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On-Demand Webinar Available: Cell Freezing Technologies and Disposable Bioreactors Towards a USP Process
Develop a Fully-Closed USP Process: Use Cell Freezing in Bags and SU Bioreactors
  • Recorded on May 22, 2014
  • Duration: 50 minutes
  • The dynamin-related GTPase Opa1 is required for glucose-stimulated ATP production in pancreatic beta cells. 21551073

    Previous studies using in vitro cell culture systems have shown the role of the dynamin-related GTPase Opa1 in apoptosis prevention and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance. However, it remains to be tested whether these functions of Opa1 are physiologically important in vivo in mammals. Here, using the Cre-loxP system, we deleted mouse Opa1 in pancreatic beta cells, in which glucose-stimulated ATP production in mitochondria plays a key role in insulin secretion. Beta cells lacking Opa1 maintained normal copy numbers of mtDNA; however, the amount and activity of electron transport chain complex IV were significantly decreased, leading to impaired glucose-stimulated ATP production and insulin secretion. In addition, in Opa1-null beta cells, cell proliferation was impaired, whereas apoptosis was not promoted. Consequently, mice lacking Opa1 in beta cells develop hyperglycemia. The data suggest that the function of Opa1 in the maintenance of the electron transport chain is physiologically relevant in beta cells.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    AB932
  • Evaluation of differentiated human bronchial epithelial cell culture systems for asthma research. 22287976

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate primary (human bronchial epithelial cells, HBEC) and non-primary (Calu-3, BEAS-2B, BEAS-2B R1) bronchial epithelial cell culture systems as air-liquid interface- (ALI-) differentiated models for asthma research. Ability to differentiate into goblet (MUC5AC+) and ciliated (β-Tubulin IV+) cells was evaluated by confocal imaging and qPCR. Expression of tight junction/adhesion proteins (ZO-1, E-Cadherin) and development of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) were assessed. Primary cells showed localised MUC5AC, β-Tubulin IV, ZO-1, and E-Cadherin and developed TEER with, however, a large degree of inter- and intradonor variation. Calu-3 cells developed a more reproducible TEER and a phenotype similar to primary cells although with diffuse β-Tubulin IV staining. BEAS-2B cells did not differentiate or develop tight junctions. These data highlight the challenges in working with primary cell models and the need for careful characterisation and selection of systems to answer specific research questions.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    MAB3199Z
    Nombre del producto:
    Anti-E-Cadherin Antibody, clone 67A4, Azide Free
  • Apoptosis-like cell death induction and aberrant fibroblast properties in human incisional hernia fascia. 21641387

    Incisional hernia often occurs following laparotomy and can be a source of serious problems. Although there is evidence that a biological cause may underlie its development, the mechanistic link between the local tissue microenvironment and tissue rupture is lacking. In this study, we used matched tissue-based and in vitro primary cell culture systems to examine the possible involvement of fascia fibroblasts in incisional hernia pathogenesis. Fascia biopsies were collected at surgery from incisional hernia patients and non-incisional hernia controls. Tissue samples were analyzed by histology and immunoblotting methods. Fascia primary fibroblast cultures were assessed at morphological, ultrastructural, and functional levels. We document tissue and fibroblast loss coupled to caspase-3 activation and induction of apoptosis-like cell-death mechanisms in incisional hernia fascia. Alterations in cytoskeleton organization and solubility were also observed. Incisional hernia fibroblasts showed a consistent phenotype throughout early passages in vitro, which was characterized by significantly enhanced cell proliferation and migration, reduced adhesion, and altered cytoskeleton properties, as compared to non-incisional hernia fibroblasts. Moreover, incisional hernia fibroblasts displayed morphological and ultrastructural alterations compatible with autophagic processes or lysosomal dysfunction, together with enhanced sensitivity to proapoptotic challenges. Overall, these data suggest an ongoing complex interplay of cell death induction, aberrant fibroblast function, and tissue loss in incisional hernia fascia, which may significantly contribute to altered matrix maintenance and tissue rupture in vivo.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    CBL171
    Nombre del producto:
    Anti-Actin Antibody, smooth muscle, clone ASM-1
  • Cyclin D3 accumulation and activity integrate and rank the comitogenic pathways of thyrotropin and insulin in thyrocytes in primary culture. 10602491

    The proliferation of most normal cells depends on the synergistic interaction of several growth factors and hormones, but the cell cycle basis for this combined requirement remains largely uncharacterized. We have addressed the question of the requirement for insulin/IGF-1 also observed in many cell culture systems in the physiologically relevant system of primary cultures of dog thyroid epithelial cells stimulated by TSH, which exerts its mitogenic activity only via cAMP. The induction of cyclin A and cdc2, the phosphorylation of cdk2, the nuclear translocation of cdk4 and the assembly of cyclin D3-cdk4 complexes required the synergy of TSH and insulin. Cyclin D3 (the most abundant cyclin D) was necessary for the proliferation stimulated by TSH in the presence of insulin as shown by microinjection of a neutralizing antibody. Cyclin D3 accumulation and activity were differentially regulated by insulin and TSH, which points out this cyclin as an integrator that ranks these comitogenic pathways as supportive and activatory, respectively. Paradoxically TSH alone strongly repressed cyclin D3 accumulation. This inhibition was overridden by insulin, which markedly stimulated cyclin D3 mRNA and protein accumulation, but failed to assemble cyclin D3-cdk4 complexes in the absence of TSH. TSH unmasked the DCS-22 epitope of cyclin D3 and assembled cyclin D3-cdk4 in the presence of insulin. These data demonstrate that cyclin D synthesis and cyclin D-cdk assembly can be dissociated and complementarily regulated by different agents and signalling pathways.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    Múltiplo
    Nombre del producto:
    Múltiplo
  • Endothelial cell responses towards low-fouling surfaces bearing rGD in a three-dimensional environment. 21679704

    This study reveals that it is possible to obtain a specific cell response towards low-fouling carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) surfaces bearing the RGD adhesive peptide in fibrin. To avoid cell sedimentation on surfaces observed in traditional cell culture systems, CMD surfaces bearing RGD were vertically embedded in fibrin containing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and their effect over cells was investigated. Compared to the CMD surfaces and to CMD layers bearing the negative control RGE, RGD coatings promoted cell adhesion, induced focal contact formation indicated by co-localization of vinculin and actin fibers, and presented a significant effect over HUVEC net growth during the first 24h of the culture, as revealed by Ki67 staining and cell counting. The intracellular localization of caveolin-1 combined with the expression of beta 1 integrins was investigated and the orientation of HUVEC towards and on the RGD surfaces was studied. When compared to the negative controls, HUVEC responded to the RGD surface in fibrin resulting in acceleration of morphological changes. RGD surfaces supported fibrin degradation by HUVEC as revealed by fluorescent fibrin experiments as well as multi-cellular structure formation, vacuolation and lumen formation.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    AB2910
    Nombre del producto:
    Anti-Mcl-1 Antibody
  • Mammary epithelial-specific disruption of the focal adhesion kinase blocks mammary tumor progression. 18056629

    Elevated expression and activation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) occurs in a large proportion of human breast cancers. Although several studies have implicated FAK as an important signaling molecule in cell culture systems, evidence supporting a role for FAK in mammary tumor progression is lacking. To directly assess the role of FAK in this process, we have used the Cre/loxP recombination system to disrupt FAK function in the mammary epithelium of a transgenic model of breast cancer. Using this approach, we demonstrate that FAK expression is required for the transition of premalignant hyperplasias to carcinomas and their subsequent metastases. This dramatic block in tumor progression was further correlated with impaired mammary epithelial proliferation. These observations provide direct evidence that FAK plays a critical role in mammary tumor progression.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    Múltiplo
    Nombre del producto:
    Múltiplo
  • Defined carboxy-terminal fragments of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-2 exert similar mitogenic activity on cultured rat growth plate chondrocytes as IGF ... 18556354

    The IGF/IGF binding protein (IGFBP) system is an important component in the hormonal regulation of longitudinal growth. Evidence from in vitro studies indicates that IGFBPs may have IGF-independent effects. We analyzed the biological activity of intact IGFBP-2 and defined carboxy-terminal IGFBP-2 fragments isolated from human hemofiltrate in two cell culture systems of the growth plate: rat growth plate chondrocytes in primary culture and the mesenchymal chondrogenic cell line RCJ3.1C5.18. The IGFBP-2 fragments IGFBP-2(167-279), IGFBP-2(167-289), and IGFBP-2(104-289) exerted a strong (2- to 3-fold) mitogenic effect on growth plate chondrocytes, which was comparable with IGF-I in equimolar concentrations (7.8 nm) but was not mediated through the type 1 IGF receptor. In a dose-response experiment, the most effective concentration of IGFBP-2(104-289) for the stimulation of cell proliferation was 10 nm. This biological activity of IGFBP-2 fragments was associated with cell membrane binding, demonstrated by Western blot analysis of fractionated cell lysates and immunohistochemistry. Whereas intact IGFBP-2 did not modulate chondrocyte proliferation, partially reduced (by dithiothreitol) full-length IGFBP-2 stimulated cell proliferation to a comparable extent (3.4-fold) as carboxy-terminal IGFBP-2 fragments. The mitogenic activity of these IGFBP-2 fragments and of partially reduced full-length IGFBP-2 was mediated through the use of the MAPK/ERK 1/2. These data imply a novel role of naturally occurring IGFBP-2 fragments for the endocrine and paracrine/autocrine regulation of longitudinal growth.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    Múltiplo
  • Branched-chain amino acids and neurotransmitter metabolism: expression of cytosolic branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATc) in the cerebellum and hippocampus. 15329886

    In the brain, catabolism of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) provides nitrogen for the synthesis of glutamate and glutamine. Glutamate is formed through transfer of an amino group from BCAA to alpha-ketoglutarate in reaction catalyzed by branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT). There are two isozymes of BCAT: cytosolic BCATc, which is found in the nervous system, ovary, and placenta, and mitochondrial BCATm, which is found in all organs except rat liver. In cell culture systems, BCATc is found only in neurons and developing oligodendrocytes, whereas BCATm is the isoform in astroglia. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution of BCATc in the rat brain, focusing on the well-known neural architecture of the cerebellum and hippocampus. We show that BCATc is expressed only in neurons in the adult rat brain. In glutamatergic neurons such as granule cells of the cerebellar cortex and of the dentate gyrus, BCATc is localized to axons and nerve terminals. In contrast, in GABAergic neurons such as cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal basket cells, BCATc is concentrated in cell bodies. A common function for BCATc in these neurotransmitter systems may be to modulate amounts of glutamate available either for release as neurotransmitter or for use as precursor for synthesis of GABA. Particularly striking in our findings is the strong expression of BCATc in the mossy fiber pathway of the hippocampal formation. This result is discussed in light of the effectiveness of the anticonvulsant drug gabapentin, which is a specific inhibitor of BCATc.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    MAB5406
    Nombre del producto:
    Anti-GAD67 Antibody, clone 1G10.2
  • Dual inhibition of αV integrins and Src kinase activity as a combination therapy strategy for colorectal cancer. 23275294

    Both Src and αV integrins are important for tumor growth and angiogenesis. They are interconnected and responsible for important features of the tumor phenotype including invasiveness, metastasis, angiogenesis, and resistance to apoptosis. This study examines whether combinational inhibition of both integrin and Src pathways would exert greater antiangiogenesis and antitumor effects than either pathway alone. Using in-vitro cell culture systems, the activity of CNTO95 (Intetumumab), an αV integrin inhibitor, and dasatinib, an Src inhibitor, on proliferation, adhesion, and migration was evaluated in colon cancer cell lines, HCT-116 and RKO, as well as HUVEC cells. The antiangiogenic effect of this combinatory regimen was also tested using an in-vitro tubular network formation assay. The effects of CNTO95 and dasatinib on the activation of Src and integrin pathway signal transduction were also determined by western blotting. The combination of CNTO95 plus dasatinib inhibited adhesion, migration, and paxillin phosphorylation in both HCT-116 and RKO cells. CNTO95 and dasatinib also led to increased apoptosis of HCT-116 cells; however, similar effects were not observed in RKO cells. In addition, dual treatment of CNTO95 and dasatinib exerted enhanced effects on HUVEC cell proliferation, invasion, tubular network formation, and paxillin phosphorylation. In conclusion, our results suggest that concurrent inhibition of both the integrin and the Src pathways exert more pronounced antiangiogenic and antitumor effects than with either pathway being inhibited alone.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    Múltiplo
    Nombre del producto:
    Múltiplo