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Current chronobiology research suggests that a multitude of diverse organ systems and tissue types seem to vary their physiology in a cyclical, daily clock-like rhythm. Individual clock mechanisms may be tied to a ‘master clock’ that synchronizes the various rhythms with external cues like light and temperature. The neurobiology underlying this circadian rhythm is under intense study, and includes key hypothalamic players (SCN) and pineal gland, retinal and extraretinal receptor pathways. Recent discovery of encephalopsins, melanopsins, Per and CLOCK gene variants, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), suggests a complicated and phylogenetically diverse set of circadian control mechanisms.