Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, H, M, Po, R, Fe||ICC, IHC, IH(P), WB||Ch||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Neurofilament H Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified chicken IgY in PBS containing 5mM sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µL|
Anti-Neurofilament H Antibody SDS
|Anti-Neurofilament, Heavy - 2122419||2122419|
|Anti-Neurofilament, Heavy - 2383070||2383070|
|Anti-Neurofilament, Heavy - 2424640||2424640|
|Anti-Neurofilament, Heavy - 2003648||2003648|
|Anti-Neurofilament, Heavy - 2043886||2043886|
|Anti-Neurofilament, Heavy - 2179300||2179300|
|Anti-Neurofilament, Heavy - 2219329||2219329|
|Anti-Neurofilament, Heavy - 2296702||2296702|
|Anti-Neurofilament, Heavy - 2493931||2493931|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Activation of TRESK channels by the inflammatory mediator lysophosphatidic acid balances nociceptive signalling.|
Kollert, S; Dombert, B; Döring, F; Wischmeyer, E
Scientific reports 5 12548 2015
In dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons TRESK channels constitute a major current component of the standing outward current IKSO. A prominent physiological role of TRESK has been attributed to pain sensation. During inflammation mediators of pain e.g. lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are released and modulate nociception. We demonstrate co-expression of TRESK and LPA receptors in DRG neurons. Heterologous expression of TRESK and LPA receptors in Xenopus oocytes revealed augmentation of basal K(+) currents upon LPA application. In DRG neurons nociception can result from TRPV1 activation by capsaicin or LPA. Upon co-expression in Xenopus oocytes LPA simultaneously increased both depolarising TRPV1 and hyperpolarising TRESK currents. Patch-clamp recordings in cultured DRG neurons from TRESK[wt] mice displayed increased IKSO after application of LPA whereas under these conditions IKSO in neurons from TRESK[ko] mice remained unaltered. Under current-clamp conditions LPA application differentially modulated excitability in these genotypes upon depolarising pulses. Spike frequency was attenuated in TRESK[wt] neurons and, in contrast, augmented in TRESK[ko] neurons. Accordingly, excitation of nociceptive neurons by LPA is balanced by co-activation of TRESK channels. Hence excitation of sensory neurons is strongly controlled by the activity of TRESK channels, which therefore are good candidates for the treatment of pain disorders.
|Modeling pain in vitro using nociceptor neurons reprogrammed from fibroblasts.|
Wainger, BJ; Buttermore, ED; Oliveira, JT; Mellin, C; Lee, S; Saber, WA; Wang, AJ; Ichida, JK; Chiu, IM; Barrett, L; Huebner, EA; Bilgin, C; Tsujimoto, N; Brenneis, C; Kapur, K; Rubin, LL; Eggan, K; Woolf, CJ
Nature neuroscience 18 17-24 2015
Reprogramming somatic cells from one cell fate to another can generate specific neurons suitable for disease modeling. To maximize the utility of patient-derived neurons, they must model not only disease-relevant cell classes, but also the diversity of neuronal subtypes found in vivo and the pathophysiological changes that underlie specific clinical diseases. We identified five transcription factors that reprogram mouse and human fibroblasts into noxious stimulus-detecting (nociceptor) neurons. These recapitulated the expression of quintessential nociceptor-specific functional receptors and channels found in adult mouse nociceptor neurons, as well as native subtype diversity. Moreover, the derived nociceptor neurons exhibited TrpV1 sensitization to the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 and the chemotherapeutic drug oxaliplatin, modeling the inherent mechanisms underlying inflammatory pain hypersensitivity and painful chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. Using fibroblasts from patients with familial dysautonomia (hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III), we found that the technique was able to reveal previously unknown aspects of human disease phenotypes in vitro.
|Non-aggregating tau phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 contributes to motor neuron degeneration in spinal muscular atrophy.|
Miller, N; Feng, Z; Edens, BM; Yang, B; Shi, H; Sze, CC; Hong, BT; Su, SC; Cantu, JA; Topczewski, J; Crawford, TO; Ko, CP; Sumner, CJ; Ma, L; Ma, YC
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 6038-50 2015
Mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading inherited cause of infant mortality, remain largely unknown. Many studies have established the importance of hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. However, tau phosphorylation in SMA pathogenesis has yet to be investigated. Here we show that tau phosphorylation on serine 202 (S202) and threonine 205 (T205) is increased significantly in SMA motor neurons using two SMA mouse models and human SMA patient spinal cord samples. Interestingly, phosphorylated tau does not form aggregates in motor neurons or neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), even at late stages of SMA disease, distinguishing it from other tauopathies. Hyperphosphorylation of tau on S202 and T205 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in SMA disease condition, because tau phosphorylation at these sites is significantly reduced in Cdk5 knock-out mice; genetic knock-out of Cdk5 activating subunit p35 in an SMA mouse model also leads to reduced tau phosphorylation on S202 and T205 in the SMA;p35(-/-) compound mutant mice. In addition, expression of the phosphorylation-deficient tauS202A,T205A mutant alleviates motor neuron defects in a zebrafish SMA model in vivo and mouse motor neuron degeneration in culture, whereas expression of phosphorylation-mimetic tauS202E,T205E promotes motor neuron defects. More importantly, genetic knock-out of tau in SMA mice rescues synapse stripping on motor neurons, NMJ denervation, and motor neuron degeneration in vivo. Altogether, our findings suggest a novel mechanism for SMA pathogenesis in which hyperphosphorylation of non-aggregating tau by Cdk5 contributes to motor neuron degeneration.
|Computation identifies structural features that govern neuronal firing properties in slowly adapting touch receptors.|
Lesniak, DR; Marshall, KL; Wellnitz, SA; Jenkins, BA; Baba, Y; Rasband, MN; Gerling, GJ; Lumpkin, EA
eLife 3 e01488 2014
Touch is encoded by cutaneous sensory neurons with diverse morphologies and physiological outputs. How neuronal architecture influences response properties is unknown. To elucidate the origin of firing patterns in branched mechanoreceptors, we combined neuroanatomy, electrophysiology and computation to analyze mouse slowly adapting type I (SAI) afferents. These vertebrate touch receptors, which innervate Merkel cells, encode shape and texture. SAI afferents displayed a high degree of variability in touch-evoked firing and peripheral anatomy. The functional consequence of differences in anatomical architecture was tested by constructing network models representing sequential steps of mechanosensory encoding: skin displacement at touch receptors, mechanotransduction and action-potential initiation. A systematic survey of arbor configurations predicted that the arrangement of mechanotransduction sites at heminodes is a key structural feature that accounts in part for an afferent's firing properties. These findings identify an anatomical correlate and plausible mechanism to explain the driver effect first described by Adrian and Zotterman. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01488.001.
|Presynaptic localization of Smn and hnRNP R in axon terminals of embryonic and postnatal mouse motoneurons.|
Dombert, B; Sivadasan, R; Simon, CM; Jablonka, S; Sendtner, M
PloS one 9 e110846 2014
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by deficiency of the ubiquitously expressed survival motoneuron (SMN) protein. SMN is crucial component of a complex for the assembly of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) particles. Other cellular functions of SMN are less characterized so far. SMA predominantly affects lower motoneurons, but the cellular basis for this relative specificity is still unknown. In contrast to nonneuronal cells where the protein is mainly localized in perinuclear regions and the nucleus, Smn is also present in dendrites, axons and axonal growth cones of isolated motoneurons in vitro. However, this distribution has not been shown in vivo and it is not clear whether Smn and hnRNP R are also present in presynaptic axon terminals of motoneurons in postnatal mice. Smn also associates with components not included in the classical SMN complex like RNA-binding proteins FUS, TDP43, HuD and hnRNP R which are involved in RNA processing, subcellular localization and translation. We show here that Smn and hnRNP R are present in presynaptic compartments at neuromuscular endplates of embryonic and postnatal mice. Smn and hnRNP R are localized in close proximity to each other in axons and axon terminals both in vitro and in vivo. We also provide new evidence for a direct interaction of Smn and hnRNP R in vitro and in vivo, particularly in the cytosol of motoneurons. These data point to functions of SMN beyond snRNP assembly which could be crucial for recruitment and transport of RNA particles into axons and axon terminals, a mechanism which may contribute to SMA pathogenesis.
|A phenotypic culture system for the molecular analysis of CNS myelination in the spinal cord.|
Davis, H; Gonzalez, M; Stancescu, M; Love, R; Hickman, JJ; Lambert, S
Biomaterials 35 8840-5 2014
Studies of central nervous system myelination lack defined in vitro models which would effectively dissect molecular mechanisms of myelination that contain cells of the correct phenotype. Here we describe a co-culture of purified motoneurons and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, isolated from rat embryonic spinal cord using a combination of immunopanning techniques. This model illustrates differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors into fully functional mature oligodendrocytes that myelinate axons. It also illustrates a contribution of axons to the rate of oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin gene expression. The defined conditions used allow molecular analysis of distinct stages of myelination and precise manipulation of inductive cues affecting axonal-oligodendrocyte interactions. This phenotypic in vitro myelination model can provide valuable insight into our understanding of demyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and traumatic diseases such as spinal cord injury where demyelination represents a contributing factor to the pathology of the disorder.
|Transcriptional profiling at whole population and single cell levels reveals somatosensory neuron molecular diversity.|
Chiu, IM; Barrett, LB; Williams, EK; Strochlic, DE; Lee, S; Weyer, AD; Lou, S; Bryman, GS; Roberson, DP; Ghasemlou, N; Piccoli, C; Ahat, E; Wang, V; Cobos, EJ; Stucky, CL; Ma, Q; Liberles, SD; Woolf, CJ
eLife 3 2014
The somatosensory nervous system is critical for the organism's ability to respond to mechanical, thermal, and nociceptive stimuli. Somatosensory neurons are functionally and anatomically diverse but their molecular profiles are not well-defined. Here, we used transcriptional profiling to analyze the detailed molecular signatures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. We used two mouse reporter lines and surface IB4 labeling to purify three major non-overlapping classes of neurons: 1) IB4(+)SNS-Cre/TdTomato(+), 2) IB4(-)SNS-Cre/TdTomato(+), and 3) Parv-Cre/TdTomato(+) cells, encompassing the majority of nociceptive, pruriceptive, and proprioceptive neurons. These neurons displayed distinct expression patterns of ion channels, transcription factors, and GPCRs. Highly parallel qRT-PCR analysis of 334 single neurons selected by membership of the three populations demonstrated further diversity, with unbiased clustering analysis identifying six distinct subgroups. These data significantly increase our knowledge of the molecular identities of known DRG populations and uncover potentially novel subsets, revealing the complexity and diversity of those neurons underlying somatosensation.
|A Gata3-Mafb transcriptional network directs post-synaptic differentiation in synapses specialized for hearing.|
Yu, WM; Appler, JM; Kim, YH; Nishitani, AM; Holt, JR; Goodrich, LV
eLife 2 e01341 2013
Information flow through neural circuits is determined by the nature of the synapses linking the subtypes of neurons. How neurons acquire features distinct to each synapse remains unknown. We show that the transcription factor Mafb drives the formation of auditory ribbon synapses, which are specialized for rapid transmission from hair cells to spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Mafb acts in SGNs to drive differentiation of the large postsynaptic density (PSD) characteristic of the ribbon synapse. In Mafb mutant mice, SGNs fail to develop normal PSDs, leading to reduced synapse number and impaired auditory responses. Conversely, increased Mafb accelerates synaptogenesis. Moreover, Mafb is responsible for executing one branch of the SGN differentiation program orchestrated by the Gata3 transcriptional network. Remarkably, restoration of Mafb rescues the synapse defect in Gata3 mutants. Hence, Mafb is a powerful regulator of cell-type specific features of auditory synaptogenesis that offers a new entry point for treating hearing loss. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01341.001.
|An in vitro model of developmental synaptogenesis using cocultures of human neural progenitors and cochlear explants.|
Nayagam, BA; Edge, AS; Needham, K; Hyakumura, T; Leung, J; Nayagam, DA; Dottori, M
Stem cells and development 22 901-12 2013
In mammals, the sensory hair cells and auditory neurons do not spontaneously regenerate and their loss results in permanent hearing impairment. Stem cell therapy is one emerging strategy that is being investigated to overcome the loss of sensory cells after hearing loss. To successfully replace auditory neurons, stem cell-derived neurons must be electrically active, capable of organized outgrowth of processes, and of making functional connections with appropriate tissues. We have developed an in vitro assay to test these parameters using cocultures of developing cochlear explants together with neural progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We found that these neural progenitors are electrically active and extend their neurites toward the sensory hair cells in cochlear explants. Importantly, this neurite extension was found to be significantly greater when neural progenitors were predifferentiated toward a neural crest-like lineage. When grown in coculture with hair cells only (denervated cochlear explants), stem cell-derived processes were capable of locating and growing along the hair cell rows in an en passant-like manner. Many presynaptic terminals (synapsin 1-positive) were observed between hair cells and stem cell-derived processes in vitro. These results suggest that differentiated hESC-derived neural progenitors may be useful for developing therapies directed at auditory nerve replacement, including complementing emerging hair cell regeneration therapies.
|The use of poly(N-[2-hydroxypropyl]-methacrylamide) hydrogel to repair a T10 spinal cord hemisection in rat: a behavioural, electrophysiological and anatomical examination.|
Pertici, V; Amendola, J; Laurin, J; Gigmes, D; Madaschi, L; Carelli, S; Marqueste, T; Gorio, A; Decherchi, P
ASN neuro 5 149-66 2013
There have been considerable interests in attempting to reverse the deficit because of an SCI (spinal cord injury) by restoring neural pathways through the lesion and by rebuilding the tissue network. In order to provide an appropriate micro-environment for regrowing axotomized neurons and proliferating and migrating cells, we have implanted a small block of pHPMA [poly N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide] hydrogel into the hemisected T10 rat spinal cord. Locomotor activity was evaluated once a week during 14 weeks with the BBB rating scale in an open field. At the 14th week after SCI, the reflexivity of the sub-lesional region was measured. We also monitored the ventilatory frequency during an electrically induced muscle fatigue known to elicit the muscle metaboreflex and increase the respiratory rate. Spinal cords were then collected, fixed and stained with anti-ED-1 and anti-NF-H antibodies and FluoroMyelin. We show in this study that hydrogel-implanted animals exhibit: (i) an improved locomotor BBB score, (ii) an improved breathing adjustment to electrically evoked isometric contractions and (iii) an H-reflex recovery close to control animals. Qualitative histological results put in evidence higher accumulation of ED-1 positive cells (macrophages/monocytes) at the lesion border, a large number of NF-H positive axons penetrating the applied matrix, and myelin preservation both rostrally and caudally to the lesion. Our data confirm that pHPMA hydrogel is a potent biomaterial that can be used for improving neuromuscular adaptive mechanisms and H-reflex responses after SCI.