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Key Spec Table
|Analytes Available||Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Multiplexing Ordering Requirements||Detection Methods|
|sCD40L, EGF, FGF-2, Flt-3 ligand, Fractalkine, G-CSF, GM-CSF, GRO, IFN-α2, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12 (p40), IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-15, IL-17A, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-3, MDC (CCL22), MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PDGF-AB/BB, RANTES, TGF-α, TNF-α, TNF-β, VEGF, Eotaxin/CCL11, PDGF-AA||H||Mplex||Please note: Sample Type must be selected when configuring this kit. RANTES, PDGF-AA and PDGF-AB/AA cannot be plexed with other analytes for serum/plasma.||Luminex xMAP|
|Detection method||Luminex xMAP|
|Configuration||Design your multiplex kit by choosing available analytes within this panel.|
|Multiplex Ordering Requirements||Please note: Sample Type must be selected when configuring this kit. RANTES, PDGF-AA and PDGF-AB/AA cannot be plexed with other analytes for serum/plasma.|
|Panel Type||MAGNETIC Cytokines/Chemokines|
|Standard Curve Range||
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Recommended storage for kit components is 2 - 8°C.|
|Material Size||96-well plate|
|Material Package||96 well plate|
|Protocol: Human Cytokine / Chemokine Magnetic Bead Panel|
MILLIPLEX MAP Human Cytokine/Chemokine Magnetic Bead Panel - Immunology Multiplex Assay SDS
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Maternal obesity is associated with a lipotoxic placental environment.|
Saben, J; Lindsey, F; Zhong, Y; Thakali, K; Badger, TM; Andres, A; Gomez-Acevedo, H; Shankar, K
Placenta 35 171-7 2014
Maternal obesity is associated with placental lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, where MAPK activity may play a central role. Accordingly, we have previously shown that placenta from obese women have increased activation of MAPK-JNK. Here, we performed RNA-sequencing on term placenta from twenty-two subjects who were dichotomized based on pre-pregnancy BMI into lean (BMI 19-24 kg/m(2); n = 12) and obese groups (BMI, 32-43 kg/m(2); n = 12). RNA-seq revealed 288 genes to be significantly different in placenta from obese women by ≥ 1.4-fold. GO analysis identified genes related to lipid metabolism, angiogenesis, hormone activity, and cytokine activity to be altered in placenta from obese women. Indicative of a lipotoxic environment, increased placental lipid and CIDEA protein were associated with decreased AMPK and increased activation of NF-κB (p65) in placenta from obese women. Furthermore, we observed a 25% decrease in total antioxidant capacity and increased nuclear FOXO4 localization in placenta from obese women that was significantly associated with JNK activation, suggesting that maternal obesity may also be associated with increased oxidative stress in placenta. Maternal obesity was also associated with decreased HIF-1α protein expression, suggesting a potential link between increased inflammation/oxidative stress and decreased angiogenic factors. Together, these findings indicate that maternal obesity leads to a lipotoxic placental environment that is associated with decreased regulators of angiogenesis and increased markers of inflammation and oxidative stress.
|Effects of rhinovirus species on viral replication and cytokine production.|
Nakagome, K; Bochkov, YA; Ashraf, S; Brockman-Schneider, RA; Evans, MD; Pasic, TR; Gern, JE
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 134 332-341.e10 2014
Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of differential virulence of rhinovirus species (RV). We recently reported that RV-A and RV-C induced more severe illnesses than RV-B, which suggests that the biology of RV-B might be different from RV-A or RV-C.To test the hypothesis that RV-B has lower replication and induces lesser cytokine responses than RV-A or RV-C.We cloned full-length cDNA of RV-A16, A36, B52, B72, C2, C15, and C41 from clinical samples and grew clinical isolates of RV-A7 and RV-B6 in cultured cells. Sinus epithelial cells were differentiated at the air-liquid interface. We tested for differences in viral replication in epithelial cells after infection with purified viruses (10(8) RNA copies) and measured virus load by quantitative RT-PCR. We measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration as a marker of cellular cytotoxicity, and cytokine and/or chemokine secretion by multiplex ELISA.At 24 hours after infection, the virus load of RV-B (RV-B52, RV-B72, or RV-B6) in adherent cells was lower than that of RV-A or RV-C. The growth kinetics of infection indicated that RV-B types replicate more slowly. Furthermore, RV-B released less LDH than RV-A or RV-C, and induced lower levels of cytokines and chemokines such as CXCL10, even after correction for viral replication. RV-B replicates to lower levels also in primary bronchial epithelial cells.Our results indicate that RV-B types have lower and slower replication, and lower cellular cytotoxicity and cytokine and/or chemokine production compared with RV-A or RV-C. These characteristics may contribute to reduced severity of illnesses that has been observed with RV-B infections.
|Pessimistic orientation in relation to telomere length in older men: the VA normative aging study.|
Ikeda, A; Schwartz, J; Peters, JL; Baccarelli, AA; Hoxha, M; Dioni, L; Spiro, A; Sparrow, D; Vokonas, P; Kubzansky, LD
Psychoneuroendocrinology 42 68-76 2014
Recent research suggests pessimistic orientation is associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). However, this is the first study to look not only at effects of pessimistic orientation on average LTL at multiple time points, but also at effects on the rate of change in LTL over time.Participants were older men from the VA Normative Aging Study (n=490). The life orientation test (LOT) was used to measure optimistic and pessimistic orientations at study baseline, and relative LTL by telomere to single copy gene ratio (T:S ratio) was obtained repeatedly over the course of the study (1999-2008). A total of 1010 observations were included in the analysis. Linear mixed effect models with a random subject intercept were used to estimate associations.Higher pessimistic orientation scores were associated with shorter average LTL (percent difference by 1-SD increase in pessimistic orientation (95% CI): -3.08 (-5.62, -0.46)), and the finding was maintained after adjusting for the higher likelihood that healthier individuals return for follow-up visits (-3.44 (-5.95, -0.86)). However, pessimistic orientation scores were not associated with rate of change in LTL over time. No associations were found between overall optimism and optimistic orientation subscale scores and LTL.Higher pessimistic orientation scores were associated with shorter LTL in older men. While there was no evidence that pessimistic orientation was associated with rate of change in LTL over time, higher levels of pessimistic orientation were associated with shorter LTL at baseline and this association persisted over time.
|Effect of progestins on immunity: medroxyprogesterone but not norethisterone or levonorgestrel suppresses the function of T cells and pDCs.|
Huijbregts, RP; Michel, KG; Hel, Z
Contraception 90 123-9 2014
The potential effect of hormonal contraception on HIV-1 acquisition and transmission represents an important public health issue. Several observational studies have suggested an association between the use of hormonal contraception, in particular injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), and an increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. We and others have previously demonstrated that DMPA acts as a potent inhibitor of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. The study presented here addresses the immunomodulatory properties of several common progestins with a potential to replace DMPA.To identify safe alternatives to DMPA, we tested the effect of commonly used progestins on the function of human primary T cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) obtained from the blood of healthy premenopausal women.Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) inhibited the activation of T cells and pDCs in response to T cell receptor- and Toll-like receptor-mediated activation at physiological concentrations. Etonogestrel exerted a partial suppressive activity at high concentrations. In sharp contrast, norethisterone (NET) and levonorgestrel (LNG) did not exhibit detectable immunosuppressive activity.Evidence indicating the immunosuppressive properties of DMPA strongly suggests that DMPA should be discontinued and replaced with other forms of long-term contraception. Since NET and LNG do not exert immunosuppressive properties at physiological concentrations, these progestins should be considered as alternative contraceptives for women at high risk for HIV-1 infection.The presented data suggest that, at physiological levels, the progestins NET and LNG do not suppress cytokine production by immune cells and should be considered as alternatives to DMPA; however, more in vivo testing is needed to confirm this data.
|Isoproterenol effects evaluated in heart slices of human and rat in comparison to rat heart in vivo.|
Herrmann, JE; Heale, J; Bieraugel, M; Ramos, M; Fisher, RL; Vickers, AE
Toxicology and applied pharmacology 274 302-12 2014
Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury was evaluated by gene and protein pathway changes in human heart slices, and compared to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. Isoproterenol (10 and 100μM) altered human and rat heart slice markers of oxidative stress (ATP and GSH) at 24h. In this in vivo rat study (0.5mg/kg), serum troponin concentrations increased with lesion severity, minimal to mild necrosis at 24 and 48h. In the rat and the human heart, isoproterenol altered pathways for apoptosis/necrosis, stress/energy, inflammation, and remodeling/fibrosis. The rat and human heart slices were in an apoptotic phase, while the in vivo rat heart exhibited necrosis histologically and further progression of tissue remodeling. In human heart slices genes for several heat shock 70kD members were altered, indicative of stress to mitigate apoptosis. The stress response included alterations in energy utilization, fatty acid processing, and the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, a marker of increased oxidative stress in both species. Inflammation markers linked with remodeling included IL-1α, Il-1β, IL-6 and TNFα in both species. Tissue remodeling changes in both species included increases in the TIMP proteins, inhibitors of matrix degradation, the gene/protein of IL-4 linked with cardiac fibrosis, and the gene Ccl7 a chemokine that induces collagen synthesis, and Reg3b a growth factor for cardiac repair. This study demonstrates that the initial human heart slice response to isoproterenol cardiac injury results in apoptosis, stress/energy status, inflammation and tissue remodeling at concentrations similar to that in rat heart slices.
|rs2243268 and rs2243274 of Interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene are associated with reduced risk for extrapulmonary and severe tuberculosis in Chinese Han children.|
Qi, H; Sun, L; Jin, YQ; Shen, C; Chu, P; Wang, SF; Yin, QQ; Qi, Z; Xu, F; Jiao, WW; Wu, XR; Tian, JL; Xiao, J; Shen, AD
Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 23 121-8 2014
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10, which are produced by Th2 cells, serve as anti-inflammatory cytokines in the immune responses to tuberculosis (TB). In order to investigate the association between susceptibility to TB and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL-4 and IL-10 genes, a case-control study including 346 TB patients and 374 healthy controls was performed in Chinese Han children in North China. Though no significant differences in the allelic and genotypic distributions of SNPs of these two genes were observed between control group and TB group, rs2243268-A and rs2243274-G of the IL-4 gene were associated with reduced risk of developing extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) (Prs2243268=0.005 and Prs2243274=0.004) and severe TB (Prs2243268=0.003 and Prs2243274=0.003). The haplotype comprising rs2243268-A and rs2243274-G was found to be a resistance factor against EPTB and severe TB. In addition, after stimulation with inactivated H37Rv, blood samples of the rs2243268 AA+AC carriers showed significantly reduced IL-10 production (P=0.045) compared to the CC carriers. In conclusion, rs2243268-A and rs2243274-G of the IL-4 gene were found to confer resistance to EPTB and severe TB in Chinese Han children.
|Cytokines and hs-CRP levels in individuals treated with low-dose aspirin for cardiovascular prevention: a population-based study (CoLaus Study).|
Vaucher, J; Marques-Vidal, P; Waeber, G; Vollenweider, P
Cytokine 66 95-100 2014
Pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Low-dose aspirin for CV prevention is reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to determine the association between pro-inflammatory cytokines and hs-CRP levels and low-dose aspirin use for cardiovascular prevention in a population-based cohort (CoLaus Study). We assessed blood samples in 6085 participants (3201 women) aged 35-75years. Medications' use and indications were recorded. Among aspirin users (n=1'034; 17%), overall low-dose users (351; 5.8%) and low-dose for cardiovascular prevention users (324; 5.3%) were selected for analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were assessed by a multiplex particle-based flow cytometric assay and hs-CRP by an immunometric assay. Cytokines and hs-CRP were presented in quartiles. Multivariate analysis adjusting for sex, age, smoking status, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and immunomodulatory drugs showed no association between cytokines and hs-CRP levels and low-dose aspirin use for cardiovascular prevention, either comparing the topmost vs. the three other quartiles (OR 95% CI, 0.84 (0.59-1.18), 1.03 (0.78-1.32), 1.10 (0.83-1.46), 1.00 (0.67-1.69) for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP, respectively), or comparing the topmost quartile vs. the first one (OR 95% CI, 0.87 (0.60-1.26), 1.19 (0.79-1.79), 1.26 (0.86-1.84), 1.06 (0.67-1.69)). Low-dose aspirin use for cardiovascular prevention does not impact plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine and hs-CRP levels in a population-based cohort.
|Dry eye exacerbation in patients exposed to desiccating stress under controlled environmental conditions.|
López-Miguel, A; Tesón, M; Martín-Montañez, V; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, A; Stern, ME; Calonge, M; González-García, MJ
American journal of ophthalmology 157 788-798.e2 2014
To determine if controlled environmental conditions can induce acute exacerbations of signs and symptoms in dry eye and asymptomatic subjects.Prospective cross-sectional study.Nineteen patients with dry eye and 20 asymptomatic controls were exposed to controlled low humidity (5% relative humidity, desiccating environment) for 2 hours in our Controlled Environmental Research Laboratory at the University of Valladolid. The patients completed the Single-Item Score Dry Eye Questionnaire and the following diagnostic tests were performed before and after exposure: tear osmolarity, phenol red thread test, conjunctival hyperemia, fluorescein tear film break-up time, Schirmer test, and ocular surface vital staining. Sixteen molecules in the tears samples were analyzed by multiplex bead analysis.After exposure, the patients and controls had a significant (P ≤ .003) increase in corneal staining (from 0.68 ± 0.15 to 1.16 ± 0.14 and from 0.50 ± 0.15 to 1.30 ± 0.19, respectively), significantly decreased (P ≤ .01) fluorescein tear film break-up time values (from 2.78 ± 0.56 seconds to 1.94 ± 0.24 seconds and from 2.81 ± 0.24 seconds to 2.13 ± 0.19 seconds, respectively), and significantly increased (P ≤ .03) matrix metalproteinase 9 tear levels (from 10 054.4 ± 7326.6 pg/mL to 25 744.5 ± 13 212.4 pg/mL and from 10 620.5 ± 4494.3 pg/mL to 16 398.7 ± 5538.3 pg/mL, respectively). In the control group, the epidermal growth factor tear levels decreased significantly (P = .007; from 1872.1 ± 340.7 pg/mL to 1107.1 ± 173.6 pg/mL), and interleukin 6 levels increased significantly (P < .001; from 29.6 ± 5.8 pg/mL to 54.3 ± 8.3 pg/mL) after exposure.Adult patients with mild-to-moderate dry eye and asymptomatic subjects of similar ages can experience acute exacerbation in an environmental chamber that resembles the sudden worsening that patients with dry eye experience daily.
|Intra- and inter-day variation of cytokines and chemokines in tears of healthy subjects.|
Benito, MJ; González-García, MJ; Tesón, M; García, N; Fernández, I; Calonge, M; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, A
Experimental eye research 120 43-9 2014
Tear levels of certain cytokines/chemokines can potentially serve as biomarkers for dry eye and other ocular surface diseases if they remain stable from day-to-day in healthy eyes. The aim of this study was to determine the normal intra- and inter-day variation of selected tear cytokines/chemokines. Tear samples from 24 young, healthy adults were collected 11:00 AM-1:00 PM (mid-day) and 5:00-7:00 PM (evening) on three non-consecutive days. Concentrations of 18 cytokines/chemokines (EGF, eotaxin, CX3CL1/fractalkine, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-1RA, IL-5, IL-6, CXCL8/IL-8, IL-9, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL5/RANTES, TNF-α, and VEGF) were measured by multiplex bead analysis. Ocular surface disease was ruled out by clinical tests. A random-effects ANOVA model was used to evaluate intra- and inter-day effects on cytokine/chemokine levels. Repeatability of intra-subject inter-day measurements was assayed by coefficient of variation. Ten out of the 18 molecules had detectable tear levels in >50% of the subjects. Of those, only IL-10 and IL-1β levels had significant inter-day variations. EGF, CX3CL1/fractalkine, CXCL10/IP-10, and VEGF were consistently higher in the evening compared to the mid-day measurements. EGF, CXCL10/IP-10, VEGF and CXCL8/IL-8had good intra-subject reproducibility. In conclusion, tear cytokines/chemokines can be measured reproducibly over time, with most not having significant inter-day variability. Some varied significantly depending upon the time of tear collection, and these variations should be taken into account when comparisons are made. The good intra-subject reproducibility for EGF, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL8/IL-8, and VEGF indicates that these molecules could potentially serve as biomarkers of ocular surface disease.
|Marked and persistent eosinophilia in the absence of clinical manifestations.|
Chen, YY; Khoury, P; Ware, JM; Holland-Thomas, NC; Stoddard, JL; Gurprasad, S; Waldner, AJ; Klion, AD
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 133 1195-202 2014
Although most patients with hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) present with clinical signs and symptoms attributable to eosinophilic tissue infiltration, some untreated patients remain asymptomatic or have signs and symptoms, such as allergic rhinitis, for which the relationship to peripheral eosinophilia is unclear (hypereosinophilia of unknown significance [HEUS]).To identify and characterize subjects with HEUS of 5 years duration or more as compared to untreated patients with symptomatic HES and healthy normal volunteers.All subjects with eosinophilia underwent yearly evaluation, including a standardized clinical evaluation, whole blood flow cytometry to assess lymphocyte subsets and eosinophil activation, and serum collection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured overnight with and without phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in serum and cell supernatants, and mRNA expression was assessed by using quantitative real-time PCR.Eight of the 210 subjects referred for the evaluation of eosinophilia (absolute eosinophil count [AEC] > 1500/μL) met the criteria for HEUS of 5 years duration or more (range, 7-29 years). Peak eosinophil count and surface expression of eosinophil activation markers were similar in subjects with HEUS and in untreated subjects with platelet-derived growth factor alpha-negative HES (n = 28). Aberrant or clonal T-cell populations were identified in 50% of the subjects with HEUS as compared to 29% of the subjects with HES (P = .12). Increased levels of IL-5, GM-CSF, IL-9, and IL-17A were also comparable in subjects with HEUS and HES. Serum levels of IgE and IL-13 were significantly increased only in subjects with HES.A small number of patients with persistent peripheral eosinophilia (AEC > 1500/μL) appear to have clinically benign disease.
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