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Using surface receptors and adhesion molecules, cells respond to signals from other cells and from the extracellular matrix (ECM). These signals are translated into cell movements via tightly regulated, site-specific protein complexes that link external signals with the cytoskeleton. Cytoskeletal-associated signaling pathways control cell cycle, chromosomal organization, cell polarity, nuclear dynamics, apoptosis, tumorigenicity, and more.
Signaling Proteins- Cytoskeletal signaling complexes include G-protein complexes, focal adhesions, and adherens junctions. Focal adhesions and adherens junctions are membrane-associated complexes that link the cell exterior to the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton, acting as key initiators of signaling pathways in response to cell adhesion.
A select example of products from Merck’s offering for the Rho family of GTPases:
The Rho family of small G-proteins transmit mechanical signals from the plasma membrane. Rho family members Rac, Rho and Cdc42 regulate the assembly of actin-based lamellipodia, stress fibers and filopodia, respectively. They also mediate polarity, proliferation, apoptosis, membrane transport, and gene expression.
Focal Adhesion Kinase
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase that has been implicated to play an important role in integrin-mediated signal transduction pathways. Physical interactions of FAK with the integrin cytoplasmic domain as well as cytoskeletal proteins talin, paxillin, and/ or tensin have been proposed to play a key role in FAK activation by facilitating its oligomerization and transphosphorylation. FAK shows a rapid increase in tyrosine phosphorylation when stimulated by diverse signaling molecules, including those that regulate embryonic development, cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis, and efficient study methods are in high demand.
Focal Adhesion Pathway Explorer Antibody MiniPack, Catalogue No. 15-113