|Physiological, Morphological and neurochemical characterization of neurons Modulated by Movement. |
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE
The role of individual neurons and their function in neuronal circuits is fundamental to understanding the neuronal mechanisms of sensory and motor functions. Most investigations of sensorimotor mechanisms rely on either examination of neurons while an animal is static or record extracellular neuronal activity during a movement. While these studies have provided the fundamental background for sensorimotor function, they either do not evaluate functional information which occurs during a movement or are limited in their ability to fully characterize the anatomy, physiology and neurochemical phenotype of the neuron. A technique is shown here which allows extensive characterization of individual neurons during an in vivo movement. This technique can be used not only to study primary afferent neurons but also to characterize motoneurons and sensorimotor interneurons. Initially the response of a single neuron is recorded using electrophysiological methods during various movements of the mandible followed by determination of the receptive field for the neuron. A neuronal tracer is then intracellularly injected into the neuron and the brain is processed so that the neuron can be visualized with light, electron or confocal microscopy (Fig. 1). The detailed morphology of the characterized neuron is then reconstructed so that neuronal morphology can be correlated with the physiological response of the neuron (Figs. 2,3). In this communication important key details and tips for successful implementation of this technique are provided. Valuable additional information can be determined for the neuron under study by combining this method with other techniques. Retrograde neuronal labeling can be used to determine neurons with which the labeled neuron synapses; thus allowing detailed determination of neuronal circuitry. Immunocytochemistry can be combined with this method to examine neurotransmitters within the labeled neuron and to determine the chemical phenotypes of neurons with which the labeled neuron synapses. The labeled neuron can also be processed for electron microscopy to determine the ultrastructural features and microcircuitry of the labeled neuron. Overall this technique is a powerful method to thoroughly characterize neurons during in vivo movement thus allowing substantial insight into the role of the neuron in sensorimotor function.
|Trafficking and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in olfactory ensheathing glial cells: A role in cell migration |
Gueye Y, Ferhat L, Sbai O, Bianco J, Ould-Yahoui A, Bernard A, Charrat E, Chauvin JP, Risso JJ, Féron F, Rivera S, Khrestchatisky M
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are unique glia found only in the olfactory system. They retain exceptional plasticity and support olfactory neurogenesis and retargeting across the PNS:CNS boundary in the olfactory system. OECs have been shown to improve functional outcome when transplanted into rodents with spinal cord injury. The growth-promoting properties of implanted OECs encompass their ability to migrate through the scar tissue and render it more permissive for axonal outgrowth, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. OECs appear to regulate molecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that inhibit axonal growth. Among the proteins that have the potential to promote cell migration, axonal regeneration and remodeling of the ECM are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of endopeptidases that cleave matrix, soluble, and membrane-bound proteins and that are regulated by their endogenous inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). Little is known about MMP/TIMP trafficking, secretion, and role in OECs. Using a combination of cell biology, biochemistry, pharmacology, and imaging techniques, we show that MMP-2 and MMP-9 are expressed and proteolytically active in the olfactory epithelium and in particular in the OECs of the lamina propria. These proteinases and regulatory proteins such as MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 are expressed in cultured OECs. MMPs exhibit nuclear localization and vesicular trafficking and secretion, with distribution along microtubules and microfilaments and co-localization with the molecular motor protein kinesin. Finally, we show that MMPs are involved in migration of OECs in vitro on different ECM substrates. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
|AP-1 (Fra-1/c-Jun)-mediated induction of expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 is required for 15S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-induced angiogenesis. |
Singh, NK; Quyen, DV; Kundumani-Sridharan, V; Brooks, PC; Rao, GN
The Journal of biological chemistry
To understand the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE)-induced angiogenesis, we have studied the role of MMP-2. 15(S)-HETE induced MMP-2 expression and activity in a time-dependent manner in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVECs). Inhibition of MMP-2 activity or depletion of its levels attenuated 15(S)-HETE-induced HDMVEC migration, tube formation, and Matrigel plug angiogenesis. 15(S)-HETE also induced Fra-1 and c-Jun expression in a Rac1-MEK1-JNK1-dependent manner. In addition, 15(S)-HETE-induced MMP-2 expression and activity were mediated by Rac1-MEK1-JNK1-dependent activation of AP-1 (Fra-1/c-Jun). Cloning and site-directed mutagenesis of MMP-2 promoter revealed that AP-1 site proximal to the transcriptional start site is required for 15(S)-HETE-induced MMP-2 expression, and Fra-1 and c-Jun are the essential components of AP-1 that bind to MMP-2 promoter in response to 15(S)-HETE. Hind limb ischemia led to an increase in MEK1 and JNK1 activation and Fra-1, c-Jun, and MMP-2 expression resulting in enhanced neovascularization and recovery of blood perfusion in wild-type mice as compared with 12/15-Lox(-/-) mice. Together, these results provide the first direct evidence for a role of 12/15-Lox-12/15(S)-HETE axis in the regulation of ischemia-induced angiogenesis.Pełny tekst artykułu
|Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein contributes to the antiangiogenic activity of thrombospondin-2 in a murine glioma model. |
Constance Y Fears, J Robert Grammer, Jerry E Stewart, Douglas S Annis, Deane F Mosher, Paul Bornstein, Candece L Gladson
Host antiangiogenesis factors defend against tumor growth. The matricellular protein, thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2), has been shown to act as an antiangiogenesis factor in a carcinogen-induced model of skin cancer. Here, using an in vivo malignant glioma model in which the characteristics of the tumors formed after intracerebral implantation of GL261 mouse glioma cells are assessed, we found that tumor growth and microvessel density were significantly enhanced in tumors propagated in TSP-2(-/-) mice. Mechanistically, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 has been associated with neoangiogenesis and it has been proposed that the levels of available MMP-2 may be down-regulated by formation of a complex with TSP-2 that is internalized by low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). We found elevated expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in tumors propagated in TSP-2(-/-) mice, with a preferential localization in the microvasculature. In wild-type mice, MMP-2 was coexpressed with TSP-2 in the tumor microvasculature. In vitro, addition of recombinant (rec) TSP-2 to mouse brain microvessel endothelial cells reduced MMP-2 levels and invasion through mechanisms that could be inhibited by a competitive inhibitor of ligand binding to LRP1 or by siLRP1. Thus, the antiangiogenic activity of TSP-2 is capable of inhibiting the growth of gliomas in part by reducing the levels of MMP-2 in the tumor microvasculature. This mechanism is mediated by LRP1.