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  • Neural stem cells confer unique pinwheel architecture to the ventricular surface in neurogenic regions of the adult brain. 18786414

    Neural stem cells (NSCs, B1 cells) are retained in the walls of the adult lateral ventricles but, unlike embryonic NSCs, are displaced from the ventricular zone (VZ) into the subventricular zone (SVZ) by ependymal cells. Apical and basal compartments, which in embryonic NSCs play essential roles in self-renewal and differentiation, are not evident in adult NSCs. Here we show that SVZ B1 cells in adult mice extend a minute apical ending to directly contact the ventricle and a long basal process ending on blood vessels. A closer look at the ventricular surface reveals a striking pinwheel organization specific to regions of adult neurogenesis. The pinwheel's core contains the apical endings of B1 cells and in its periphery two types of ependymal cells: multiciliated (E1) and a type (E2) characterized by only two cilia and extraordinarily complex basal bodies. These results reveal that adult NSCs retain fundamental epithelial properties, including apical and basal compartmentalization, significantly reshaping our understanding of this adult neurogenic niche.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Neural stem cells transplanted into intact brains as neurospheres form solid grafts composed of neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursors. 15744380

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are tissue-specific stem cells with self-renewal potential that can give rise to neurons and glia in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study was to transplant NSCs as whole neurospheres into intact brain and assess the fate and phenotype of their progeny generated in vivo. We isolated NSCs from E14 foetal rat forebrains and cultured them in basic fibroblast and epidermal growth factor-supplemented serum-free medium in the form of neurospheres in vitro. Neurospheres were transplanted into the intact brains of 2 Wistar rats and after a period of 3 weeks, grafted brains were examined immunohistochemically. Neurospheres formed solid grafts that were found in the lateral ventricle and in the velum interpositum under the hippocampus. The majority of cells in the transplanted tissue were identified as beta-III-tubulin(+), NeuN(+), PanNF(+) and synaptophysin(+) neurons and were accumulated throughout the graft centre. GFAP(+) astrocytes were scattered throughout the entire graft and astrocyte processes delimited the outer and perivascular surfaces. A great number of NG2(+) oligodendrocyte precursors was detected. Nestin(+) endothelial cells were found to line capillaries growing in the transplant. These data indicate that nestin(+) NSCs prevailing in neurospheres differentiate following transplantation into nestin(-) neuronal and glial cells which confirms the multipotency of NSCs. Three weeks posttransplantation neuronal and astrocyte cells reached terminal differentiation (formation of synaptic vesicles and superficial and perivascular limiting membranes) while elements of oligodendroglial cell lineage remained immature. Grafting stem cells as non-dissociated neurospheres provide cells with favourable conditions which facilitate cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. However, in the intact brain, grafted neurosphere cells were not found to integrate with the brain parenchyma and formed a compact structure demarcated from its surroundings.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Resident stem cells in the myocardium of patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. 22977865

    Interventricular septum myocardium was studied in 40 patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Immunohistochemical assay revealed c-kit-positive resident cardiac stem cells in 82.5% patients. The content of the connective tissue and myofibrillar disarray zones and the degree of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and myolysis were determined. In 30% cases, cardiomyocytes containing atrial natriuretic peptide were detected in the interventricular septum myocardium. The data were compared with clinical and functional parameters of patients. It was found that cardiac stem cells are present in patients, whose myocardium was characterized by increased density of the connective tissue, hypertrophy of mature cardiomyocytes, medium degree of myolysis in them, and accumulation of natriuretic peptide, a cardiac failure marker, in cardiomyocytes.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    CBL66
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Antibody, clone A6
  • Cancer stem cells - from initiation to elimination, how far have we reached? (Review). 19424566

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are rare tumor cells that have the potential to proliferate, self-renew and induce tumorigenesis. Over the past few years, CSCs have been isolated from several different tumors and when implanted into immune-deficient mice, generate tumors that are identical to the parental tumors. In this review, we summarize the current literature on CSCs, which suggests that since these cells have the ability to drive tumor formation, specifically targeting them may lead to more effective therapies against tumors.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB5326
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Nestin Antibody, clone 10C2
  • Stem Cells Antigen-1 Enriches for a Cancer Stem Cell-Like Subpopulation in Mouse Gastric Cancer. 26869189

    There is a strong need to identify markers to enrich gastric cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, CSC enrichment markers for mouse gastric cancers have not yet been determined. In our previous study, we generated primary mouse gastric cancer cell line NCC-S1 (S1) established from a Villin-cre;Smad4(F/F) ;Trp53(F/F) ;Cdh1(F/wt) mouse and its metastatic variant cell line NCC-S1M (S1M). Interestingly, S1M cells exhibited CSC-like features, such as increased tumorigenic potential and chemoresistance. By comparing gene expression profiles between S1 and S1M cells, we identified Stem Cells Antigen-1 (Sca-1) as a cell surface marker, which was mostly upregulated in S1M. Sca-1 was upregulated in tumorspheres from S1 cells or after cisplatin treatment in S1 cells. Immunofluorescence (IF) analysis showed that approximately 7% of cancer cells exhibited positivity for Sca-1 in primary mouse gastric cancer tissues. An in vivo-limiting dilution assay showed that Sca-1(high) mouse gastric cancer cells demonstrated increased tumorigenicity compared with Sca-1(negative) cells. The Sca-1 expression was downregulated by TGF-β pathway activation and Wnt pathway inhibition in mouse gastric cancer cells. Sca-1(high) cells showed relatively low TGF-β reporter activity and high TCF/LEF1 reporter activity compared with Sca-1(negative) cells. A chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that Sca-1 was a β-catenin/LEF1 target gene. Sca-1(high) allografts were more resistant to cisplatin/fluorouracil chemotherapy than Sca-1(negative) allografts, and overexpressed Bcl-xL. Eighty-five mouse genes overexpressed in Sca-1(high) S1 cells compared with Sca-1(negative) cells clustered 123 pretreatment gastric cancer patient samples according to survival following chemotherapy. Taken together, Sca-1 is a novel CSC enrichment marker that mediates TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mouse gastric cancer. Stem Cells 2016;34:1177-1187.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    17-371
    Product Catalog Name:
    EZ-ChIP™
  • Mesenchymal stem cells secrete multiple cytokines that promote angiogenesis and have contrasting effects on chemotaxis and apoptosis. 22558198

    We have previously shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) improve function upon integration in ischemic myocardium. We examined whether specific cytokines and growth factors produced by MSCs are able to affect angiogenesis, cellular migration and apoptosis. Conditioned media (CM) was prepared by culturing MSC for 48 hours. CM displayed significantly elevated levels of VEGF, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), MIP-1β and monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) compared to control media. MSC contained RNA for these factors as detected by RT-PCR. CM was able to induce angiogenesis in canine vascular endothelial cells. MCP-1 and MIP-1α increased cell migration of MSC while VEGF reduced it. H9c2 cells treated with CM under hypoxic conditions for 24 hours displayed a 16% reduction in caspase-3 activity compared to controls. PI 3-kinase γ inhibitor had no effect on controls but reversed the effect of CM on caspase-3 activity. MCP-1 alone mimicked the protective effect of CM while the PI 3-Kγ inhibitor did not reverse the effect of MCP-1. CM reduced phospho-BAD (Ser112) and phospho-Akt (Ser473) while increasing phospho-Akt (Thr308). MCP-1 reduced the level of phospho-Akt (Ser473) while having no effect on the other two; the PI 3-Kγ inhibitor did not alter the MCP-1 effect. ERK 1/2 phosphorylation was reduced in CM treated H9c2 cells, and inhibition of ERK 1/2 reduced the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473), Akt (Thr308) and Bad (Ser112). In conclusion, MSC synthesize and secrete multiple paracrine factors that are able to affect MSC migration, promote angiogenesis and reduce apoptosis. While both MCP-1 and PI3-kinase are involved in the protective effect, they are independent of each other. It is likely that multiple pro-survival factors in addition to MCP-1 are secreted by MSC which act on divergent intracellular signaling pathways.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    ECM630
    Product Catalog Name:
    Fibrin In Vitro Angiogenesis Assay
  • Neural stem cells exposed to BrdU lose their global DNA methylation and undergo astrocytic differentiation. 22379135

    Bromodeoxyuridine (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU) is a halogenated nucleotide of low toxicity commonly used to monitor DNA replication. It is considered a valuable tool for in vitro and in vivo studies, including the detection of the small population of neural stem cells (NSC) in the mammalian brain. Here, we show that NSC grown in self-renewing conditions in vitro, when exposed to BrdU, lose the expression of stem cell markers like Nestin, Sox2 and Pax6 and undergo glial differentiation, strongly up-regulating the astrocytic marker GFAP. The onset of GFAP expression in BrdU exposed NSC was paralleled by a reduced expression of key DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) and a rapid loss of global DNA CpG methylation, as we determined by our specially developed analytic assay. Remarkably, a known DNA demethylating compound, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Decitabine), had similar effect on demethylation and differentiation of NSC. Since our key findings apply also to NSC derived from murine forebrain, our observations strongly suggest more caution in BrdU uses in stem cells research. We also propose that BrdU and its related substances may also open new opportunities for differentiation therapy in oncology.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB353
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Nestin Antibody, clone rat-401
  • Neural stem cells inhibit melanin production by activation of Wnt inhibitors. 24016750

    Melanin for skin pigmentation is synthesized from tyrosine via an enzymatic cascade that is controlled by tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and dopachrome tautomerase/tyrosinase related protein 2 (Dct/TRP2), which are the targets of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). MITF is a master regulator of pigmentation and a target of β-catenin in Wnt/β-catenin signaling during melanocyte differentiation. Stem cells have been used in skin pigmentation studies, but the mechanisms were not determined for the conditioned medium (CM)-mediated effects.In this study, the inhibition and mechanisms of melanin synthesis were elucidated in B16 melanoma cells and UV-B irradiated C57/BL-6 mice that were treated with human neural stem cell-conditioned medium (NSC-CM).B16-F10 melanoma cells (1.5×10(4)cells/well) and the shaved dorsal skin of mice were pretreated with various amount (5, 10, 20, 50, and 100%) of NSC-CM. Melanin contents and TYR activity were measured by a Spectramax spectrophotometer. The expression of TYR, TRP1, Dct/TRP2, MITF, β-catenin and Wnt inhibitors were evaluated by RT-PCR and western blot. The dorsal skin samples were analyzed by immunofluorescence with various antibodies and compared with that control of tissues.Marked decreases were evident in melanin content and TYR, TRP1, DCT/TRP2, MITF, and β-catenin expression in B16 cells and C57/BL-6 mice. NSC-CM negatively regulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling by decreasing the expression of β-catenin protein, which resulted from robust expression of Wnt inhibitors Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2).These results demonstrate that NSC-CM suppresses melanin production in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that factors in NSC-CM may play an important role in deregulation of epidermal melanogenesis.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    17-371
    Product Catalog Name:
    EZ-ChIP™