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On-Demand Webinar Available: Cell Freezing Technologies and Disposable Bioreactors Towards a USP Process
Develop a Fully-Closed USP Process: Use Cell Freezing in Bags and SU Bioreactors
  • Recorded on May 22, 2014
  • Duration: 50 minutes
  • Mitigation of augmented extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling and apoptosis in cortico-striatal co-cultures from Huntington's disease mice. 22668780

    We recently reported evidence for disturbed synaptic versus extrasynaptic NMDAR transmission in the early pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD), a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansion in the gene encoding huntingtin. Studies in glutamatergic cells indicate that synaptic NMDAR transmission increases phosphorylated cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (pCREB) levels and drives neuroprotective gene transcription, whereas extrasynaptic NMDAR activation reduces pCREB and promotes cell death. By generating striatal and cortical neuronal co-cultures to investigate the glutamatergic innervation of striatal neurons, we demonstrate that dichotomous synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling also occurs in GABAergic striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which are acutely vulnerable in HD. Further, we show that wild-type (WT) and HD transgenic YAC128 MSNs co-cultured with cortical cells have similar levels of glutamatergic synapses, synaptic NMDAR currents and synaptic GluN2B and GluN2A subunit-containing NMDARs. However, NMDAR whole-cell, and especially extrasynaptic, current is elevated in YAC128 MSNs. Moreover, GluN2B subunit-containing NMDAR surface expression is markedly increased, irrespective of whether or not the co-cultured cortical cells express mutant huntingtin. The data suggest that MSN cell-autonomous increases in extrasynaptic NMDARs are driven by the HD mutation. Consistent with these results, we find that extrasynaptic NMDAR-induced pCREB reductions and apoptosis are also augmented in YAC128 MSNs. Moreover, both NMDAR-mediated apoptosis and CREB-off signaling are blocked by co-application of either memantine or the GluN2B subunit-selective antagonist ifenprodil in YAC128 MSNs. GluN2A-subunit-selective concentrations of the antagonist NVP-AAM077 did not reduce cell death in either genotype. Cortico-striatal co-cultures provide an in vitro model system in which to better investigate striatal neuronal dysfunction in disease than mono-cultured striatal cells. Results from the use of this system, which partially recapitulates the cortico-striatal circuit and is amenable to acute genetic and pharmacological manipulations, suggest that pathophysiological NMDAR signaling is an intrinsic frailty in HD MSNs that can be successfully targeted by pharmacological interventions.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB5905
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 1 Antibody
  • Expression of angiotensin II and interleukin 6 in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques: potential implications for inflammation and plaque instability. 10736279

    BACKGROUND: Patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) or genetic alterations of the RAS are at increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Administration of ACE inhibitors reduces the risk of MI, and acute coronary syndromes are associated with increased interleukin 6 (IL-6) serum levels. Accordingly, the present study evaluated the expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques and its influence on IL-6 expression in patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemical colocalization of Ang II, ACE, Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor, and IL-6 was examined in coronary arteries from patients with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing heart transplantation (n=12), in atherectomy samples from patients with unstable angina (culprit lesion; n=8), and in ruptured coronary arteries from patients who died of MI (n=13). Synthesis and release of IL-6 was investigated in smooth muscle cells and macrophages after Ang II stimulation. Colocalization of ACE, Ang II, AT(1) receptor, and IL-6 with CD68-positive macrophages was observed at the shoulder region of coronary atherosclerotic plaques and in atherectomy tissue of patients with unstable angina. Ang II was identified in close proximity to the presumed rupture site of human coronary arteries in acute MI. Ang II induced synthesis and release of IL-6 shortly after stimulation in vitro in macrophages and rat smooth muscle cells. CONCLUSIONS: Ang II, AT(1) receptor, and ACE are expressed at strategic sites of human atherosclerotic coronary arteries, suggesting that Ang II is produced primarily by ACE within coronary plaques. The observation that Ang II induces IL-6 and their colocalization with the AT(1) receptor and ACE is consistent with the notion that the RAS may contribute to inflammatory processes within the vascular wall and to the development of acute coronary syndromes.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB1254
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Chymase Antibody, clone B7
  • Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae initiates formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. 20956567

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is a leading cause of otitis media infections, which are often chronic and/or recurrent in nature. NTHI and other bacterial species persist in vivo within biofilms during otitis media and other persistent infections. These biofilms have a significant host component that includes neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These NETs do not mediate clearance of NTHI, which survives within NET structures by means of specific subpopulations of lipooligosaccharides on the bacterial surface that are determinants of biofilm formation in vitro. In this study, the ability of NTHI and NTHI components to initiate NET formation was examined using an in vitro model system. Both viable and nonviable NTHI strains were shown to promote NET formation, as did preparations of bacterial DNA, outer membrane proteins, and lipooligosaccharide (endotoxin). However, only endotoxin from a parental strain of NTHI exhibited equivalent potency in NET formation to that of NTHI. Additional studies showed that NTHI entrapped within NET structures is resistant to both extracellular killing within NETs and phagocytic killing by incoming neutrophils, due to oligosaccharide moieties within the lipooligosaccharides. Thus, we concluded that NTHI elicits NET formation by means of multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (most notably endotoxin) and is highly resistant to killing within NET structures. These data support the conclusion that, for NTHI, formation of NET structures may be a persistence determinant by providing a niche within the middle-ear chamber.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB3422
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Histone Antibody, clone H11-4
  • Efficient conversion of ES cells into myogenic lineage using the gene-inducible system. 17466266

    We established genetically engineered ES (ZHTc6-MyoD) cells that harbor a tetracycline-regulated expression vector encoding myogenic transcriptional factor MyoD, for the therapy of muscle diseases, especially Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Almost all the ZHTc6-MyoD cells were induced into muscle lineage after removal of tetracycline. The undifferentiated ZHTc6-MyoD cells are Sca-1+ and c-kit+, but CD34-, all well-known markers for mouse hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, they are able to maintain themselves in the undifferentiated state, even after one month of culture. Therefore, it is possible to obtain a large quantity of ZHTc6-MyoD cells in the undifferentiated state that maintain the potential to differentiate only into muscle lineage. Additionally, at two weeks post-injection of these cells into muscle of mdx, a model mouse of DMD, clusters of dystrophin-positive myofibers were observed at the injection site. Therefore, ES cells have considerable therapeutic potential for treating muscle diseases.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB1675
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Cytokeratin 19 Antibody, clone E6
  • Purification and characterization of phosphoinositide 3-kinase from rat liver. 2174051

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase was purified 27,000-fold from rat liver. The enzyme was purified by acid precipitation of the cytosol followed by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, S-Sepharose, hydroxylapatite, Mono-Q, and Mono-S columns. When analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the purified phosphoinositide 3-kinase preparation contained an 85-kDa protein and a protein doublet of approximately 110 kDa. The 85- and 110-kDa proteins focus together on native isoelectric focusing gels and are cross-linked by dithiobis(succinylamide propionate), showing that the 110- and 85-kDa proteins are a complex. The apparent size of the native enzyme, as determined by gel filtration, is 190 kDa. The 85-kDa subunit is the same protein previously shown to associate with polyoma virus middle T antigen and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (Kaplan, D. R., Whitman, M., Schaffhausen, B., Pallas, D. C., White, M., Cantley, L., and Roberts, T. M. (1987) Cell 50, 1021-1029). The two proteins co-migrate on two-dimensional gels; and, using a Western blotting procedure, 32P-labeled middle T antigen specifically blots the 85-kDa protein. The purified enzyme phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. The apparent Km values for ATP were found to be 60 microM with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate as the substrate. The apparent Km for phosphatidyinositol is 60 microM, for phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate is 9 microM, and for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate is 4 microM. The maximum specific activity using phosphatidylinositol as the substrate is 0.8 mumol/mg/min. The enzyme requires Mg2+ with an optimum of 5 mM. Substitution of Mn2+ for Mg2+ results in only approximately 10% of the Mg2(+)-dependent activity. Physiological calcium concentrations have no effect on the enzyme activity. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase has a broad pH optimum around 7.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
  • Preparation of a novel monoclonal antibody specific for myelin basic protein phosphorylated on Thr98. 7759601

    Phosphorylation is one of a number of post-translational modifications resulting in charge microheterogeneity of myelin basic protein (MBP). This phosphorylation is claimed to destabilise the compact myelin sheath by decreasing the interaction of membrane bilayers, thereby creating or maintaining pockets of cytoplasm. To further investigate and localise MBP phosphorylation to discrete regions of the myelin sheath we raised a monoclonal antibody with specificity for a known phosphorylation site in MBP. A synthetic peptide was made by Fmoc peptide chemistry and phosphorylation of Thr98 was achieved on the resin by the global phosphorylation methodology, utilising dibenzyl-N,N-diethylphosphoramidite phosphitylation and t-butylhydroperoxide oxidation. The peptide coupled to tuberculin was used to immunise mice for monoclonal antibody production. The selected hybridoma (Clone P12) secreted an IgG2a antibody which reacted strongly with the phosphorylated immunogen and with phosphorylated fractions of bovine MBP obtained by ion exchange chromatography. The antibody had minimal reactivity with the unphosphorylated peptide; the same peptide phosphorylated at another site Ser102; a preparation of unphosphorylated MBP obtained by ion exchange chromatography; and with an irrelevant phosphorylated protein (histone). Similar phosphorylation state-specific monoclonal antibodies could be made to recognise other specific phosphorylation sites in MBP or other proteins. It is planned to use these antibodies to quantify and locate the extent of MBP phosphorylation in normal and multiple sclerosis myelin.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple