Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||ICC, IHC, IH(P), WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months from date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||50 µL|
|Anti-Nestin - LV1635955||LV1635955|
|Anti-Nestin - LV1751778||LV1751778|
|Anti-Nestin - NG1853940||NG1853940|
|RABBIT ANTI-NESTIN POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY - LV1519217||LV1519217|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Engraftment of Human Glioblastoma Cells in Immunocompetent Rats through Acquired Immunosuppression.|
Huszthy, PC; Sakariassen, PØ; Espedal, H; Brokstad, KA; Bjerkvig, R; Miletic, H
PloS one 10 e0136089 2015
Transplantation of glioblastoma patient biopsy spheroids to the brain of T cell-compromised Rowett (nude) rats has been established as a representative animal model for human GBMs, with a tumor take rate close to 100%. In immunocompetent littermates however, primary human GBM tissue is invariably rejected. Here we show that after repeated passaging cycles in nude rats, human GBM spheroids are enabled to grow in the brain of immunocompetent rats. In case of engraftment, xenografts in immunocompetent rats grow progressively and host leukocytes fail to enter the tumor bed, similar to what is seen in nude animals. In contrast, rejection is associated with massive infiltration of the tumor bed by leukocytes, predominantly ED1+ microglia/macrophages, CD4+ T helper cells and CD8+ effector cells, and correlates with elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-18 and TNF-α [corrected]. We observed that in nude rat brains, an adaptation to the host occurs after several in vivo passaging cycles, characterized by striking attenuation of microglial infiltration. Furthermore, tumor-derived chemokines that promote leukocyte migration and their entry into the CNS such as CXCL-10 and CXCL-12 are down-regulated, and the levels of TGF-β2 increase. We propose that through serial in vivo passaging in nude rats, human GBM cells learn to avoid and or/ suppress host immunity. Such adapted GBM cells are in turn able to engraft in immunocompetent rats without signs of an inflammatory response.
|Astroblastoma: beside being a tumor entity, an occasional phenotype of astrocytic gliomas?|
Mellai, M; Piazzi, A; Casalone, C; Grifoni, S; Melcarne, A; Annovazzi, L; Cassoni, P; Denysenko, T; Valentini, MC; Cistaro, A; Schiffer, D
OncoTargets and therapy 8 451-60 2015
The diagnosis of astroblastoma is based on a typical histological aspect with perivascular distribution of cells sending cytoplasmic extensions to the vessels and vascular hyalinization. These criteria are useful for standardizing the identification of the tumor, but, in spite of this, there are discrepancies in the literature concerning the age distribution and the benign or malignant nature of the tumor. Three cases are discussed in this study: Case 1 was a typical high-grade astroblastoma; Case 2 was an oligodendroglioma at the first intervention and an oligoastrocytoma at the second intervention with typical perivascular arrangements in the astrocytic component; Case 3 was a gemistocytic glioma with malignant features and typical perivascular arrangements. Genetic analysis showed genetic alterations that are typical of gliomas of all malignancy grades. Using the neurosphere assay, neurospheres and adherent cells were found to have developed in Case 1, while adherent cells only developed in Case 2, in line with the stemness potential of the tumors. The cases are discussed in relation to their diagnostic assessment as astroblastoma, and it is hypothesized that the typical perivascular distribution of cells may not indicate a separate and unique tumor entity, but may be a peculiarity that can be acquired by astrocytic gliomas when an unknown cause from the tumor microenvironment influences the relationship between vessels and tumor cells.
|Interaction between neural stem cells and bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells during differentiation.|
Rong, JU; Wen, Z; Rong, WU; Zhichun, F
Biomedical reports 3 242-246 2015
Due to their capacity to self-replicate or produce specific differentiated cell types, neural stem cells (NSCs) and bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are potential sources for cell transplantation therapies, particularly for neural injury. However, the interaction between NSCs and BMSCs during differentiation has not yet been defined. The interaction is believed to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of cell therapy. In the present study, human NSCs and BMSCs were cultured and the Transwell co-culture system was used to observe the interplay between NSCs and BMSCs during differentiation. The results revealed that NSCs promoted BMSCs to differentiate into neurons and NSCs; whereas, BMSCs did not affect the differentiation of NSCs. Simultaneously, co-culture increased the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), which are secreted by NSCs and BMSCs. The present findings suggest that co-culture of NSCs and BMSCs can promote the differentiation and this process may be modulated by BDNF and NGF.
|Properties of neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of Gaucher disease type 2 patient fibroblasts: potential role in neuropathology.|
Sun, Y; Florer, J; Mayhew, CN; Jia, Z; Zhao, Z; Xu, K; Ran, H; Liou, B; Zhang, W; Setchell, KD; Gu, J; Grabowski, GA
PloS one 10 e0118771 2015
Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by insufficient activity of acid β-glucosidase (GCase) resulting from mutations in GBA1. To understand the pathogenesis of the neuronopathic GD, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from fibroblasts isolated from three GD type 2 (GD2) and 2 unaffected (normal and GD carrier) individuals. The iPSCs were converted to neural precursor cells (NPCs) which were further differentiated into neurons. Parental GD2 fibroblasts as well as iPSCs, NPCs, and neurons had similar degrees of GCase deficiency. Lipid analyses showed increases of glucosylsphingosine and glucosylceramide in the GD2 cells. In addition, GD2 neurons showed increased α-synuclein protein compared to control neurons. Whole cell patch-clamping of the GD2 and control iPSCs-derived neurons demonstrated excitation characteristics of neurons, but intriguingly, those from GD2 exhibited consistently less negative resting membrane potentials with various degree of reduction in action potential amplitudes, sodium and potassium currents. Culture of control neurons in the presence of the GCase inhibitor (conduritol B epoxide) recapitulated these findings, providing a functional link between decreased GCase activity in GD and abnormal neuronal electrophysiological properties. To our knowledge, this study is first to report abnormal electrophysiological properties in GD2 iPSC-derived neurons that may underlie the neuropathic phenotype in Gaucher disease.
|A Perturbed MicroRNA Expression Pattern Characterizes Embryonic Neural Stem Cells Derived from a Severe Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA).|
Luchetti, A; Ciafrè, SA; Murdocca, M; Malgieri, A; Masotti, A; Sanchez, M; Farace, MG; Novelli, G; Sangiuolo, F
International journal of molecular sciences 16 18312-27 2015
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder and the leading genetic cause of death in infants. Despite the disease-causing gene, survival motor neuron (SMN1), encodes a ubiquitous protein, SMN1 deficiency preferentially affects spinal motor neurons (MNs), leaving the basis of this selective cell damage still unexplained. As neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent self-renewing cells that can differentiate into neurons, they represent an in vitro model for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases such as SMA. Here we characterize for the first time neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from embryonic spinal cords of a severe SMNΔ7 SMA mouse model. SMNΔ7 NSCs behave as their wild type (WT) counterparts, when we consider neurosphere formation ability and the expression levels of specific regional and self-renewal markers. However, they show a perturbed cell cycle phase distribution and an increased proliferation rate compared to wild type cells. Moreover, SMNΔ7 NSCs are characterized by the differential expression of a limited number of miRNAs, among which miR-335-5p and miR-100-5p, reduced in SMNΔ7 NSCs compared to WT cells. We suggest that such miRNAs may be related to the proliferation differences characterizing SMNΔ7 NSCs, and may be potentially involved in the molecular mechanisms of SMA.
|Existence of a potential neurogenic system in the adult human brain.|
Nogueira, AB; Sogayar, MC; Colquhoun, A; Siqueira, SA; Nogueira, AB; Marchiori, PE; Teixeira, MJ
Journal of translational medicine 12 75 2014
Prevailingly, adult mammalian neurogenesis is thought to occur in discrete, separate locations known as neurogenic niches that are best characterized in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus and in the subventricular zone (SVZ). The existence of adult human neurogenic niches is controversial.The existence of neurogenic niches was investigated with neurogenesis marker immunostaining in histologically normal human brains obtained from autopsies. Twenty-eight adult temporal lobes, specimens from limbic structures and the hypothalamus of one newborn and one adult were examined.The neural stem cell marker nestin stained circumventricular organ cells and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) stained hypothalamic and limbic structures adjacent to circumventricular organs; both markers stained a continuous structure running from the hypothalamus to the hippocampus. The cell proliferation marker Ki-67 was detected predominantly in structures that form the septo-hypothalamic continuum. Nestin-expressing cells were located in the fimbria-fornix at the insertion of the choroid plexus; ependymal cells in this structure expressed the putative neural stem cell marker CD133. From the choroidal fissure in the temporal lobe, a nestin-positive cell layer spread throughout the SVZ and subpial zone. In the subpial zone, a branch of this layer reached the hippocampal sulcus and ended in the SGZ (principally in the newborn) and in the subiculum (principally in the adults). Another branch of the nestin-positive cell layer in the subpial zone returned to the optic chiasm. DCX staining was detected in the periventricular and middle hypothalamus and more densely from the mammillary body to the subiculum through the fimbria-fornix, thus running through the principal neuronal pathway from the hippocampus to the hypothalamus. The column of the fornix forms part of this pathway and appears to coincide with the zone previously identified as the human rostral migratory stream. Partial co-labeling with DCX and the neuronal marker βIII-tubulin was also observed.Collectively, these findings suggest the existence of an adult human neurogenic system that rises from the circumventricular organs and follows, at minimum, the circuitry of the hypothalamus and limbic system.
|Differentiation of human breast-milk stem cells to neural stem cells and neurons.|
Hosseini, SM; Talaei-Khozani, T; Sani, M; Owrangi, B
Neurology research international 2014 807896 2014
Objectives. Human breast milk contains a heterogeneous population of cells that have the potential to provide a noninvasive source of cells for cell therapy in many neurodegenerative diseases without any ethical concern. The objectives of this study were to differentiate the breast milk-derived stem cells (BMDSC) toward neural stem cells and then into the neurons and neuroglia. Materials and Methods. To do this, the BMDSC were isolated from human breast milk and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 (DMEM/F12) containing fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The cells were then characterized by evaluation of the embryonic and stem cell markers. Then, the cells were exposed to culture medium containing 1% B27 and 2% N2 for 7-10 days followed by medium supplemented with B27, N2, bFGF 10 µg/mL, and endothelial growth factor (EGF) 20 µg/mL. Then, the sphere-forming assay was performed. The spheres were then differentiated into three neural lineages by withdrawing growth factor in the presence of 5% FBS (fetal bovine serum). The immunofluorescence was done for β-tubulin III, O4, and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein). Results. The results indicated that the cells expressed both embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers. They also showed neurospheres formation that was nestin-positive. The cells were also differentiated into all three neural lineages. Conclusion. The BMDSC can behave in the same way with neural stem cells. They were differentiated into oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes as well as neurons.
|Stem cell niches in glioblastoma: a neuropathological view.|
Schiffer, D; Mellai, M; Annovazzi, L; Caldera, V; Piazzi, A; Denysenko, T; Melcarne, A
BioMed research international 2014 725921 2014
Glioblastoma (GBM) stem cells (GSCs), responsible for tumor growth, recurrence, and resistance to therapies, are considered the real therapeutic target, if they had no molecular mechanisms of resistance, in comparison with the mass of more differentiated cells which are insensitive to therapies just because of being differentiated and nonproliferating. GSCs occur in tumor niches where both stemness status and angiogenesis are conditioned by the microenvironment. In both perivascular and perinecrotic niches, hypoxia plays a fundamental role. Fifteen glioblastomas have been studied by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence for stemness and differentiation antigens. It has been found that circumscribed necroses develop inside hyperproliferating areas that are characterized by high expression of stemness antigens. Necrosis developed inside them because of the imbalance between the proliferation of tumor cells and endothelial cells; it reduces the number of GSCs to a thin ring around the former hyperproliferating area. The perinecrotic GSCs are nothing else that the survivors remnants of those populating hyperproliferating areas. In the tumor, GSCs coincide with malignant areas so that the need to detect where they are located is not so urgent.
|Contribution of nestin positive esophageal squamous cancer cells on malignant proliferation, apoptosis, and poor prognosis.|
Zhong, B; Wang, T; Lun, X; Zhang, J; Zheng, S; Yang, W; Li, W; Xiang, AP; Chen, Z
Cancer cell international 14 57 2014
The stem cell-associated intermediate filament nestin has recently been linked with neoplastic transformation, but the specific mechanism by which nestin positive tumor cells leads to malignant invasion and metastasis behaviors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear.To obtain insight into the biological role of nestin in ESCC, we explored the association of the nestin phenotype with malignant proliferation and apoptosis in esophageal squamous cancer cells. Nestin expression was determined in ESCC specimens and cell lines, and correlated with clinicopathological properties, including clinical prognosis and proliferative markers. The association of the nestin phenotype with apoptotic indicators was also analyzed.Nestin was expressed in ESCC specimens and cell lines. ESCC patients with nestin-positive tumors had significantly shorter median survival and progression-free survival times than those with nestin-negative tumors. Positive staining for the proliferation markers Ki67 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) was detected in 56.9% and 60.2% of ESCC specimens, respectively, and was strongly correlated with the nestin phenotype. Notably, expression of cyclin dependent kinase-5 (CDK5) and P35 was detected in 53.8% and 48.4% of ESCC specimens, respectively, and was strongly associated with the nestin phenotype.Our data demonstrated nestin expression in ESCC specimens and cell lines, and revealed a strong association of the nestin phenotype with poor prognosis in ESCC patients. Furthermore, we showed that nestin positive ESCC cells played an important role in the malignant proliferation and apoptosis.
|Melanoma spheroid formation involves laminin-associated vasculogenic mimicry.|
Larson, AR; Lee, CW; Lezcano, C; Zhan, Q; Huang, J; Fischer, AH; Murphy, GF
The American journal of pathology 184 71-8 2014
Melanoma is a tumor where virulence is conferred on transition from flat (radial) to three-dimensional (tumorigenic) growth. Virulence of tumorigenic growth is governed by numerous attributes, including presence of self-renewing stem-like cells and related formation of patterned networks associated with the melanoma mitogen, laminin, a phenomenon known as vasculogenic mimicry. Vasculogenic mimicry is posited to contribute to melanoma perfusion and nutrition in vivo; we hypothesized that it may also play a role in stem cell-driven spheroid formation in vitro. Using a model of melanoma in vitro tumorigenesis, laminin-associated networks developed in association with three-dimensional melanoma spheroids. Real-time PCR analysis of laminin subunits showed that spheroids formed from anchorage-independent melanoma cells expressed increased α4 and β1 laminin chains and α4 laminin expression was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Association of laminin networks with melanoma stem cell-associated nestin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 also was documented. Moreover, knockdown of nestin gene expression impaired laminin expression and network formation within spheroids. Laminin networks were remarkably similar to those observed in melanoma xenografts in mice and to those seen in patient melanomas. These data indicate that vasculogenic mimicry-like laminin networks, in addition to their genesis in vivo, are integral to the extracellular architecture of melanoma spheroids in vitro, where they may serve as stimulatory scaffolds to support three-dimensional growth.
|Protein Blotting Handbook: 6th Edition (Merck)|
|RABBIT ANTI-NESTIN POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY|