|Cell Line Type||
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Product Usage Statements|
|Quality Assurance||• Each vial contains ≥ 1X106 viable cells.
• Cells are negative for mycoplasma contamination.
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||N27 cells should be stored in liquid nitrogen. The cells can be passage for at least 10 passages without significantly affecting the cell marker expression and functionality.|
|Material Size||≥1X10⁶ cells/vial|
|N27 Rat Dopaminergic Neural Cell Line - 3077229||3077229|
|Protein targets of acrylamide adduct formation in cultured rat dopaminergic cells.|
Martyniuk, Christopher J, et al.
Toxicol. Lett., 219: 279-87 (2013) 2013
Acrylamide (ACR) is an electrophilic unsaturated carbonyl derivative that produces neurotoxicity by forming irreversible Michael-type adducts with nucleophilic sulfhydryl thiolate groups on cysteine residues of neuronal proteins. Identifying specific proteins targeted by ACR can lead to a better mechanistic understanding of the corresponding neurotoxicity. Therefore, in the present study, the ACR-adducted proteome in exposed primary immortalized mesencephalic dopaminergic cells (N27) was determined using tandem mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap). N27 cells were characterized based on the presumed involvement of CNS dopaminergic damage in ACR neurotoxicity. Shotgun proteomics identified a total of 15,243 peptides in N27 cells of which 103 unique peptides exhibited ACR-adducted Cys groups. These peptides were derived from 100 individual proteins and therefore ~0.7% of the N27 cell proteome was adducted. Proteins that contained ACR adducts on multiple peptides included annexin A1 and pleckstrin homology domain-containing family M member 1. Sub-network enrichment analyses indicated that ACR-adducted proteins were involved in processes associated with neuron toxicity, diabetes, inflammation, nerve degeneration and atherosclerosis. These results provide detailed information regarding the ACR-adducted proteome in a dopaminergic cell line. The catalog of affected proteins indicates the molecular sites of ACR action and the respective roles of these proteins in cellular processes can offer insight into the corresponding neurotoxic mechanism.
|Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase expression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and N27 mesencephalic neurones induces changes in cell morphology via ephrin-B2 and Akt signalling.|
Thomas, M G, et al.
Cell Death Dis, 4: e669 (2013) 2013
Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT, E.C. 18.104.22.168) N-methylates nicotinamide to produce 1-methylnicotinamide (MeN). We have previously shown that NNMT expression protected against neurotoxin-mediated cell death by increasing Complex I (CxI) activity, resulting in increased ATP synthesis. This was mediated via protection of the NDUFS3 subunit of CxI from degradation by increased MeN production. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of NNMT expression on neurone morphology and differentiation. Expression of NNMT in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma and N27 rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neurones increased neurite branching, synaptophysin expression and dopamine accumulation and release. siRNA gene silencing of ephrin B2 (EFNB2), and inhibition of Akt phosphorylation using LY294002, demonstrated that their sequential activation was responsible for the increases observed. Incubation of SH-SY5Y with increasing concentrations of MeN also increased neurite branching, suggesting that the effects of NNMT may be mediated by MeN. NNMT had no significant effect on the expression of phenotypic and post-mitotic markers, suggesting that NNMT is not involved in determining phenotypic fate or differentiation status. These results demonstrate that NNMT expression regulates neurone morphology in vitro via the sequential activation of the EFNB2 and Akt cellular signalling pathways.
|PKCδ mediates paraquat-induced Nox1 expression in dopaminergic neurons.|
Cristóvão, Ana Clara, et al.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 437: 380-5 (2013) 2013
Our previous works have shown that the (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) enzyme, in particular Nox1, plays an important role in oxidative stress and subsequent dopaminergic cell death elicited by paraquat (PQ). In non-neuronal and glial cells, protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) shows the ability to regulate the activity of the Nox system. Herein we aimed to investigate if also in dopaminergic neurons exposed to PQ, PKCδ can regulate Nox1 expression. The chemical inhibitor, rottlerin, and short interference RNA (siRNA) were used to inhibit or selectively knockdown PKCδ, respectively. The studies were performed using the immortalized rat mesencephalic dopaminergic cell line (N27 cells) exposed to PQ, after pre-incubation with rottlerin or transfected with PKCδ-siRNA. We observed that inhibition or knockdown of PKCδ significantly reduced PQ induced Nox1 transcript and protein levels, ROS generation and subsequent dopaminergic cell death. The results suggest that PKCδ plays a role in the regulation of Nox1-mediated oxidative stress elicited by PQ and could have a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.
|Alterations in bioenergetic function induced by Parkinson's disease mimetic compounds: lack of correlation with superoxide generation.|
Dranka, Brian P, et al.
J. Neurochem., 122: 941-51 (2012) 2012
In vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease (PD) suggest that increased oxidant production leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons and subsequent cell death. However, it remains unclear if cell death in these models is caused by inhibition of mitochondrial function or oxidant production. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant production in response to multiple PD neurotoxicant mimetics. MPP(+) caused a dose-dependent decrease in the basal oxygen consumption rate in dopaminergic N27 cells, indicating a loss of mitochondrial function. In parallel, we found that MPP(+) only modestly increased oxidation of hydroethidine as a diagnostic marker of superoxide production in these cells. Similar results were found using rotenone as a mitochondrial inhibitor, or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) as a mechanistically distinct PD neurotoxicant, but not with exposure to paraquat. In addition, the extracellular acidification rate, used as a marker of glycolysis, was stimulated to compensate for oxygen consumption rate inhibition after exposure to MPP(+), rotenone, or 6-OHDA, but not paraquat. Together these data indicate that MPP(+), rotenone, and 6-OHDA dramatically shift bioenergetic function away from the mitochondria and towards glycolysis in N27 cells.
|The protective effect of astrocyte-derived 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury in astrocyte-dopaminergic neuronal cell line co-culture.|
Terashvili, M, et al.
Neuroscience, 223: 68-76 (2012) 2012
Astrocytes perform several functions that are essential for normal neuronal activity. They play a critical role in neuronal survival during ischemia and other degenerative injuries and also modulate neuronal recovery by influencing neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of astrocyte-derived 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET), metabolite of arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases (CYP), against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). We found that dopaminergic neuronal cells (N27 cell line) stimulated with two different doses of H(2)O(2) (0.1 and 1mM) for 1h showed decreased cell viability compared to the control group, while astrocytes showed less cell death after stimulation with the same doses of H(2)O(2) for 1h. Dopaminergic neuronal cells (N27 cell line) pretreated with different doses of 14,15-EET (0.1-30 μM, 30 min) before H(2)O(2) stimulation also showed increased cell viability. Furthermore, pre-treatment of the co-cultured cells with 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid, an inhibitor of the EET metabolizing enzyme, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), before H(2)O(2) stimulation (1mM, for 1h) increased cell viability. It also increased the endogenous level of 14,15-EET in the media compared to control group. However, pretreatment with the CYP epoxygenase inhibitor miconazole (1-20 μM, 1h) before H(2)O(2) (1mM, 1h) stimulation showed decreased cell viability. Our data suggest that 14,15-EET which is released from astrocytes, enhances cell viability against oxidant-induced injury. Further understanding of the mechanism of 14,15-EET-mediated protection in dopaminergic neurons is imperative, as it could lead to novel therapeutic approaches for treating CNS neuropathologies, such as Parkinson's disease.
|Thioredoxin reductase deficiency potentiates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in dopaminergic cells.|
Lopert, Pamela, et al.
PLoS ONE, 7: e50683 (2012) 2012
Mitochondria are considered major generators of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We have recently shown that isolated mitochondria consume hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) in a substrate- and respiration-dependent manner predominantly via the thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin (Trx/Prx) system. The goal of this study was to determine the role of Trx/Prx system in dopaminergic cell death. We asked if pharmacological and lentiviral inhibition of the Trx/Prx system sensitized dopaminergic cells to mitochondrial dysfunction, increased steady-state H₂O₂ levels and death in response to toxicants implicated in PD. Incubation of N27 dopaminergic cells or primary rat mesencephalic cultures with the Trx reductase (TrxR) inhibitor auranofin in the presence of sub-toxic concentrations of parkinsonian toxicants paraquat; PQ or 6-hydroxydopamine; 6OHDA (for N27 cells) resulted in a synergistic increase in H₂O₂ levels and subsequent cell death. shRNA targeting the mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TrxR2) in N27 cells confirmed the effects of pharmacological inhibition. A synergistic decrease in maximal and reserve respiratory capacity was observed in auranofin treated cells and TrxR2 deficient cells following incubation with PQ or 6OHDA. Additionally, TrxR2 deficient cells showed decreased basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates. These data demonstrate that inhibition of the mitochondrial Trx/Prx system sensitizes dopaminergic cells to mitochondrial dysfunction, increased steady-state H₂O₂, and cell death. Therefore, in addition to their role in the production of cellular H₂O₂ the mitochondrial Trx/Prx system serve as a major sink for cellular H₂O₂ and its disruption may contribute to dopaminergic pathology associated with PD.
|Improvement of neurological deficits in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats after transplantation with allogeneic simian virus 40 large tumor antigen gene-induced immortalized dopamine cells.|
Clarkson, E D, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 95: 1265-70 (1998) 1998
The replacement of dopamine (DA) by DA neuron transplants in the treatment of advanced Parkinson disease (PD) is a rational approach. Because of limitations associated with fetal tissue transplants, a clone (1RB3AN27) of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (LTa) gene-induced immortalized DA neurons were used in this study. These allogeneic immortalized dopamine neurons, when grafted into striata of normal rats, did not divide, did not form tumors, did not produce LTa, did not extend neurites to host neurons, and were not rejected, for as long as 13 months after transplantation. Grafted cells when recultured in vitro resumed cell proliferation and LTa production, suggesting the presence of a LTa gene-inhibiting factor in the brain. The grafting of undifferentiated and differentiated 1RB3AN27 cells or differentiated murine neuroblastoma (NBP2) cells into striata of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats (an animal model of PD) caused a time-dependent improvement in neurological deficits (reduction in the methamphetamine-induced turning rate). At 3 months after transplantation, 100% of the animals receiving differentiated 1RB3AN27 cells, 63% of the animals receiving undifferentiated 1RB3AN27 cells, 56% of the animals receiving differentiated NBP2 cells, and 0% of the sham-transplanted animals showed improvements in neurological deficits. At 6 months after transplantation, there was a progressive increase in spontaneous recovery in sham-transplanted animals. These results suggest that immortalized DA neurons should be further studied for their potential use in transplant therapy in advanced PD patients.
|Characterization and transplantation of two neuronal cell lines with dopaminergic properties.|
Adams, F S, et al.
Neurochem. Res., 21: 619-27 (1996) 1996
Immortalized rat mesencephalic cells (1RB3AN27) produced dopamine (DA) at a level that was higher than produced by undifferentiated or differentiated murine neuroblastoma cells (NBP2) in culture. Treatment of 1RB3AN27 and NBP2 cells with a cAMP stimulating agent increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and the intensity of immunostaining for the DA transporter protein (DAT). 1RB3AN27 cells were labelled with primary antibodies to neuron specific enolase (NSE) and nestin and exhibited very little or no labeling with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). 1RB3AN27 cells exhibited beta- and alpha-adrenoreceptors, and prostaglandin E1 receptors, all of which were linked to adenylate cyclase (AC). Dopamine receptor (D1) and cholinergic muscarinic receptors linked to AC were not detectable. The levels of PKC alpha and PKC beta isoforms were higher than those of PKC gamma and PKC delta in 1RB3AN27 cells. The 1RB3AN27 cells were more effective in reducing the rate of methamphetamine-induced turning in rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesion of the nigrostriatal system than differentiated NBP2 cells. The grafted 1RB3AN27 were viable as determined by DiI labelling, but they did not divide and did not produce T-antigen protein; however, when these grafted cells were cultured in vitro, they resumed production of T-antigen and proliferated after the primary glia cells and neurons of host brain died due to maturation and subsequent degeneration. Examination of H&E stained sections of the grafted sites revealed no evidence of infiltration of inflammatory cells in the grafted area suggesting that these cells were not immunogenic. They also did not form tumors.
|Establishment and characterization of immortalized clonal cell lines from fetal rat mesencephalic tissue.|
Prasad, K N, et al.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim., 30A: 596-603 (1994) 1994
This investigation reports for the first time the establishment of immortalized clones of dopamine-producing nerve cells in culture. Freshly prepared single-cell suspensions from fetal (12-day-old) rat mesencephalic tissue were transfected with plasmid vectors, pSV3neo and pSV5neo, using an electroporation technique. Cells were plated in tissue culture dishes which were precoated with a special substrate and contained modified MCDB-153 growth medium with 10% heat inactivated fetal bovine serum. The immortalized cells were selected by placing the transfected cells in a selection medium (modified MCDB-153 containing 400 micrograms/ml geneticin). The survivors showed the presence of T-antigens and were non-tumorigenic. Two cell lines, 1RB3 derived from cells transfected with pSV3neo, and 2RB5 derived from cells transfected with pSV5neo revealed only 1 to 2% tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells. Repeated single-cell cloning of these cell lines by a standard technique failed to increase the number of TH-positive cells in any clones. Using three cycles of growth, alternating between hormone-supplemented, serum-free medium and serum-containing medium produced a cell line (1RB3A) that was very rich in TH-positive cells. The recloning of 1RB3A yielded clones some of which contained over 95% TH-positive cells. These cells produced homovanillic acid, a metabolite of dopamine, and may be useful not only for neural transplant but also for basic neurobiological studies.
|N27 Rat Dopaminergic Neural Cell Line|