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  • The p85alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase binds to and stimulates the GTPase activity of Rab proteins. 15377662

    Rab5 and Rab4 are small monomeric GTPases localized on early endosomes and function in vesicle fusion events. These Rab proteins regulate the endocytosis and recycling or degradation of activated receptor tyrosine kinases such as the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). The p85alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase contains a BH domain with sequence homology to GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), but has not previously been shown to possess GAP activity. In this report, we demonstrate that p85alpha has GAP activity toward Rab5, Rab4, Cdc42, Rac1 and to a lesser extent Rab6, with little GAP activity toward Rab11. Purified recombinant Rab5 and p85alpha can bind directly to each other and not surprisingly, the p85alpha-encoded GAP activity is present in the BH domain. Because p85alpha stays bound to the PDGFR during receptor endocytosis, p85alpha will also be localized to the same early endosomal compartment as Rab5 and Rab4. Taken together, the physical co-localization and the ability of p85alpha to preferentially stimulate the down-regulation of Rab5 and Rab4 GTPases suggests that p85alpha regulates how long Rab5 and Rab4 remain in their GTP-bound active state. Cells expressing BH domain mutants of p85 show a reduced rate of PDGFR degradation as compared with wild type p85 expressing cells. These cells also show sustained activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt pathways. Thus, the p85alpha protein may play a role in the down-regulation of activated receptors through its temporal control of the GTPase cycles of Rab5 and Rab4.
    문서 타입:
    Reference
    카탈로그 번호:
    05-217
  • The human minor histocompatibility antigen 1 is a RhoGAP. 24086303

    The human minor Histocompatibility Antigen HMHA-1 is a major target of immune responses after allogeneic stem cell transplantation applied for the treatment of leukemia and solid tumors. The restriction of its expression to hematopoietic cells and many solid tumors raised questions regarding its cellular functions. Sequence analysis of the HMHA-1 encoding HMHA1 protein revealed the presence of a possible C-terminal RhoGTPase Activating Protein (GAP) domain and an N-terminal BAR domain. Rho-family GTPases, including Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and control cell spreading and migration. RhoGTPase activity is under tight control as aberrant signaling can lead to pathology, including inflammation and cancer. Whereas Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) mediate the exchange of GDP for GTP resulting in RhoGTPase activation, GAPs catalyze the low intrinsic GTPase activity of active RhoGTPases, resulting in inactivation. Here we identify the HMHA1 protein as a novel RhoGAP. We show that HMHA1 constructs, lacking the N-terminal region, negatively regulate the actin cytoskeleton as well as cell spreading. Furthermore, we show that HMHA1 regulates RhoGTPase activity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that the HMHA1 N-terminal BAR domain is auto-inhibitory as HMHA1 mutants lacking this region, but not full-length HMHA1, showed GAP activity towards RhoGTPases. In conclusion, this study shows that HMHA1 acts as a RhoGAP to regulate GTPase activity, cytoskeletal remodeling and cell spreading, which are crucial functions in normal hematopoietic and cancer cells.
    문서 타입:
    Reference
    카탈로그 번호:
    05-389
    제품명:
    Anti-Rac1 Antibody, clone 23A8
  • The histone demethylase PHF8 is essential for cytoskeleton dynamics. 22850744

    PHF8 is a histone demethylase associated with X-linked mental retardation. It has been described as a transcriptional co-activator involved in cell cycle progression, but its physiological role is still poorly understood. Here we show that PHF8 controls the expression of genes involved in cell adhesion and cytoskeleton organization such as RhoA, Rac1 and GSK3β. A lack of PHF8 not only results in a cell cycle delay but also in a disorganized actin cytoskeleton and impaired cell adhesion. Our data demonstrate that PHF8 directly regulates the expression of these genes by demethylating H4K20me1 at promoters. Moreover, c-Myc transcription factor cooperates with PHF8 to regulate the analysed promoters. Further analysis in neurons shows that depletion of PHF8 results in down-regulation of cytoskeleton genes and leads to a deficient neurite outgrowth. Overall, our results suggest that the mental retardation phenotype associated with loss of function of PHF8 could be due to abnormal neuronal connections as a result of alterations in cytoskeleton function.
    문서 타입:
    Reference
    카탈로그 번호:
    MAB3408
    제품명:
    Anti-Tubulin Antibody, beta, clone KMX-1
  • Tumor cell invasion of collagen matrices requires coordinate lipid agonist-induced G-protein and membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1-dependent signaling. 17156449

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are bioactive lipid signaling molecules implicated in tumor dissemination. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) is a membrane-tethered collagenase thought to be involved in tumor invasion via extracellular matrix degradation. In this study, we investigated the molecular requirements for LPA- and S1P-regulated tumor cell migration in two dimensions (2D) and invasion of three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrices and, in particular, evaluated the role of MT1-MMP in this process.LPA stimulated while S1P inhibited migration of most tumor lines in Boyden chamber assays. Conversely, HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells migrated in response to both lipids. HT1080 cells also markedly invaded 3D collagen matrices (approximatly 700 microm over 48 hours) in response to either lipid. siRNA targeting of LPA1 and Rac1, or S1P1, Rac1, and Cdc42 specifically inhibited LPA- or S1P-induced HT1080 invasion, respectively. Analysis of LPA-induced HT1080 motility on 2D substrates vs. 3D matrices revealed that synthetic MMP inhibitors markedly reduced the distance (approximately 125 microm vs. approximately 45 microm) and velocity of invasion (approximately 0.09 microm/min vs. approximately 0.03 microm/min) only when cells navigated 3D matrices signifying a role for MMPs exclusively in invasion. Additionally, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)-2, -3, and -4, but not TIMP-1, blocked lipid agonist-induced invasion indicating a role for membrane-type (MT)-MMPs. Furthermore, MT1-MMP expression in several tumor lines directly correlated with LPA-induced invasion. HEK293s, which neither express MT1-MMP nor invade in the presence of LPA, were transfected with MT1-MMP cDNA, and subsequently invaded in response to LPA. When HT1080 cells were seeded on top of or within collagen matrices, siRNA targeting of MT1-MMP, but not other MMPs, inhibited lipid agonist-induced invasion establishing a requisite role for MT1-MMP in this process.LPA is a fundamental regulator of MT1-MMP-dependent tumor cell invasion of 3D collagen matrices. In contrast, S1P appears to act as an inhibitory stimulus in most cases, while stimulating only select tumor lines. MT1-MMP is required only when tumor cells navigate 3D barriers and not when cells migrate on 2D substrata. We demonstrate that tumor cells require coordinate regulation of LPA/S1P receptors and Rho GTPases to migrate, and additionally, require MT1-MMP in order to invade collagen matrices during neoplastic progression.
    문서 타입:
    Reference
    카탈로그 번호:
    MAB3211
  • Distinct roles of class IA PI3K isoforms in primary and immortalised macrophages. 19033389

    The class IA isoforms of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (p110alpha, p110beta and p110delta) often have non-redundant functions in a given cell type. However, for reasons that are unclear, the role of a specific PI3K isoform can vary between cell types. Here, we compare the relative contributions of PI3K isoforms in primary and immortalised macrophages. In primary macrophages stimulated with the tyrosine kinase ligand colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), all class IA PI3K isoforms participate in the regulation of Rac1, whereas p110delta selectively controls the activities of Akt, RhoA and PTEN, in addition to controlling proliferation and chemotaxis. The prominent role of p110delta in these cells correlates with it being the main PI3K isoform that is recruited to the activated CSF1 receptor (CSF1R). In immortalised BAC1.2F5 macrophages, however, the CSF1R also engages p110alpha, which takes up a more prominent role in CSF1R signalling, in processes including Akt phosphorylation and regulation of DNA synthesis. Cell migration, however, remains dependent mainly on p110delta. In other immortalised macrophage cell lines, such as IC-21 and J774.2, p110alpha also becomes more prominently involved in CSF1-induced Akt phosphorylation, at the expense of p110delta.These data show that PI3K isoforms can be differentially regulated in distinct cellular contexts, with the dominant role of the p110delta isoform in Akt phosphorylation and proliferation being lost upon cell immortalisation. These findings suggest that p110delta-selective PI3K inhibitors may be more effective in inflammation than in cancer.
    문서 타입:
    Reference
    카탈로그 번호:
    Multiple
    제품명:
    Multiple
  • RNAi screen reveals an Abl kinase-dependent host cell pathway involved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa internalization. 18369477

    Internalization of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa by non-phagocytic cells is promoted by rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, but the host pathways usurped by this bacterium are not clearly understood. We used RNAi-mediated gene inactivation of approximately 80 genes known to regulate the actin cytoskeleton in Drosophila S2 cells to identify host molecules essential for entry of P. aeruginosa. This work revealed Abl tyrosine kinase, the adaptor protein Crk, the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42, and p21-activated kinase as components of a host signaling pathway that leads to internalization of P. aeruginosa. Using a variety of complementary approaches, we validated the role of this pathway in mammalian cells. Remarkably, ExoS and ExoT, type III secreted toxins of P. aeruginosa, target this pathway by interfering with GTPase function and, in the case of ExoT, by abrogating P. aeruginosa-induced Abl-dependent Crk phosphorylation. Altogether, this work reveals that P. aeruginosa utilizes the Abl pathway for entering host cells and reveals unexpected complexity by which the P. aeruginosa type III secretion system modulates this internalization pathway. Our results furthermore demonstrate the applicability of using RNAi screens to identify host signaling cascades usurped by microbial pathogens that may be potential targets for novel therapies directed against treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections.
    문서 타입:
    Reference
    카탈로그 번호:
    MAB374
    제품명:
    Anti-Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Antibody, clone 6C5
  • A phosphorylation switch controls the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPases in directional cell migration. 26166433

    Although cell migration plays a central role in development and disease, the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here we report that a phosphorylation-mediated molecular switch comprising deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1), tensin-3 (TNS3), phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) controls the spatiotemporal activation of the small GTPases, Rac1 and RhoA, thereby initiating directional cell migration induced by growth factors. On epidermal growth factor (EGF) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulation, TNS3 and PTEN are phosphorylated at specific Thr residues, which trigger the rearrangement of the TNS3-DLC1 and PTEN-PI3K complexes into the TNS3-PI3K and PTEN-DLC1 complexes. Subsequently, the TNS3-PI3K complex translocates to the leading edge of a migrating cell to promote Rac1 activation, whereas PTEN-DLC1 translocates to the posterior for localized RhoA activation. Our work identifies a core signalling mechanism by which an external motility stimulus is coupled to the spatiotemporal activation of Rac1 and RhoA to drive directional cell migration.
    문서 타입:
    Reference
    카탈로그 번호:
    Multiple
    제품명:
    Multiple
  • SOD1 mutations disrupt redox-sensitive Rac regulation of NADPH oxidase in a familial ALS model. 18219391

    Neurodegeneration in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with enhanced redox stress caused by dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1). SOD1 is a cytosolic enzyme that facilitates the conversion of superoxide (O(2)(*-)) to H(2)O(2). Here we demonstrate that SOD1 is not just a catabolic enzyme, but can also directly regulate NADPH oxidase-dependent (Nox-dependent) O(2)(*-) production by binding Rac1 and inhibiting its GTPase activity. Oxidation of Rac1 by H(2)O(2) uncoupled SOD1 binding in a reversible fashion, producing a self-regulating redox sensor for Nox-derived O(2)(*-) production. This process of redox-sensitive uncoupling of SOD1 from Rac1 was defective in SOD1 ALS mutants, leading to enhanced Rac1/Nox activation in transgenic mouse tissues and cell lines expressing ALS SOD1 mutants. Glial cell toxicity associated with expression of SOD1 mutants in culture was significantly attenuated by treatment with the Nox inhibitor apocynin. Treatment of ALS mice with apocynin also significantly increased their average life span. This redox sensor mechanism may explain the gain-of-function seen with certain SOD1 mutations associated with ALS and defines new therapeutic targets.
    문서 타입:
    Reference
    카탈로그 번호:
    05-389
    제품명:
    Anti-Rac1 Antibody, clone 23A8
  • A Trio-Rac1-Pak1 signalling axis drives invadopodia disassembly. 24859002

    Rho family GTPases control cell migration and participate in the regulation of cancer metastasis. Invadopodia, associated with invasive tumour cells, are crucial for cellular invasion and metastasis. To study Rac1 GTPase in invadopodia dynamics, we developed a genetically encoded, single-chain Rac1 fluorescence resonance energy (FRET) transfer biosensor. The biosensor shows Rac1 activity exclusion from the core of invadopodia, and higher activity when invadopodia disappear, suggesting that reduced Rac1 activity is necessary for their stability, and Rac1 activation is involved in disassembly. Photoactivating Rac1 at invadopodia confirmed this previously unknown Rac1 function. We describe here an invadopodia disassembly model, where a signalling axis involving TrioGEF, Rac1, Pak1, and phosphorylation of cortactin, causes invadopodia dissolution. This mechanism is critical for the proper turnover of invasive structures during tumour cell invasion, where a balance of proteolytic activity and locomotory protrusions must be carefully coordinated to achieve a maximally invasive phenotype.
    문서 타입:
    Reference
    카탈로그 번호:
    Multiple
    제품명:
    Multiple
  • AMPA receptor and GEF-H1/Lfc complex regulates dendritic spine development through RhoA signaling cascade. 19208802

    AMPA receptors (AMPA-R) are major mediators of synaptic transmission and plasticity in the developing and adult central nervous system. Activity-dependent structural plasticity mediated by dynamic changes in the morphology of spines and dendrites is also essential for the formation and tuning of neuronal circuits. RhoA and Rac1 are known to play important roles in the regulation of spine and dendrite development in response to neuronal activity. These Rho GTPases are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). In this study, we identified GEF-H1/Lfc as a component of the AMPA-R complex in the brain. GEF-H1 is enriched in the postsynaptic density and is colocalized with GluR1 at spines. GEF-H1 activity negatively regulates spine density and length through a RhoA signaling cascade. In addition, AMPA-R-dependent changes in spine development are eliminated by down-regulation of GEF-H1. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that GEF-H1 is an important mediator of AMPA-R activity-dependent structural plasticity in neurons.
    문서 타입:
    Reference
    카탈로그 번호:
    MAB397
    제품명:
    Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 Antibody, extracellular, clone 6C4