Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|A||ELISA, ICC, IF, IHC, IH(P), WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Mouse monoclonal Ascites fluid, with 0.01% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months from date of receipt. Do not store in a diluted format. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Anti-Actin Antibody, clone C4 SDS
|Anti-Actin, Clone C4 - 3261302||3261302|
|Anti-Actin, Clone C4 - 3282532||3282532|
|Anti-Actin, clone C4||3166064|
|Anti-Actin, clone C4||2464499|
|Anti-Actin, clone C4 -2691430||2691430|
|Anti-Actin, clone C4 - 2145928||2145928|
|Anti-Actin, clone C4 - 2384641||2384641|
|Anti-Actin, clone C4 - 1994358||1994358|
|Anti-Actin, clone C4 - 2020486||2020486|
|Anti-Actin, clone C4 - 2065987||2065987|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Increased Infiltration of Extra-Cardiac Cells in Myxomatous Valve Disease.|
Sauls, K; Toomer, K; Williams, K; Johnson, AJ; Markwald, RR; Hajdu, Z; Norris, RA
Journal of cardiovascular development and disease 2 200-213 2015
Mutations in the actin-binding gene Filamin-A have been linked to non-syndromic myxomatous valvular dystrophy and associated mitral valve prolapse. Previous studies by our group traced the adult valve defects back to developmental errors in valve interstitial cell-mediated extracellular matrix remodeling during fetal valve gestation. Mice deficient in Filamin-A exhibit enlarged mitral leaflets at E17.5, and subsequent progression to a myxomatous phenotype is observed by two months. For this study, we sought to define mechanisms that contribute to myxomatous degeneration in the adult Filamin-A-deficient mouse. In vivo experiments demonstrate increased infiltration of hematopoietic-derived cells and macrophages in adolescent Filamin-A conditional knockout mice. Concurrent with this infiltration of hematopoietic cells, we show an increase in Erk activity, which localizes to regions of MMP2 expression. Additionally, increases in cell proliferation are observed at two months, when hematopoietic cell engraftment and signaling are pronounced. Similar changes are observed in human myxomatous mitral valve tissue, suggesting that infiltration of hematopoietic-derived cells and/or increased Erk signaling may contribute to myxomatous valvular dystrophy. Consequently, immune cell targeting and/or suppression of pErk activities may represent an effective therapeutic option for mitral valve prolapse patients.
|Let-7-mediated suppression of mucin 1 expression in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation.|
Inyawilert, W; Fu, TY; Lin, CT; Tang, PC
The Journal of reproduction and development 61 138-44 2015
Mucin 1 (Muc1) is an integral transmembrane mucin glycoprotein expressed on the apical surface of most epithelia. It is considered to be a barrier to the regulation of embryo implantation by inhibiting attachment of the embryo to the endometrium. Therefore, loss of Muc1 on the surface of uterine epithelial cells is necessary for embryo implantation. Studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in enhancing embryo implantation in mammals. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of two miRNAs (let-7a and let-7b) on the expression of Muc1 in mouse uteri during implantation. Western blotting indicated that Muc1 expression was highest on day1 of pregnancy and constantly decreased thereafter until day 4. In contrast to Muc1 expression, increased expression of let-7a and let-7b was evident on day 4 of pregnancy as measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR). We demonstrated direct binding of let-7a and let-7b to the 3'untranslated region of muc1. Furthermore, Muc1 expression was suppressed after transfection of mouse uterine epithelial cells isolated from day 1 of pregnancy with let-7a and let-7b. In summary, the present study provides evidence that Muc1 is a direct target of let-7a and let-7b. Additionally, the current study suggests that miRNAs are novel targets which can be used to facilitate a successful pregnancy and repair implantation failure.
|AMPA Receptor-mTOR Activation is Required for the Antidepressant-Like Effects of Sarcosine during the Forced Swim Test in Rats: Insertion of AMPA Receptor may Play a Role.|
Chen, KT; Tsai, MH; Wu, CH; Jou, MJ; Wei, IH; Huang, CC
Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience 9 162 2015
Sarcosine, an endogenous amino acid, is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter and an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) coagonist. Recently, we found that sarcosine, an NMDAR enhancer, can improve depression-related behaviors in rodents and humans. This result differs from previous studies, which have reported antidepressant effects of NMDAR antagonists. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response of sarcosine remain unknown. This study examines the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor (AMPAR) activation, which are involved in the antidepressant-like effects of several glutamatergic system modulators. The effects of sarcosine in a forced swim test (FST) and the expression levels of phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins were examined in the absence or presence of mTOR and AMPAR inhibitors. In addition, the influence of sarcosine on AMPAR trafficking was determined by analyzing the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit GluR1 at the PKA site (often considered an indicator for GluR1 membrane insertion in neurons). A single injection of sarcosine exhibited antidepressant-like effects in rats in the FST and rapidly activated the mTOR signaling pathway, which were significantly blocked by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or the AMPAR inhibitor 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) pretreatment. Moreover, NBQX pretreatment eliminated the ability of sarcosine to stimulate the phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins. Furthermore, GluR1 phosphorylation at its PKA site was significantly increased after an acute in vivo sarcosine treatment. The results demonstrated that sarcosine exerts antidepressant-like effects by enhancing AMPAR-mTOR signaling pathway activity and facilitating AMPAR membrane insertion. Highlights-A single injection of sarcosine rapidly exerted antidepressant-like effects with a concomitant increase in the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR signaling pathway.-The antidepressant-like effects of sarcosine occur through the activated AMPAR-mTOR signaling pathway.-Sarcosine could enhance AMPAR membrane insertion via an AMPAR throughput.
|The ribonucleotidyl transferase USIP-1 acts with SART3 to promote U6 snRNA recycling.|
Rüegger, S; Miki, TS; Hess, D; Großhans, H
Nucleic acids research 43 3344-57 2015
The spliceosome is a large molecular machine that serves to remove the intervening sequences that are present in most eukaryotic pre-mRNAs. At its core are five small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes, the U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6 snRNPs, which undergo dynamic rearrangements during splicing. Their reutilization for subsequent rounds of splicing requires reversion to their original configurations, but little is known about this process. Here, we show that ZK863.4/USIP-1 (U Six snRNA-Interacting Protein-1) is a ribonucleotidyl transferase that promotes accumulation of the Caenorhabditis elegans U6 snRNA. Endogenous USIP-1-U6 snRNA complexes lack the Lsm proteins that constitute the protein core of the U6 snRNP, but contain the U6 snRNP recycling factor SART3/B0035.12. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that SART3 but not USIP-1 occurs also in a separate complex containing both the U4 and U6 snRNPs. Based on this evidence, genetic interaction between usip-1 and sart-3, and the apparent dissociation of Lsm proteins from the U6 snRNA during spliceosome activation, we propose that USIP-1 functions upstream of SART3 to promote U6 snRNA recycling.
|Autophagy Regulates Formation of Primary Cilia in Mefloquine-Treated Cells.|
Shin, JH; Bae, DJ; Kim, ES; Kim, HB; Park, SJ; Jo, YK; Jo, DS; Jo, DG; Kim, SY; Cho, DH
Biomolecules & therapeutics 23 327-32 2015
Primary cilia have critical roles in coordinating multiple cellular signaling pathways. Dysregulation of primary cilia is implicated in various ciliopathies. To identify specific regulators of autophagy, we screened chemical libraries and identified mefloquine, an anti-malaria medicine, as a potent regulator of primary cilia in human retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. Not only ciliated cells but also primary cilium length was increased in mefloquine-treated RPE cells. Treatment with mefloquine strongly induced the elongation of primary cilia by blocking disassembly of primary cilium. In addition, we found that autophagy was increased in mefloquine-treated cells by enhancing autophagic flux. Both chemical and genetic inhibition of autophagy suppressed ciliogenesis in mefloquine-treated RPE cells. Taken together, these results suggest that autophagy induced by mefloquine positively regulates the elongation of primary cilia in RPE cells.
|Unique Effects of Acute Aripiprazole Treatment on the Dopamine D2 Receptor Downstream cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β Signalling Pathways in Rats.|
Pan, B; Chen, J; Lian, J; Huang, XF; Deng, C
PloS one 10 e0132722 2015
Aripiprazole is a wide-used antipsychotic drug with therapeutic effects on both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and reduced side-effects. Although aripiprazole was developed as a dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) partial agonist, all other D2R partial agonists that aimed to mimic aripiprazole failed to exert therapeutic effects in clinic. The present in vivo study aimed to investigate the effects of aripiprazole on the D2R downstream cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β signalling pathways in comparison with a D2R antagonist--haloperidol and a D2R partial agonist--bifeprunox. Rats were injected once with aripiprazole (0.75 mg/kg, i.p.), bifeprunox (0.8 mg/kg, i.p.), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Five brain regions--the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) were collected. The protein levels of PKA, Akt and GSK3β were measured by Western Blotting; the cAMP levels were examined by ELISA tests. The results showed that aripiprazole presented similar acute effects on PKA expression to haloperidol, but not bifeprunox, in the CPU and VTA. Additionally, aripiprazole was able to increase the phosphorylation of GSK3β in the PFC, NAc, CPu and SN, respectively, which cannot be achieved by bifeprunox and haloperidol. These results suggested that acute treatment of aripiprazole had differential effects on the cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β signalling pathways from haloperidol and bifeprunox in these brain areas. This study further indicated that, by comparison with bifeprunox, the unique pharmacological profile of aripiprazole may be attributed to the relatively lower intrinsic activity at D2R.
|TORC1 promotes phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 via the AGC kinase Ypk3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.|
González, A; Shimobayashi, M; Eisenberg, T; Merle, DA; Pendl, T; Hall, MN; Moustafa, T
PloS one 10 e0120250 2015
The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is an evolutionarily conserved sensor of nutrient availability. Genetic and pharmacological studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided mechanistic insights on the regulation of TORC1 signaling in response to nutrients. Using a highly specific antibody that recognizes phosphorylation of the bona fide TORC1 target ribosomal protein S6 (Rps6) in yeast, we found that nutrients rapidly induce Rps6 phosphorylation in a TORC1-dependent manner. Moreover, we demonstrate that Ypk3, an AGC kinase which exhibits high homology to human S6 kinase (S6K), is required for the phosphorylation of Rps6 in vivo. Rps6 phosphorylation is completely abolished in cells lacking Ypk3 (ypk3Δ), whereas Sch9, previously reported to be the yeast ortholog of S6K, is dispensable for Rps6 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation-deficient mutations in regulatory motifs of Ypk3 abrogate Rps6 phosphorylation, and complementation of ypk3Δ cells with human S6 kinase restores Rps6 phosphorylation in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Our findings demonstrate that Ypk3 is a critical component of the TORC1 pathway and that the use of a phospho-S6 specific antibody offers a valuable tool to identify new nutrient-dependent and rapamycin-sensitive targets in vivo.
|STAT3 upregulation in pituitary somatotroph adenomas induces growth hormone hypersecretion.|
Zhou, C; Jiao, Y; Wang, R; Ren, SG; Wawrowsky, K; Melmed, S
The Journal of clinical investigation 125 1692-702 2015
Pituitary somatotroph adenomas result in dysregulated growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion and acromegaly; however, regulatory mechanisms that promote GH hypersecretion remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that STAT3 directly induces somatotroph tumor cell GH. Evaluation of pituitary tumors revealed that STAT3 expression was enhanced in human GH-secreting adenomas compared with that in nonsecreting pituitary tumors. Moreover, STAT3 and GH expression were concordant in a somatotroph adenoma tissue array. Promoter and expression analysis in a GH-secreting rat cell line (GH3) revealed that STAT3 specifically binds the Gh promoter and induces transcription. Stable expression of STAT3 in GH3 cells induced expression of endogenous GH, and expression of a constitutively active STAT3 further enhanced GH production. Conversely, expression of dominant-negative STAT3 abrogated GH expression. In primary human somatotroph adenoma-derived cell cultures, STAT3 suppression with the specific inhibitor S3I-201 attenuated GH transcription and reduced GH secretion in the majority of derivative cultures. In addition, S3I-201 attenuated somatotroph tumor growth and GH secretion in a rat xenograft model. GH induced STAT3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, indicating a positive feedback loop between STAT3 and GH in somatotroph tumor cells. Together, these results indicate that adenoma GH hypersecretion is the result of STAT3-dependent GH induction, which in turn promotes STAT3 expression, and suggest STAT3 as a potential therapeutic target for pituitary somatotroph adenomas.
|Recognition of Linear B-Cell Epitope of Betanodavirus Coat Protein by RG-M18 Neutralizing mAB Inhibits Giant Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (GGNNV) Infection.|
Chen, CW; Wu, MS; Huang, YJ; Cheng, CA; Chang, CY
PloS one 10 e0126121 2015
Betanodavirus is a causative agent of viral nervous necrosis syndrome in many important aquaculture marine fish larvae, resulting in high global mortality. The coat protein of Betanodavirus is the sole structural protein, and it can assemble the virion particle by itself. In this study, we used a high-titer neutralizing mAB, RG-M18, to identify the linear B-cell epitope on the viral coat protein. By mapping a series of recombinant proteins generated using the E. coli PET expression system, we demonstrated that the linear epitope recognized by RG-M18 is located at the C-terminus of the coat protein, between amino acid residues 195 and 338. To define the minimal epitope region, a set of overlapping peptides were synthesized and evaluated for RG-M18 binding. Such analysis identified the 195VNVSVLCR202 motif as the minimal epitope. Comparative analysis of Alanine scanning mutagenesis with dot-blotting and ELISA revealed that Valine197, Valine199, and Cysteine201 are critical for antibody binding. Substitution of Leucine200 in the RGNNV, BFNNV, and TPNNV genotypes with Methionine200 (thereby simulating the SJNNV genotype) did not affect binding affinity, implying that RG-M18 can recognize all genotypes of Betanodaviruses. In competition experiments, synthetic multiple antigen peptides of this epitope dramatically suppressed giant grouper nervous necrosis virus (GGNNV) propagation in grouper brain cells. The data provide new insights into the protective mechanism of this neutralizing mAB, with broader implications for Betanodavirus vaccinology and antiviral peptide drug development.
|Prdx4 is a compartment-specific H2O2 sensor that regulates neurogenesis by controlling surface expression of GDE2.|
Yan, Y; Wladyka, C; Fujii, J; Sockanathan, S
Nature communications 6 7006 2015
Neural progenitors and terminally differentiated neurons show distinct redox profiles, suggesting that coupled-redox cascades regulate the initiation and progression of neuronal differentiation. Discrete cellular compartments have different redox environments and how they contribute to differentiation is unclear. Here we show that Prdx4, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) enzyme that metabolizes H2O2, acts as a tunable regulator of neurogenesis via its compartmentalized thiol-oxidative function. Prdx4 ablation causes premature motor neuron differentiation and progenitor depletion, leading to imbalances in subtype-specific motor neurons. GDE2, a six-transmembrane protein that induces differentiation by downregulating Notch signalling through surface cleavage of GPI-anchored proteins, is targeted by Prdx4 oxidative activity. Prdx4 dimers generated by H2O2 metabolism oxidize two cysteine residues within the GDE2 enzymatic domain, which blocks GDE2 trafficking to the plasma membrane and prevents GDE2 neurogeneic function. Thus, Prdx4 oxidative activity acts as a sensor to directly couple neuronal differentiation with redox environments in the ER.
|AXIS: Axon Investigation System|
|SNAP i.d. 2.0 System Brochure|
|Western Blotting Tools|
|Protein Blotting Handbook: 6th Edition (Merck)|