|The endonuclease activity of Mili fuels piRNA amplification that silences LINE1 elements.|
De Fazio, Serena, et al.
Nature, 480: 259-63 (2011)
Piwi proteins and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have conserved functions in transposon silencing. The murine Piwi proteins Mili and Miwi2 (also called Piwil2 and Piwil4, respectively) direct epigenetic LINE1 and intracisternal A particle transposon silencing during genome reprogramming in the embryonic male germ line. Piwi proteins are proposed to be piRNA-guided endonucleases that initiate secondary piRNA biogenesis; however, the actual contribution of their endonuclease activities to piRNA biogenesis and transposon silencing remain unknown. To investigate the role of Piwi-catalysed endonucleolytic activity, we engineered point mutations in mice that substitute the second aspartic acid to an alanine in the DDH catalytic triad of Mili and Miwi2, generating the Mili(DAH) and Miwi2(DAH) alleles, respectively. Analysis of Mili-bound piRNAs from homozygous Mili(DAH) fetal gonadocytes revealed a failure of transposon piRNA amplification, resulting in the marked reduction of piRNA bound within Miwi2 ribonuclear particles. We find that Mili-mediated piRNA amplification is selectively required for LINE1, but not intracisternal A particle, silencing. The defective piRNA pathway in Mili(DAH) mice results in spermatogenic failure and sterility. Surprisingly, homozygous Miwi2(DAH) mice are fertile, transposon silencing is established normally and no defects in secondary piRNA biogenesis are observed. In addition, the hallmarks of piRNA amplification are observed in Miwi2-deficient gonadocytes. We conclude that cycles of intra-Mili secondary piRNA biogenesis fuel piRNA amplification that is absolutely required for LINE1 silencing.
|Loss of the Mili-interacting Tudor domain-containing protein-1 activates transposons and alters the Mili-associated small RNA profile.|
Reuter, Michael, et al.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol., 16: 639-46 (2009)
Piwi proteins and their associated Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are implicated in transposon silencing in the mouse germ line. There is currently little information on additional proteins in the murine Piwi complex and how they might regulate the entry of transcripts that accumulate as piRNAs in the Piwi ribonucleoprotein (piRNP). We isolated Mili-containing complexes from adult mouse testes and identified Tudor domain-containing protein-1 (Tdrd1) as a factor specifically associated with the Mili piRNP throughout spermatogenesis. Complex formation is promoted by the recognition of symmetrically dimethylated arginines at the N terminus of Mili by the tudor domains of Tdrd1. Similar to a Mili mutant, mice lacking Tdrd1 show derepression of L1 transposons accompanied by a loss of DNA methylation at their regulatory elements and delocalization of Miwi2 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Finally, we show that Mili piRNPs devoid of Tdrd1 accept the entry of abundant cellular transcripts into the piRNA pathway and accumulate piRNAs with a profile that is drastically different from that of the wild type. Our data suggest that Tdrd1 ensures the entry of correct transcripts into the normal piRNA pool.
|Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting||19465913