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๋ฌธ์„œ ๊ฒ€์ƒ‰์„ ์œ„ํ•œ ๋„์›€์ด ํ•„์š”ํ•˜์‹ ๊ฐ€์š”?
  • Mechanism of regulation of WAVE1-induced actin nucleation by Rac1 and Nck. 12181570

    Rac signalling to actin -- a pathway that is thought to be mediated by the protein Scar/WAVE (WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein)-family verprolin homologous protein -- has a principal role in cell motility. In an analogous pathway, direct interaction of Cdc42 with the related protein N-WASP stimulates actin polymerization. For the Rac-WAVE pathway, no such direct interaction has been identified. Here we report a mechanism by which Rac and the adapter protein Nck activate actin nucleation through WAVE1. WAVE1 exists in a heterotetrameric complex that includes orthologues of human PIR121 (p53-inducible messenger RNA with a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 140,000), Nap125 (NCK-associated protein with an M(r) of 125,000) and HSPC300. Whereas recombinant WAVE1 is constitutively active, the WAVE1 complex is inactive. We therefore propose that Rac1 and Nck cause dissociation of the WAVE1 complex, which releases active WAVE1-HSPC300 and leads to actin nucleation.
    ๋ฌธ์„œ ํƒ€์ž…:
    Reference
    ์นดํƒˆ๋กœ๊ทธ ๋ฒˆํ˜ธ:
    07-515
  • Impaired cell death and mammary gland involution in the absence of Dock1 and Rac1 signaling. 25118935

    Throughout life, the tight equilibrium between cell death and the prompt clearance of dead corpses is required to maintain a proper tissue homeostasis and prevent inflammation. Following lactation, mammary gland involution is triggered and results in the death of excessive epithelial cells that are rapidly cleared by phagocytes to ensure that the gland returns to its prepregnant state. Orthologs of Dock1 (dedicator of cytokinesis 1), Elmo and Rac1 (ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) in Caenorhabditis elegans are part of a signaling module in phagocytes that is linking apoptotic cell recognition to cytoskeletal reorganization required for engulfment. In mammals, Elmo1 was shown to interact with the phosphatidylserine receptor Bai1 and relay signals to promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Still, the role of the RacGEF Dock1 in the clearance of dying cells in mammals was never directly addressed. We generated two mouse models with conditional inactivation of Dock1 and Rac1 and revealed that the expression of these genes is not essential in the mammary gland during puberty, pregnancy and lactation. We induced mammary gland involution in these mice to investigate the role of Dock1/Rac1 signaling in the engulfment of cell corpses. Unpredictably, activation of Stat3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), a key regulator of mammary gland involution, was impaired in the absence of Rac1 and Dock1 expression. Likewise, failure to activate properly Stat3 was coinciding with a significant delay in the initiation and progression of mammary gland involution in mutant animals. By using an in vitro phagocytosis assay, we observed that Dock1 and Rac1 are essential to mediate engulfment in epithelial phagocytes. In vivo, cell corpses accumulated at late time points of involution in Dock1 and Rac1 mutant mammary glands. Overall, our study demonstrated an unsuspected role for Dock1/Rac1 signaling in the initiation of mammary gland involution, and also suggested a role for this pathway in the clearance of dead cells by epithelial phagocytes.
    ๋ฌธ์„œ ํƒ€์ž…:
    Reference
    ์นดํƒˆ๋กœ๊ทธ ๋ฒˆํ˜ธ:
    05-389
    ์ œํ’ˆ๋ช…:
    Anti-Rac1 Antibody, clone 23A8
  • Prostaglandin E2-mediated migration of human trophoblast requires RAC1 and CDC42. 18235104

    The invasion of maternal decidua and uterine spiral arteries by a trophoblast subpopulation called extravillous trophoblast (EVT) is essential for the establishment of a normal placenta and an adequate blood flow toward the fetus. Derangements in these processes underlie pregnancy-related diseases like preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Many growth factors, growth factor binding proteins, and extracellular matrix components can positively or negatively regulate the proliferation, migration, and/or invasiveness of these EVT cells. RHO GTPases, including RHOA, RAC1, and CDC42, are ubiquitous proteins that control cytoskeletal changes by forming stress fibers and projecting lamellipodia and filopodia during cellular migration. We had previously shown that prostaglandin (PG) E(2) produced in abundance by the decidua promotes the migration of first-trimester human EVTs by increasing the intracellular concentration of calcium and activating calpain. Using our well-characterized immortalized EVT cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, as well as villus explants from first-trimester placentae, this study examined the role of RHO GTPases RAC1 and CDC42 in PGE(2)-mediated migratory responses of these cells. Though a RAC1 inhibitor, NSC23766 as well as RAC1 knockdown by siRNA decreased the migration of HTR-8/SVneo cells in a Transwell migration assay, this inhibition could not be restored by PGE(2) or 17-phenyl trinor PGE(2) (PGE receptor PTGER1 agonist) or PGE(1) Alcohol (PGE receptor PTGER4 agonist). Similar results were noted for EVT cell spreading in villus explants. Furthermore, CDC42 silencing using siRNA inhibited PGE(2)-induced migration of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Finally, the treatment of EVT cells with PGE(2), PTGER1 agonist, or PTGER4 agonist activated RAC1 and CDC42 at 10 min, suggesting that RAC1 and CDC42 play an essential role in PGE(2)-mediated migration of human EVTs.
    ๋ฌธ์„œ ํƒ€์ž…:
    Reference
    ์นดํƒˆ๋กœ๊ทธ ๋ฒˆํ˜ธ:
    05-389
    ์ œํ’ˆ๋ช…:
    Anti-Rac1 Antibody, clone 23A8
  • srGAP1 regulates lamellipodial dynamics and cell migratory behavior by modulating Rac1 activity. 24006490

    The distinct levels of Rac activity differentially regulate the pattern of intrinsic cell migration. However, it remains unknown how Rac activity is modulated and how the level of Rac activity controls cell migratory behavior. Here we show that Slit-Robo GAP 1 (srGAP1) is a modulator of Rac activity in locomotive cells. srGAP1 possesses a GAP activity specific to Rac1 and is recruited to lamellipodia in a Rac1-dependent manner. srGAP1 limits Rac1 activity and allows concomitant activation of Rac1 and RhoA, which are mutually inhibitory. When both GTPases are activated, the protrusive structures caused by Rac1-dependent actin reorganization are spatially restricted and periodically destabilized, causing ruffling by RhoA-induced actomyosin contractility. Depletion of srGAP1 overactivates Rac1 and inactivates RhoA, resulting in continuous spatiotemporal spreading of lamellipodia and a modal shift of intrinsic cell motility from random to directionally persistent. Thus srGAP1 is a key determinant of lamellipodial dynamics and cell migratory behavior.
    ๋ฌธ์„œ ํƒ€์ž…:
    Reference
    ์นดํƒˆ๋กœ๊ทธ ๋ฒˆํ˜ธ:
    Multiple
    ์ œํ’ˆ๋ช…:
    Multiple
  • Angiotensin II-induced stimulation of p21-activated kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase is mediated by Rac1 and Nck. 11279250

    p21-activated kinase (PAK) has been shown to be an upstream mediator of JNK in angiotensin II (AngII) signaling. Little is known regarding other signaling molecules involved in activation of PAK and JNK by AngII. Rho family GTPases Rac and Cdc42 have been shown to enhance PAK activity by binding to p21-binding domain of PAK (PAK-PBD). In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) AngII stimulated Rac1 binding to GST-PAK-PBD fusion protein. Pretreatment of VSMC by genistein inhibited AngII-induced Rac1 activation, whereas Src inhibitor PP1 had no effect. Inhibition of protein kinase C by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate pretreatment also decreased AngII-mediated activation of Rac1. The adaptor molecule Nck has been shown previously to mediate PAK activation by facilitating translocation of PAK to the plasma membrane. In VSMC AngII stimulated translocation of Nck and PAK to the membrane fraction. Overexpression of dominant-negative Nck in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, stably expressing the AngII type I receptor (CHO-AT1), inhibited both PAK and JNK activation by AngII, whereas it did not affect ERK1/2. Finally, dominant-negative Nck inhibited AngII-induced DNA synthesis in CHO-AT1 cells. Our data provide evidence for Rac1 and Nck as upstream mediators of PAK and JNK in AngII signaling and implicate JNK in AngII-induced growth responses.
    ๋ฌธ์„œ ํƒ€์ž…:
    Reference
    ์นดํƒˆ๋กœ๊ทธ ๋ฒˆํ˜ธ:
    Multiple
    ์ œํ’ˆ๋ช…:
    Multiple
  • Impaired epidermal wound healing in vivo upon inhibition or deletion of Rac1. 17389689

    To address the functions of Rac1 in keratinocytes of the basal epidermal layer and in the outer root sheath of hair follicles, we generated transgenic mice expressing a dominant inhibitory mutant of Rac, N17Rac1, under the control of the keratin 14 promoter. These mice do not exhibit an overt skin phenotype but show protracted skin wound re-epithelialization. Investigation into the underlying mechanisms revealed that in vivo both proliferation of wound-edge keratinocytes and centripetal migration of the neo-epidermis were impaired. Similar results were obtained in mice with an epidermis-specific deletion of Rac1. Primary epidermal keratinocytes that expressed the N17Rac1 transgene were less proliferative than control cells and showed reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon growth factor stimulation. Adhesion, spreading, random migration and closure of scratch wounds in vitro were significantly inhibited on collagen I and, to a lesser extent, on fibronectin. Stroboscopic analysis of cell dynamics (SACED) of N17Rac1 transgenic and control keratinocytes identified decreased lamella-protrusion persistence in connection with increased ruffle frequency as a probable mechanism for the observed impairment of keratinocyte adhesion and migration. We conclude that Rac1 is functionally required for normal epidermal wound healing and, in this context, exerts a dual function - namely the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and migration.
    ๋ฌธ์„œ ํƒ€์ž…:
    Reference
    ์นดํƒˆ๋กœ๊ทธ ๋ฒˆํ˜ธ:
    MAB1997
    ์ œํ’ˆ๋ช…:
    Anti-Integrin ฮฒ1 Antibody, clone MB1.2
  • Light-Induced photoreceptor degeneration in the mouse involves activation of the small GTPase Rac1. 16505058

    Rho GTPases play a central role in actin-based cytoskeleton reorganization, and they participate in signaling pathways that regulate gene transcription, cell cycle entry, and cell survival. This study verifies the role of Rac1 during light-induced retinal degeneration.BALB/c mice were exposed to degenerative light stimulus, and their eyes were enucleated immediately or after the mice were kept in the dark for 6, 24, and 48 hours. Retinas were fixed and processed for immunohistochemical analysis. The distribution of Rac1 and its effectors-p21-activated kinases (PAKs) 1, 2, and 3-was studied by immunohistochemistry, whereas the expression of PAKs 3, 4, and 5 mRNA was analyzed by real-time PCR. Rac1 activity was measured using a pull-down assay.In control retinas, Rac1 was mostly observed in photoreceptors, plexiform layers, and Mรผller glial cells. In light-damaged retinas, some TUNEL-positive photoreceptors upregulated Rac1 expression. Conversely, most of the Rac1-positive cells were TUNEL-positive, mainly in early stages of retinal degeneration. The increase in Rac1 expression was preceded by enhanced Rac1 activity, detectable at the end of the light stimulus and still present 48 hours later. The distribution patterns of PAK1, PAK2, and PAK3 did not change in light-damaged retinas. However, there was a marked increase in PAK3 and PAK4 gene expression, whereas that of PAK5 mRNA remained the same.Rac1 may play a role in the apoptosis of light-damaged photoreceptors. The increased expression of PAK4 after light stimulus possibly functions as a protective mechanism against apoptosis.
    ๋ฌธ์„œ ํƒ€์ž…:
    Reference
    ์นดํƒˆ๋กœ๊ทธ ๋ฒˆํ˜ธ:
    AB1620
    ์ œํ’ˆ๋ช…:
    Anti-Vimentin Antibody