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  • Biochemical assessment of precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus in the context of brain aging and Alzheimer's disease. 25166759

    Defining the biochemical alterations that occur in the brain during "normal" aging is an important part of understanding the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases and of distinguishing pathological conditions from aging-associated changes. Three groups were selected based on age and on having no evidence of neurological or significant neurodegenerative disease: 1) young adult individuals, average age 26 years (n = 9); 2) middle-aged subjects, average age 59 years (n = 5); 3) oldest-old individuals, average age 93 years (n = 6). Using ELISA and Western blotting methods, we quantified and compared the levels of several key molecules associated with neurodegenerative disease in the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus, two brain regions known to exhibit early imaging alterations during the course of Alzheimer's disease. Our experiments revealed that the bioindicators of emerging brain pathology remained steady or decreased with advancing age. One exception was S100B, which significantly increased with age. Along the process of aging, neurofibrillary tangle deposition increased, even in the absence of amyloid deposition, suggesting the presence of amyloid plaques is not obligatory for their development and that limited tangle density is a part of normal aging. Our study complements a previous assessment of neuropathology in oldest-old subjects, and within the limitations of the small number of individuals involved in the present investigation, it adds valuable information to the molecular and structural heterogeneity observed along the course of aging and dementia. This work underscores the need to examine through direct observation how the processes of amyloid deposition unfold or change prior to the earliest phases of dementia emergence.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    AB825
    Nombre del producto:
    Anti-Apolipoprotein J Antibody
  • Multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases are regulated by hyperosmolality in mouse IMCD cells. 9087672

    Inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells adapt to a hypertonic environment by synthesizing transporters that allow for accumulation of organic osmolytes. To examine for activation of additional mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, extracts of IMCD-3 cells subjected to a hypertonic medium (600 mosmol/kgH2O) for 15 min were fractionated by Mono Q fast-performance liquid chromatography and assayed with the epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR-(662-681)] peptide as substrate. Three peaks of activity were identified. Western blotting revealed that these peaks coincided with Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases, ERK1 and ERK2, and p38 MAP kinase. To assess the functional significance of ERK2 activation in IMCD-3 cells, the effect of PD-098059, an inhibitor of the upstream regulatory protein kinase MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) was assessed. PD-098059 inhibited ERK activation by hypertonicity. Yet, the stimulation of inositol uptake, a marker of adaptation, after 16 h was unaltered. Direct measurements of JNK activity [phosphorylation of GST-cJun-(1-79)] revealed a marked (20- to 40-fold) increase in activity as medium osmolality was increased from 300 to 900 mosmol/kgH2O with either NaCl or mannitol. Urea induced a more modest increase in activity. The response is prompt and detected as early as 2 min after exposure, reaching a maximum activation at 10-15 min. Downregulation of cellular protein kinase C (PKC) by chronic exposure to phorbol esters only minimally attenuated the JNK response to hyperosmolality, indicating a lack of involvement of PKC. We conclude that, in IMCD-3 cells, inhibition of ERK activation by hyperosmolality does not prevent osmoregulatory increase in inositol transport. This is not consistent with a role for ERKs in the response. The roles for JNK and p38 have not been ruled out, and these pathways may represent the initiating event in the subsequent transcription of organic osmolyte transporter genes and adaptation to extracellular hypertonicity.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    06-225
    Nombre del producto:
    Anti-c-Jun Antibody
  • The inhibitory effects of extracellular ATP on the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via P2Y2 receptor and osteopontin. 24961145

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant tumor observed in the populations of southern China and Southeast Asia. However, little is known about the effects of purinergic signal on the behavior of NPC cells. This study analyzed the effects of ATP on the growth and migration of NPC cells, and further investigated the potential mechanisms during the effects.Cell viability was estimated by MTT assay. Transwell assay was utilized to assess the motility of NPC cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry analysis. Changes in OPN, P2Y2 and p65 expression were assessed by western blotting analysis or immunofluorescence. The effects of ATP and P2Y2 on promoter activity of OPN were analyzed by luciferase activity assay. The binding of p65 to the promoter region of OPN was examined by ChIP assay.An MTT assay indicated that ATP inhibited the proliferation of NPC cells in time- and dose-dependent manners, and a Transwell assay showed that extracellular ATP inhibited the motility of NPC cells. We further investigated the potential mechanisms involved in the inhibitory effect of extracellular ATP on the growth of NPC cells and found that extracellular ATP could reduce Bcl-2 and p-AKT levels while elevating Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels in NPC cells. Decreased levels of p65 and osteopontin were also detected in the ATP-treated NPC cells. We demonstrated that extracellular ATP inhibited the growth of NPC cells via p65 and osteopontin and verified that P2Y2 overexpression elevated the inhibitory effect of extracellular ATP on the proliferation of NPC cells. Moreover, a dual luciferase reporter assay showed that the level of osteopontin transcription was inhibited by extracellular ATP and P2Y2. ATP decreased the binding of p65 to potential sites in the OPN promoter region in NPC cells.This study indicated that extracellular ATP inhibited the growth of NPC cells via P2Y2, p65 and OPN. ATP could be a promising agent serving as an adjuvant in the treatment of NPC.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    17-371
    Nombre del producto:
    EZ-ChIP™
  • Targeting fusion protein/corepressor contact restores differentiation response in leukemia cells. 15729358

    The AML1/ETO and PML/RARalpha leukemia fusion proteins induce acute myeloid leukemia by acting as transcriptional repressors. They interact with corepressors, such as N-CoR and SMRT, that recruit a multiprotein complex containing histone deacetylases on crucial myeloid differentiation genes. This leads to gene repression contributing to generate a differentiation block. We expressed in leukemia cells containing PML/RARalpha and AML1/ETO N-CoR protein fragments derived from fusion protein/corepressor interaction surfaces. This blocks N-CoR/SMRT binding by these fusion proteins, and disrupts the repressor protein complex. In consequence, the expression of genes repressed by these fusion proteins increases and differentiation response to vitamin D3 and retinoic acid is restored in previously resistant cells. The alteration of PML/RARalpha-N-CoR/SMRT connections triggers proteasomal degradation of the fusion protein. The N-CoR fragments are biologically effective also when directly transduced by virtue of a protein transduction domain. Our data indicate that fusion protein activity is permanently required to maintain the leukemia phenotype and show the route to developing a novel therapeutic approach for leukemia, based on its molecular pathogenesis.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    06-720
    Nombre del producto:
    Anti-HDAC1 Antibody
  • Cholecystokinin activates pancreatic calcineurin-NFAT signaling in vitro and in vivo. 17978097

    Elevated endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) release induced by protease inhibitors leads to pancreatic growth. This response has been shown to be mediated by the phosphatase calcineurin, but its downstream effectors are unknown. Here we examined activation of calcineurin-regulated nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATs) in isolated acinar cells, as well as in an in vivo model of pancreatic growth. Western blotting of endogenous NFATs and confocal imaging of NFATc1-GFP in pancreatic acini showed that CCK dose-dependently stimulated NFAT translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus within 0.5-1 h. This shift in localization correlated with CCK-induced activation of NFAT-driven luciferase reporter and was similar to that induced by a calcium ionophore and constitutively active calcineurin. The effect of CCK was dependent on calcineurin, as these changes were blocked by immunosuppressants FK506 and CsA and by overexpression of the endogenous protein inhibitor CAIN. Parallel NFAT activation took place in vivo. Pancreatic growth was accompanied by an increase in nuclear NFATs and subsequent elevation in expression of NFAT-luciferase in the pancreas, but not in organs unresponsive to CCK. The changes also required calcineurin, as they were blocked by FK506. We conclude that CCK activates NFATs in a calcineurin-dependent manner, both in vitro and in vivo.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    07-313
  • Lack of obesity and normal response to fasting and thyroid hormone in mice lacking uncoupling protein-3. 10748195

    Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial protein that can diminish the mitochondrial membrane potential. Levels of muscle Ucp3 mRNA are increased by thyroid hormone and fasting. Ucp3 has been proposed to influence metabolic efficiency and is a candidate obesity gene. We have produced a Ucp3 knockout mouse to test these hypotheses. The Ucp3 (-/-) mice had no detectable immunoreactive UCP3 by Western blotting. In mitochondria from the knockout mice, proton leak was greatly reduced in muscle, minimally reduced in brown fat, and not reduced at all in liver. These data suggest that UCP3 accounts for much of the proton leak in skeletal muscle. Despite the lack of UCP3, no consistent phenotypic abnormality was observed. The knockout mice were not obese and had normal serum insulin, triglyceride, and leptin levels, with a tendency toward reduced free fatty acids and glucose. Knockout mice showed a normal circadian rhythm in body temperature and motor activity and had normal body temperature responses to fasting, stress, thyroid hormone, and cold exposure. The base-line metabolic rate and respiratory exchange ratio were the same in knockout and control mice, as were the effects of fasting, a beta3-adrenergic agonist (CL316243), and thyroid hormone on these parameters. The phenotype of Ucp1/Ucp3 double knockout mice was indistinguishable from Ucp1 single knockout mice. These data suggest that Ucp3 is not a major determinant of metabolic rate but, rather, has other functions.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    AB3046
    Nombre del producto:
    Anti-Uncoupling Protein 3 Antibody
  • δ-tocotrienol induces human bladder cancer cell growth arrest, apoptosis and chemosensitization through inhibition of STAT3 pathway. 25849286

    Vitamin E intake has been implicated in reduction of bladder cancer risk. However, the mechanisms remain elusive. Here we reported that δ-tocotrienol (δ-T3), one of vitamin E isomers, possessed the most potent cytotoxic capacity against human bladder cancer cells, compared with other Vitamin E isomers. δ-T3 inhibited cancer cell proliferation and colonogenicity through induction of G1 phase arrest and apoptosis. Western blotting assay revealed that δ-T3 increased the expression levels of cell cycle inhibitors (p21, p27), pro-apoptotic protein (Bax) and suppressed expression levels of cell cycle protein (Cyclin D1), anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1), resulting in the Caspase-3 activation and cleavage of PARP. Moreover, the δ-T3 treatment inhibited ETK phosphorylation level and induced SHP-1 expression, which was correlated with downregulation of STAT3 activation. In line with this, δ-T3 reduced the STAT3 protein level in nuclear fraction, as well as its transcription activity. Knockdown of SHP-1 partially reversed δ-T3-induced cell growth arrest. Importantly, low dose of δ-T3 sensitized Gemcitabine-induced cytotoxic effects on human bladder cancer cells. Overall, our findings demonstrated, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of δ-T3 on bladder cancer cells and suggest that δ-T3 might be a promising chemosensitization reagent for Gemcitabine in bladder cancer treatment.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    17-295
    Nombre del producto:
    Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Assay Kit
  • RNA helicase DDX5 participates in oxLDL-induced macrophage scavenger receptor 1 expression by suppressing mRNA degradation. 29522752

    The DEAD box protein DDX5, an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and is associated with solid tumors and leukemia. However, its role in oxLDL-induced lipid uptake in macrophages remains unclear. In this study, we detected the expression of DDX5 mRNA and protein in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-treated human primary macrophages that were induced from monocytes isolated from human peripheral blood with or without several chemical inhibitors using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) or Western blotting. We found that oxLDL induced DDX5 expression to be independent of both the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. We also found that DDX5 promoted macrophage lipid uptake by evaluating the fluorescence intensity of engulfed dil-oxLDL. Various scavenger receptors that participate in lipid uptake were detected in siR-DDX5 transfected macrophages using qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Macrophage scavenger receptor A (MSR1) was found to be involved the upregulation of DDX5-mediated lipid uptake. Through the use of a dual luciferase reporter assay system and incubation with cycloheximide (CHX) MG132 and actidione (ActD), we found that DDX5 promoted MSR1 protein expression by stabilizing MSR1 mRNA. Moreover, the mechanism involved in DDX5 regulation of MSR1 mRNA was also explored using mass spectrum analysis; Immunoprecipitations (IPs) and RNA- Immunoprecipitations (R-IPs) revealed that mettl3 was involved in DDX5-mediated MSR1 mRNA stabilization. In addition, we also demonstrated that DDX5 inhibited mettl3 to catalyze m6a methylation in MSR1 mRNA, which contributed to the maintenance of MSR1 mRNA stability. In conclusion, ox-LDL promotes DDX5 expression in macrophages, which interacts with mettl3 to stabilize MSR1 mRNA by decreasing the m6a modification of MSR1 mRNA, ultimately promoting lipid uptake in macrophages.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    17-700
    Nombre del producto:
    Magna RIP™ RNA-Binding Protein Immunoprecipitation Kit
  • Iron absorption and distribution in TNF(DeltaARE/+) mice, a model of chronic inflammation. 20122582

    Hemizygous TNF(DeltaARE/+) mice are a murine model for chronic inflammation. We utilized these animals to study iron-kinetics and corresponding protein expression in an iron-deficient and iron-adequate setting. (59)Fe-absorption was determined in ligated duodenal loops in vivo. Whole body distribution of i.v. injected (59)Fe was analysed, and the organ specific expression of ferroportin, transferrin receptor-1, hepcidin and duodenal DMT-1 was quantified by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Duodenal (59)Fe-lumen-to-body transport was not affected by the genotype. Duodenal (59)Fe-retention was increased in TNF(DeltaARE/+) mice, suggesting higher (59)Fe-losses with defoliated enterocytes. Iron-deficiency increased duodenal (59)Fe-lumen-to-body transport, and higher duodenal (59)Fe-tissue retention went along with higher duodenal DMT-1, ferroportin, and liver hepcidin expression. TNF(DeltaARE/+) mice significantly increase their (59)Fe-content in inflamed joints and ilea, and correspondingly reduce splenic (59)Fe-content. Leukocyte infiltrations in the joints suggest a substantial shift of iron-loaded RES cells to inflamed tissues as the underlying mechanism. This finding was paralleled by increased non-haem iron content in joints and reduced haemoglobin and haematocrit concentrations in TNF(DeltaARE/+) mice. In conclusion, erythropoiesis in inflamed TNF(DeltaARE/+) mice could be iron-limited due to losses with exfoliated iron-loaded enterocytes and/or to increased iron-retention in RES cells that shift from the spleen to inflamed tissues.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    ABS983
    Nombre del producto:
    Anti-DMT1 Antibody
  • Expression and localization of Na-driven Cl-HCO(3)(-) exchanger (SLC4A8) in rodent CNS. 18359573

    The Na(+)-driven Cl-HCO(3) exchanger (NDCBE or SLC4A8) is a member of the solute carrier 4 (SLC4) family of HCO(3)(-) transporters, which includes products of 10 genes with similar sequences. Most SLC4 members play important roles in regulating intracellular pH (pH(i)). Physiological studies suggest that NDCBE is a major pH(i) regulator in at least hippocampal (HC) pyramidal neurons. We generated a polyclonal rabbit antibody directed against the first 18 residues of the cytoplasmic N terminus (Nt) of human NDCBE. By Western blotting, the antibody distinguishes NDCBE-as a purified Nt peptide or a full-length transporter (expressed in Xenopus oocytes)-from other Na(+)-coupled HCO(3)(-) transporters. By Western blotting, the antiserum recognizes an approximately 135-kDa band in several brain regions of adult mice: the cerebral cortex (CX), subcortex (SCX), cerebellum (CB), and HC. In CX, PNGase F treatment reduces the molecular weight to approximately 116 kDa. By immunocytochemistry, affinity-purified (AP) NDCBE antibody stains the plasma membrane of neuron cell bodies and processes of rat HC neurons in primary culture as well as freshly dissociated mouse HC neurons. The AP antibody does not detect substantial NDCBE levels in freshly dissociated HC astrocytes, or astrocytes in HC or CB sections. By immunohistochemistry, the AP antibody recognizes high levels of NDCBE in neurons of CX, HC (including pyramidal neurons in Cornu Ammonis (CA)1-3 and dentate gyrus), substantial nigra, medulla, cerebellum (especially Purkinje and granular cells), and the basolateral membrane of fetal choroid plexus. Thus, NDCBE is in a position to contribute substantially to pH(i) regulation in multiple CNS neurons.
    Tipo de documento:
    Referencia
    Referencia del producto:
    MAB3418
    Nombre del producto:
    Anti-MAP2 Antibody, clone AP20