is cAMP-mediated and (2) a high efficacy, VIP-preferring mechanism that was not linked to cAMP. In summary, subnanomolar concentrations of VIP released a complex array of cytokines from astrocytes that may contribute to the mitogenic and neurotrophic properties of this neuropeptide in the central nervous system.
|Distribution and role of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase in endocardial endothelium. |
P Fransen, J Hendrickx, D L Brutsaert, S U Sys
OBJECTIVE: In mammalian cardiomyocytes, alpha isoforms of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase have specific localisation and function, but their role in endocardial endothelium is unknown. METHODS: Different alpha isoforms in endocardial endothelium and cardiomyocytes of rabbit were investigated by measuring contractile parameters of papillary muscles, by RT-PCR, by Western blots and by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: Inhibition of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase by decreasing external K(+) from 5.0 to 0.5 mmol/l caused biphasic inotropic effects. The maximal negative inotropic effect at external K(+) of 2.5 mmol/l was significantly larger in +EE muscles (with intact endocardial endothelium) than in -EE muscles (with endocardial endothelium removed) (-22.5+/-2.4% versus -5.9+/-4.0%, n=7, P0.05). Further decrease of K(+) to 0.5 mmol/l caused endothelium-independent positive inotropy (27.8+/-11.8% for +EE versus 18.6+/-11.3% for -EE, n=7, P>0.05). Inhibition of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase either by dihydro-ouabain (10(-9) to 10(-4) mol/l, n=4) or by K(+) decrease following inhibition of Na(+)-H(+) exchanger by dimethyl-amiloride (50 micromol/l, n=6) caused endothelium-independent positive inotropic effects only. RT-PCR and Western Blot demonstrated alpha(1) and alpha(2) Na-K-ATPase isoforms in cardiomyocytes, but only alpha(1) in cultured endocardial endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that alpha(1) in endocardial endothelium was predominantly present at the luminal side of the cell (n=7) and that alpha(1) and alpha(2) displayed different localisation in cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that negative and positive inotropic effects of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibition in +EE muscles could be attributed to inhibition of endocardial endothelial alpha(1) and muscle alpha(2) isoform, respectively. Accordingly, the endocardial endothelial alpha(1) isoform of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase may contribute to blood-heart barrier properties of this endothelium and may control cardiac performance via endothelial Na(+)/H(+) exchange.