Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||ELISA, IHC, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Orexin Antibody, Prepro|
|Presentation||Liquid in PBS with 0.1% BSA.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Can be refrigerated at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots for short term use. Maintain frozen at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months.|
|Material Size||50 µg|
Anti-Orexin Antibody, Prepro SDS
|Reference overview||Species||Pub Med ID|
|The orexin system in the enteric nervous system of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).|
Gatta, C; Russo, F; Russolillo, MG; Varricchio, E; Paolucci, M; Castaldo, L; Lucini, C; de Girolamo, P; Cozzi, B; Maruccio, L
PloS one 9 e105009 2014
This study provides a general approach to the presence and possible role of orexins and their receptors in the gut (three gastric chambers and intestine) of confined environment bottlenose dolphin. The expression of prepro-orexin, orexin A and B and orexin 1 and 2 receptors were investigated by single immunostaining and western blot analysis. The co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor in the enteric nervous system was examined by double immunostaining. Also, orexin A concentration were measured in plasma samples to assess the possible diurnal variation of the plasma level of peptide in this species. Our results showed that the orexin system is widely distributed in bottlenose dolphin enteric nervous system of the all gastrointestinal tract examined. They are very peculiar and partially differs from that of terrestrial mammals. Orexin peptides and prepro-orexin were expressed in the main stomach, pyloric stomach and proximal intestine; while orexin receptors were expressed in the all examined tracts, with the exception of main stomach where found no evidence of orexin 2 receptor. Co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor were more evident in the pyloric stomach and proximal intestine. These data could suggest a possible role of orexin system on the contractility of bottlenose dolphin gastrointestinal districts. Finally, in agreement with several reports, bottlenose dolphin orexin A plasma level was higher in the morning during fasting. Our results emphasize some common features between bottlenose dolphin and terrestrial mammals. Certainly, further functional investigations may help to better explain the role of the orexin system in the energy balance of bottlenose dolphin and the complex interaction between feeding and digestive physiology.
|Mu-opioid stimulation in rat prefrontal cortex engages hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin-containing neurons, and reveals dissociable roles of nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus in cortically driven feeding.|
Mena, JD; Selleck, RA; Baldo, BA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 18540-52 2013
Mu-opioid receptor (μOR) stimulation within ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) induces feeding and hyperactivity, resulting possibly from recruitment of glutamate signaling in multiple vmPFC projection targets. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing Fos expression in vmPFC terminal fields after intra-vmPFC μOR stimulation, and by examining of the impact of glutamate receptor blockade in two feeding-related targets of vmPFC, the lateral-perifornical hypothalamic area (LH-PeF) and nucleus accumbens shell (Acb shell), upon behavioral effects elicited by intra-vmPFC μOR stimulation in rats. Intra-vmPFC infusion of the μOR agonist, DAMGO, provoked Fos expression in the dorsomedial sector of tuberal hypothalamus (including the perifornical area) and increased the percentage of Fos-expressing hypocretin/orexin-immunoreactive neurons in these zones. NMDA receptor blockade in the LH-PeF nearly eliminated intra-vmPFC DAMGO-induced food intake without altering DAMGO-induced hyperactivity. In contrast, blocking AMPA-type glutamate receptors within the Acb shell (the feeding-relevant subtype in this structure) antagonized intra-vmPFC DAMGO-induced hyperlocomotion but enhanced food intake. Intra-vmPFC DAMGO also elevated the breakpoint for sucrose-reinforced progressive-ratio responding; this effect was significantly enhanced by concomitant AMPA blockade in the Acb shell. Conversely, intra-Acb shell AMPA stimulation reduced breakpoint and increased nonspecific responding on the inactive lever. These data indicate intra-vmPFC μOR signaling jointly modulates appetitive motivation and generalized motoric activation through functionally dissociable vmPFC projection targets. These findings may shed light on the circuitry underlying disorganized appetitive responses in psychopathology; e.g., binge eating and opiate or alcohol abuse, disorders in which μORs and aberrant cortical activation have been implicated.
|Exaggerated natriuresis during clamping of systemic NO supply in healthy young men.|
Simonsen, JA; Rasmussen, MS; Vach, W; Høilund-Carlsen, PF; Bie, P
Clinical science (London, England : 1979) 122 63-73 2012
NO (nitric oxide) may be involved in fluid homoeostasis. We hypothesized that increases in NO synthesis contribute to acute, saline-induced natriuresis, which, therefore, should be blunted when NO availability is stabilized. Young men were studied during simultaneous infusions of L-NAME [NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; bolus of 750 μg·kg⁻¹ of body weight and 8.3 μg·min⁻¹·kg⁻¹ of body weight] and SNP (sodium nitroprusside), the latter at a rate preventing L-NAME from increasing total peripheral resistance ('NO-clamping'). Slow volume expansion (saline, 20 μmol of NaCl·min⁻¹·kg⁻¹ of body weight for 3 h) was performed with and without concomitant NO-clamping. NO-clamping itself decreased RPF (renal plasma flow; P~0.02) and tended to decrease arterial blood pressure [MABP (mean arterial blood pressure)]. Volume expansion markedly decreased the plasma levels of renin, AngII (angiotensin II) and aldosterone (all Pless than 0.001), while MABP (oscillometry), heart rate, cardiac output (impedance cardiography), RPF (by p-aminohippurate), GFR [glomerular filtration rate; by using 51Cr-labelled EDTA] and plasma [Na+] and [K+] remained constant. Volume expansion increased sodium excretion (Pless than 0.02) at constant filtered load, but more so during NO-clamping than during control (+184% compared with 52%; Pless than 0.0001). Urinary nitrate/nitrite excretion increased during volume expansion; plasma cGMP and plasma vasopressin were unchanged. The results demonstrate that NO-clamping augments sodium excretion in response to volume expansion at constant MABP and GFR, reduced RPF and decreased renin system activity, a response termed hypernatriuresis. The results indicate that mediator(s) other than MABP, RPF, GFR and renin system activity contribute significantly to the homoeostatic response to saline loading, but the specific mechanisms of hypernatriuresis remain obscure.
|Disorganized epithelial polarity and excess trophectoderm cell fate in preimplantation embryos lacking E-cadherin.|
Stephenson RO, Yamanaka Y, Rossant J
Development 137 3383-91. Epub 2010 Sep 8. 2010
The first two cell lineages in the mouse, the surface trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM), are morphologically distinguishable by E3.5, with the outer TE forming a polarized epithelial layer enclosing the apolar ICM. We show here that in mouse embryos completely lacking both maternal and zygotic E-cadherin (cadherin 1), the normal epithelial morphology of outside cells is disrupted, but individual cells still initiate TE- and ICM-like fates. A larger proportion of cells than normal showed expression of TE markers such as Cdx2, suggesting that formation of an organized epithelium is not necessary for TE-specific gene expression. Individual cells in such embryos still generated an apical domain that correlated with elevated Cdx2 expression. We also show that repolarization can occur in isolated early ICMs from both wild-type and Cdx2 mutant embryos, indicating that Cdx2 is not required for initiating polarity. The results demonstrate that epithelial integrity mediated by E-cadherin is not required for Cdx2 expression, but is essential for the normal allocation of TE and ICM cells. They also show that Cdx2 expression is strongly linked to apical membrane polarization.
|A single postnatal injection of oxytocin rescues the lethal feeding behaviour in mouse newborns deficient for the imprinted Magel2 gene.|
Schaller, F; Watrin, F; Sturny, R; Massacrier, A; Szepetowski, P; Muscatelli, F
Human molecular genetics 19 4895-905 2010
The onset of feeding at birth is a vital step for the adaptation of the neonate to extra uterine life. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurogenetic disorder caused by the alteration of several imprinted contiguous genes including MAGEL2. PWS presents with various clinical manifestations, including poor suckling behaviour and feeding problems in neonates. Hypothalamic defects have been proposed, but the pathophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report that a Magel2-deficient mouse with 50% neonatal mortality had an altered onset of suckling activity and subsequent impaired feeding, suggesting a role of MAGEL2 in the suckling deficit seen in PW newborns. The hypothalamus of Magel2 mutant neonates showed a significant reduction in oxytocin (OT). Furthermore, injection of a specific OT receptor antagonist in wild-type neonates recapitulated the feeding deficiency seen in Magel2 mutants, and a single injection of OT, 3-5 h after birth, rescued the phenotype of Magel2 mutant pups, allowing all of them to survive. Our study illustrates the crucial role of feeding onset behaviour after birth. We propose that OT supply might constitute a promising avenue for the treatment of feeding difficulties in PW neonates and potentially of other newborns with impaired feeding onset.
|Afferents to the GABAergic tail of the ventral tegmental area in the rat.|
Kaufling, Jennifer, et al.
J. Comp. Neurol., 513: 597-621 (2009) 2009
We previously showed that chronic psychostimulant exposure induces the transcription factor DeltaFosB in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons of the caudal tier of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). This subregion was defined as the tail of the VTA (tVTA). In the present study, we showed that tVTA can also be visualized by analyzing FosB/DeltaFosB response following acute cocaine injection. This induction occurs in GABAergic neurons, as identified by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) expression. To characterize tVTA further, we mapped its inputs by using the retrograde tracers Fluoro-Gold or cholera toxin B subunit. Retrogradely labeled neurons were observed in the medial prefrontal cortex, the lateral septum, the ventral pallidum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the substantia innominata, the medial and lateral preoptic areas, the lateral and dorsal hypothalamic areas, the lateral habenula, the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus, the dorsal raphe, the periaqueductal gray, and the mesencephalic and pontine reticular formation. Projections from the prefrontal cortex, the hypothalamus, and the lateral habenula to the tVTA were also shown by using the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). We showed that the central nucleus of the amygdala innervates the anterior extent of the VTA but not the tVTA. Moreover, the tVTA mainly receives non-aminergic inputs from the dorsal raphe and the locus coeruleus. Although the tVTA has a low density of dopaminergic neurons, its afferents are mostly similar to those targeting the rest of the VTA. This suggests that the tVTA can be considered as a VTA subregion despite its caudal location.
|Expression of orexin A and its receptor 1 in the choroid plexuses from buffalo brain.|
Simona Tafuri, Luigi M Pavone, Vincenzo Mastellone, Anna Spina, Luigi Avallone, Alfredo Vittoria, Norma Staiano, Gaetano Scala, Simona Tafuri, Luigi M Pavone, Vincenzo Mastellone, Anna Spina, Luigi Avallone, Alfredo Vittoria, Norma Staiano, Gaetano Scala, Simona Tafuri, Luigi M Pavone, Vincenzo Mastellone, Anna Spina, Luigi Avallone, Alfredo Vittoria, Norma Staiano, Gaetano Scala
Neuropeptides 43 73-80 2009
The hypothalamic peptide orexin A, deriving from the proteolytic cleavage of the precursor molecule prepro-orexin, has a wide range of physiological effects including the regulation of feeding behaviour, neuroendocrine functions, sleep-wake cycle, and energy homeostasis. Lowered excretion of orexin A into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays a pathological role in animal and human narcolepsy. Altered levels of orexin A into the CSF have been also found in numerous disorders of the central nervous system, including Parkinson's and Huntington's disease, dementia, and depressive disorders. While the localization of orexin A and its receptor 1, OX(1), has been elicited in many regions of the mammalian brain and in peripheral organs, there are no information on the expression of the neuropeptide and its receptor 1 in the choroid plexuses (CPs) producing the CSF. In this study, we investigated the expression of orexin A and OX(1) in the CPs from the brain of an adult mammalian species, Bubalis bubalis, by immunogold-labelling in scanning electron microscopy. Both orexin A and OX(1) immuno-reactivity appeared to be widely distributed on the surface of choroid epithelium. Interestingly, a marked orexin A labelling was detected in the areas surrounding the CP blood capillaries. The expression of prepro-orexin and OX(1) mRNA transcripts of 200 and 300 bp, respectively, was assessed in the CPs by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, while Western blotting analysis confirmed the presence of these two proteins in the tissue. Our findings provide the first evidence for orexin A and OX(1) expression in the CPs from mammalian brain, and suggest that the levels of orexin A into the CSF are probably regulated by CP activity.
|Differential c-Fos immunoreactivity in arousal-promoting cell groups following systemic administration of caffeine in rats.|
Samüel Deurveilher, Henry Lo, Jeremy A Murphy, Joan Burns, Kazue Semba
The Journal of comparative neurology 498 667-89 2006
Despite the widespread use of caffeine, the neuronal mechanisms underlying its stimulatory effects are not completely understood. By using c-Fos immunohistochemistry as a marker of neuronal activation, we recently showed that stimulant doses of caffeine activate arousal-promoting hypothalamic orexin (hypocretin) neurons. In the present study, we investigated whether other key neurons of the arousal system are also activated by caffeine, via dual immunostaining for c-Fos and transmitter markers. Rats were administered three doses of caffeine or saline vehicle during the light phase. Caffeine at 10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p., increased motor activities, including locomotion, compared with after saline or a higher dose, 75 mg/kg. The three doses of caffeine induced distinct dose-related patterns of c-Fos immunoreactivity in several arousal-promoting areas, including orexin neurons and adjacent neurons containing neither orexin nor melanin-concentrating hormone; tuberomammillary histaminergic neurons; locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons; noncholinergic basal forebrain neurons that do not contain parvalbumin; and nondopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area. At any dose used, caffeine induced little or no c-Fos expression in cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and mesopontine tegmentum; dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area, central gray, and substantia nigra pars compacta; and serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Saline controls exhibited only few c-Fos-positive cells in most of the cell groups examined. These results indicate that motor-stimulatory doses of caffeine induce a remarkably restricted pattern of c-Fos expression in the arousal-promoting system and suggest that this specific neuronal activation may be involved in the behavioral arousal by caffeine.
|Orexins and orexin receptors: a family of hypothalamic neuropeptides and G protein-coupled receptors that regulate feeding behavior.|
Sakurai, T, et al.
Cell, 92: 573-85 (1998) 1998
The hypothalamus plays a central role in the integrated control of feeding and energy homeostasis. We have identified two novel neuropeptides, both derived from the same precursor by proteolytic processing, that bind and activate two closely related (previously) orphan G protein-coupled receptors. These peptides, termed orexin-A and -B, have no significant structural similarities to known families of regulatory peptides. prepro-orexin mRNA and immunoreactive orexin-A are localized in neurons within and around the lateral and posterior hypothalamus in the adult rat brain. When administered centrally to rats, these peptides stimulate food consumption. prepro-orexin mRNA level is up-regulated upon fasting, suggesting a physiological role for the peptides as mediators in the central feedback mechanism that regulates feeding behavior.
|RABBIT ANTI-PREPRO-OREXIN AFFINITY PURIFIED|