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  • Multiple antibodies to titin immunoreact with AHNAK and localize to the mitotic spindle machinery. 11746675

    Recently, the large filamentous striated-muscle protein titin has been observed in non-muscle cells, and, in one instance, has been proposed to have a nuclear function as a chromosomal component contributing to structure and elasticity. In this study, we sought to further characterize the presumptive nuclear isoform of titin. Immunofluorescence microscopy with multiple titin-specific monoclonal antibodies shows localization to the nucleus in interphase cells and to the spindle machinery in mitotic cells in all cell types examined; localization to condensed chromosomes is not observed. An abundant 700-kDa phosphoprotein is the predominant species immunoprecipitated with these antibodies. Sequencing of peptide fragments of the immunopurified protein reveals identity to AHNAK, a nuclear phosphoprotein, an identification that was confirmed by Western blot analysis with antibodies to AHNAK and peptide fragmentation patterns. Sequence comparison suggests similarities between the repetitive heptad phi+/-phiP+/-phi+/- motif in AHNAK and the PEVK region of titin, potentially explaining the cross-reactivity observed between AHNAK antibodies and titin antibodies. Interestingly, although some AHNAK antibodies stain interphase nuclei, no evidence of mitotic spindle localization is seen, suggesting that the identity of the protein at the latter location is more closely related to titin than AHNAK. This concept is further supported by observations that cell lines not expressing AHNAK have similar antititin antibody localization to the mitotic spindle. We conclude that (1) multiple titin antibodies, particularly those recognizing the PEVK region, cross-react with AHNAK, and (2) the mitotic spindle staining observed with antititin antibodies is most likely due to the association of titin or a titin-like molecule with this structure.
    Dokumentumtípus:
    Reference
    Katalógusszám:
    MAB1553
    Katalógusszám:
    Anti-Titin Antibody, clone 9B9
  • Monoclonal antibodies to kinesin heavy and light chains stain vesicle-like structures, but not microtubules, in cultured cells. 2522455

    Kinesin, a microtubule-activated ATPase and putative motor protein for the transport of membrane-bounded organelles along microtubules, was purified from bovine brain and used as an immunogen for the production of murine monoclonal antibodies. Hybridoma lines that secreted five distinct antikinesin IgGs were cloned. Three of the antibodies reacted on immunoblots with the 124-kD heavy chain of kinesin, while the other two antibodies recognized the 64-kD light chain. When used for immunofluorescence microscopy, the antibodies stained punctate, cytoplasmic structures in a variety of cultured mammalian cell types. Consistent with the identification of these structures as membrane-bounded organelles was the observation that cells which had been extracted with Triton X-100 before fixation contained little or no immunoreactive material. Staining of microtubules in the interphase cytoplasm or mitotic spindle was never observed, nor were associated structures, such as centrosomes and primary cilia, labeled by any of the antibodies. Nevertheless, in double-labeling experiments using antibodies to kinesin and tubulin, kinesin-containing particles were most abundant in regions where microtubules were most highly concentrated and the particles often appeared to be aligned on microtubules. These results constitute the first direct evidence for the association of kinesin with membrane-bounded organelles, and suggest a molecular mechanism for organelle motility based on transient interactions of organelle-bound kinesin with the microtubule surface.
    Dokumentumtípus:
    Reference
    Katalógusszám:
    Multiple
    Katalógusszám:
    Multiple
  • Monoclonal antibodies to human intermediate filament proteins. II. Distribution of filament proteins in normal human tissues. 6320650

    Monoclonal antibodies generated against different human intermediate filament (IF) proteins were assayed on fixed, embedded tissue by the biotin-avidin-immunoperoxidase method for evaluation of the tissue specificity of these antibodies. An antibody (43 beta E8) made to fibroblast IF protein stains mesenchymal tissue such as endothelium, histiocytes, stromal fibroblasts, and Schwann cells but does not stain epithelium, skeletal muscle, lymphocytes, or neurons. Three different anti-cytokeratin antibodies decorate epithelium in three unique patterns. One (35 beta H11) stains all nonsquamous epithelium but fails to recognize squamous epithelium. Antibody 34 beta E12 stains the full thickness of squamous epithelium and ductular epithelium but does not react with hepatocytes, pancreatic acinar cells, proximal renal tubules, or endometrial glands. Antibody 34 beta B4 stains only the suprabasal portion of squamous epithelium. None of these three anti-cytokeratin antibodies reacts with nerve or mesenchymal tissue. Two anti-neurofilament antibodies recognize only neurons, failing to react with epithelial or mesenchymal tissue. We conclude that these anti-intermediate filament antibodies can be used as tissue-specific markers. Neoplasms retain the same intermediate filament patterns as the normal parental tissue; therefore, these antibodies can be used as diagnostic aids in surgical pathology.
    Dokumentumtípus:
    Reference
    Katalógusszám:
    Multiple
    Katalógusszám:
    Multiple
  • Antimyelin antibodies as a predictor of clinically definite multiple sclerosis after a first demyelinating event. 12853586

    BACKGROUND: Most patients with multiple sclerosis initially present with a clinically isolated syndrome. Despite the fact that clinically definite multiple sclerosis will develop in up to 80 percent of these patients, the course of the disease is unpredictable at its onset and requires long-term observation or repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We investigated whether the presence of serum antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome predicts the interval to conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis. METHODS: A total of 103 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome, positive findings on cerebral MRI, and oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid were studied. At base line, serum samples were collected to test for anti-MOG and anti-MBP antibodies with Western blot analysis, and the lesions detected by cerebral MRI were quantified. Neurologic examinations for relapse or disease progression (defined as conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis) were performed at base line and subsequently every three months. RESULTS: Patients with anti-MOG and anti-MBP antibodies had relapses more often and earlier than patients without these antibodies. Only 9 of 39 antibody-seronegative patients (23 percent) had a relapse, and the mean (+/-SD) time to relapse was 45.1+/-13.7 months. In contrast, 21 of 22 patients (95 percent) with antibodies against both MOG and MBP had a relapse within a mean of 7.5+/-4.4 months, and 35 of 42 patients (83 percent) with only anti-MOG antibodies had a relapse within 14.6+/-9.6 months (P0.001 for both comparisons with antibody-seronegative patients). The adjusted hazard ratio for the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis was 76.5 (95 percent confidence interval, 20.6 to 284.6) among the patients who were seropositive for both antibodies and 31.6 (95 percent confidence interval, 9.5 to 104.5) among the patients who were seropositive only for anti-MOG antibodies, as compared with the seronegative patients. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of antibodies against MOG and MBP in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome is a rapid, inexpensive, and precise method for the prediction of early conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis. This finding may be important for the counseling and care of patients with a first demyelinating event suggestive of multiple sclerosis.
    Dokumentumtípus:
    Reference
    Katalógusszám:
    MAB381
    Katalógusszám:
    Anti-Myelin Basic Protein Antibody, a.a. 119-131, clone 2
  • Phosphospecific antibodies reveal focal adhesion kinase activation loop phosphorylation in nascent and mature focal adhesions and requirement for the autophosphorylation ... 10672902

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a key signaling molecule regulating cellular responses to integrin-mediated adhesion. Integrin engagement promotes FAK phosphorylation at multiple sites to achieve full FAK activation. Phosphorylation of FAK Tyr-397 creates a binding site for Src-family kinases, and phosphorylation of FAK Tyr-576/Tyr-577 in the kinase domain activation loop enhances catalytic activity. Using novel phosphospecific antibody reagents, we show that FAK activation loop phosphorylation is significantly elevated in cells expressing activated Src and is an early event following cell adhesion to fibronectin. In both cases, this regulation is largely dependent on Tyr-397. We also show that the FAK activation loop tyrosines are required for maximal Tyr-397 phosphorylation. Finally, immunostaining analyses revealed that tyrosine-phosphorylated forms of FAK are present in both newly forming and mature focal adhesions. Our findings support a model for reciprocal activation of FAK and Src-family kinases and suggest that FAK/Src signaling may occur during both focal adhesion assembly and turnover.
    Dokumentumtípus:
    Reference
    Katalógusszám:
    07-157
  • Antibodies that Detect O-GlcNAc on the Extracellular Domain of Cell Surface Glycoproteins. 24573683

    The transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to Ser or Thr in cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins is a well-known post-translational modification that is catalyzed by the O-GlcNAc transferase OGT. A more recently identified O-GlcNAc transferase, EOGT, functions in the secretory pathway, and transfers O-GlcNAc to proteins with epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats. A number of antibodies that detect O-GlcNAc in cytosolic and nuclear extracts have been previously described. Here we compare seven of these antibodies (CTD110.6, 10D8, RL2, HGAC85, 18B10.C7 (#3), 9D1.E4 (#10) and 1F5.D6 (#14) for detection of the O-GlcNAc modification on extracellular domains of membrane or secreted glycoproteins that may also carry various N- and O-glycans. We found that CTD110.6 binds not only to O-GlcNAc on proteins but also to terminal β-GlcNAc on the complex N-glycans of Lec8 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that lack UDP-Gal transporter activity and express GlcNAc-terminating, complex N-glycans. We show that CTD110.6, #3 and #10 antibodies can be used to detect cell surface glycoproteins bearing O-GlcNAc. Cell surface glycoproteins recognized by CTD110.6 antibody included NOTCH1 that possesses many EGF repeats with a consensus site for EOGT. Knockdown of CHO Eogt reduced binding of CTD110.6 to Lec1 CHO cells, and expression of a human EOGT cDNA increased the O-GlcNAc signal on Lec1 cells and the extracellular domain of NOTCH1. Thus, with careful controls, antibodies CTD110.6 (IgM), #3 (IgG) and #10 (IgG) can be used to detect membrane and secreted proteins modified by O-GlcNAc on EGF repeats.
    Dokumentumtípus:
    Reference
    Katalógusszám:
    Multiple
    Katalógusszám:
    Multiple
  • Antibodies for assessing circadian clock proteins in the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus. 22558277

    Research on the mechanisms underlying circadian rhythmicity and the response of brain and body clocks to environmental and physiological challenges requires assessing levels of circadian clock proteins. Too often, however, it is difficult to acquire antibodies that specifically and reliably label these proteins. Many of these antibodies also lack appropriate validation. The goal of this project was to generate and characterize antibodies against several circadian clock proteins. We examined mice and hamsters at peak and trough times of clock protein expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In addition, we confirmed specificity by testing the antibodies on mice with targeted disruption of the relevant genes. Our results identify antibodies against PER1, PER2, BMAL1 and CLOCK that are useful for assessing circadian clock proteins in the SCN by immunocytochemistry.
    Dokumentumtípus:
    Reference
    Katalógusszám:
    Multiple
    Katalógusszám:
    Multiple
  • Antibodies against mouse nerve growth factor interfere in vivo with the development of avian sensory and sympathetic neurones. 3246224

    The monoclonal antibody 27/21 directed against mouse nerve growth factor (NGF) interferes in vivo with the survival of sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones during the development of the quail embryo: the number of DRG neurones at embryonic day 11 (E11) was reduced by about 30% in embryos treated with the antibody between E3 and E11. Neurone numbers in the nodose ganglion were not affected. The effect of NGF antibodies on sympathetic neurones was assessed by determining the levels of the adrenergic marker enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Both total tyrosine hydroxylase activity and protein levels in sympathetic chains were reduced by about 30% in embryos treated with 27/21 antibody but not in embryos treated with a control antibody. The 27/21 antibody cross-reacts with chick NGF-like activity as shown in vitro by the ability of the antibody to partially block the survival activity of chick-embryo-fibroblast-conditioned medium for E9 chick DRG neurones.
    Dokumentumtípus:
    Reference
    Katalógusszám:
    MAB5260Z
    Katalógusszám:
    Anti-Nerve Growth Factor Antibody, clone 27/21, azide free