Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|A||ELISA, ICC, IF, IHC, IH(P), WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Mouse monoclonal Ascites fluid, with 0.01% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months from date of receipt. Do not store in a diluted format. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Anti-Actin Antibody, clone C4 SDS
|Anti-Actin, Clone C4 - 3261302||3261302|
|Anti-Actin, Clone C4 - 3282532||3282532|
|Anti-Actin, Clone C4 - 3423208||3423208|
|Anti-Actin, Clone C4 - 3590048||3590048|
|Anti-Actin, Clone C4 - 3698575||3698575|
|Anti-Actin, Clone C4 - 3748816||3748816|
|Anti-Actin, Clone C4 - 3800739||3800739|
|Anti-Actin, Clone C4 - 3845682||3845682|
|Anti-Actin, Clone C4 - 3872288||3872288|
|Anti-Actin, clone C4||2464499|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Elevated expression of mechanosensory polycystins in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques: association with p53 activation and disease severity.|
Varela, A; Piperi, C; Sigala, F; Agrogiannis, G; Davos, CH; Andri, MA; Manopoulos, C; Tsangaris, S; Basdra, EK; Papavassiliou, AG
Scientific reports 5 13461 2015
Atherosclerotic plaque formation is associated with irregular distribution of wall shear stress (WSS) that modulates endothelial function and integrity. Polycystins (PC)-1/-2 constitute a flow-sensing protein complex in endothelial cells, able to respond to WSS and induce cell-proliferation changes leading to atherosclerosis. An endothelial cell-culture system of measurable WSS was established to detect alterations in PCs expression under conditions of low- and high-oscillatory shear stress in vitro. PCs expression and p53 activation as a regulator of cell proliferation were further evaluated in vivo and in 69 advanced human carotid atherosclerotic plaques (AAPs). Increased PC-1/PC-2 expression was observed at 30-60 min of low shear stress (LSS) in endothelial cells. Elevated PC-1 expression at LSS was followed by p53 potentiation. PCs immunoreactivity localizes in areas with macrophage infiltration and neovascularization. PC-1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher than PC-2 in stable fibroatherotic (V) and unstable/complicated (VI) AAPs. Elevated PC-1 immunostaining was detected in AAPs from patients with diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension and carotid stenosis, at both arteries (50%) or in one artery (90%). PCs seem to participate in plaque formation and progression. Since PC-1 upregulation coincides with p38 and p53 activation, a potential interplay of these molecules in atherosclerosis induction is posed.
|Caspase-7: a critical mediator of optic nerve injury-induced retinal ganglion cell death.|
Choudhury, S; Liu, Y; Clark, AF; Pang, IH
Molecular neurodegeneration 10 40 2015
Axonal injury of the optic nerve (ON) is involved in various ocular diseases, such as glaucoma and traumatic optic neuropathy, which leads to apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and loss of vision. Caspases have been implicated in RGC pathogenesis. However, the role of caspase-7, a functionally unique caspase, in ON injury and RGC apoptosis has not been reported previously. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of caspase-7 in ON injury-induced RGC apoptosis.C57BL/6 (wildtype, WT) and caspase-7 knockout (Casp7(-/-)) mice were used. We show that ON crush activated caspase-7 and calpain-1, an upstream activator of caspase-7, in mouse RGCs, as well as hydrolysis of kinectin and co-chaperone P23, specific substrates of caspase-7. ON crush caused a progressive loss of RGCs to 28 days after injury. Knockout of caspase-7 partially and significantly protected against the ON injury-induced RGC loss; RGC density at 28 days post ON crush in Casp7(-/-) mice was approximately twice of that in WT ON injured retinas. Consistent with changes in RGC counts, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography analysis revealed that ON crush significantly reduced the in vivo thickness of the ganglion cell complex layer (including ganglion cell layer, nerve fiber layer, and inner plexiform layer) in the retina. The ON crush-induced thinning of retinal layer was significantly ameliorated in Casp7(-/-) mice when compared to WT mice. Moreover, electroretinography analysis demonstrated a decline in the positive component of scotopic threshold response amplitude in ON crushed eyes of the WT mice, whereas this RGC functional response was significantly higher in Casp7(-/-) mice at 28 days post injury.Altogether, our findings indicate that caspase-7 plays a critical role in ON injury-induced RGC death, and inhibition of caspase-7 activity may be a novel therapeutic strategy for glaucoma and other neurodegenerative diseases of the retina.
|Integrin-linked kinase regulates the niche of quiescent epidermal stem cells.|
Morgner, J; Ghatak, S; Jakobi, T; Dieterich, C; Aumailley, M; Wickström, SA
Nature communications 6 8198 2015
Stem cells reside in specialized niches that are critical for their function. Quiescent hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are confined within the bulge niche, but how the molecular composition of the niche regulates stem cell behaviour is poorly understood. Here we show that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a key regulator of the bulge extracellular matrix microenvironment, thereby governing the activation and maintenance of HFSCs. ILK mediates deposition of inverse laminin (LN)-332 and LN-511 gradients within the basement membrane (BM) wrapping the hair follicles. The precise BM composition tunes activities of Wnt and transforming growth factor-β pathways and subsequently regulates HFSC activation. Notably, reconstituting an optimal LN microenvironment restores the altered signalling in ILK-deficient cells. Aberrant stem cell activation in ILK-deficient epidermis leads to increased replicative stress, predisposing the tissue to carcinogenesis. Overall, our findings uncover a critical role for the BM niche in regulating stem cell activation and thereby skin homeostasis.
|A Glaucoma-Associated Variant of Optineurin, M98K, Activates Tbk1 to Enhance Autophagosome Formation and Retinal Cell Death Dependent on Ser177 Phosphorylation of Optineurin.|
Sirohi, K; Kumari, A; Radha, V; Swarup, G
PloS one 10 e0138289 2015
Certain missense mutations in optineurin/OPTN and amplification of TBK1 are associated with normal tension glaucoma. A glaucoma-associated variant of OPTN, M98K, induces autophagic degradation of transferrin receptor (TFRC) and death in retinal cells. Here, we have explored the role of Tbk1 in M98K-OPTN-induced autophagy and cell death, and the effect of Tbk1 overexpression in retinal cells. Cell death induced by M98K-OPTN was dependent on Tbk1 as seen by the effect of Tbk1 knockdown and blocking of Tbk1 activity by a chemical inhibitor. Inhibition of Tbk1 also restores M98K-OPTN-induced transferrin receptor degradation. M98K-OPTN-induced autophagosome formation, autophagy and cell death were dependent on its phosphorylation at S177 by Tbk1. Knockdown of OPTN reduced starvation-induced autophagosome formation. M98K-OPTN expressing cells showed higher levels of Tbk1 activation and enhanced phosphorylation at Ser177 compared to WT-OPTN expressing cells. M98K-OPTN-induced activation of Tbk1 and its ability to be phosphorylated better by Tbk1 was dependent on ubiquitin binding. Phosphorylated M98K-OPTN localized specifically to autophagosomes and endogenous Tbk1 showed increased localization to autophagosomes in M98K-OPTN expressing cells. Overexpression of Tbk1 induced cell death and caspase-3 activation that were dependent on its catalytic activity. Tbk1-induced cell death possibly involves autophagy, as shown by the effect of Atg5 knockdown, and requirement of autophagic function of OPTN. Our results show that phosphorylation of Ser177 plays a crucial role in M98K-OPTN-induced autophagosome formation, autophagy flux and retinal cell death. In addition, we provide evidence for cross talk between two glaucoma associated proteins and their inter-dependence to mediate autophagy-dependent cell death.
|GCN5 inhibits XBP-1S-mediated transcription by antagonizing PCAF action.|
Lew, QJ; Chu, KL; Chia, YL; Soo, B; Ho, JP; Ng, CH; Kwok, HS; Chiang, CM; Chang, Y; Chao, SH
Oncotarget 6 271-87 2015
Cellular unfolded protein response (UPR) is induced when endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is under stress. XBP-1S, the active isoform of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1), is a key regulator of UPR. Previously, we showed that a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), binds to XBP-1S and functions as an activator of XBP-1S. Here, we identify general control nonderepressible 5 (GCN5), a HAT with 73% identity to PCAF, as a novel XBP-1S regulator. Both PCAF and GCN5 bind to the same domain of XBP-1S. Surprisingly, GCN5 potently blocks the XBP-1S-mediated transcription, including cellular UPR genes and latent membrane protein 1 of Epstein-Barr virus. Unlike PCAF, GCN5 acetylates XBP-1S and enhances nuclear retention and protein stability of XBP-1S. However, such GCN5-mediated acetylation of XBP-1S shows no effects on XBP-1S activity. In addition, the HAT activity of GCN5 is not required for repression of XBP-1S target genes. We further demonstrate that GCN5 inhibits XBP-1S-mediated transcription by disrupting the PCAF-XBP-1S interaction and preventing the recruitment of XBP-1S to its target genes. Taken together, our results represent the first work demonstrating that GCN5 and PCAF exhibit different functions and antagonistically regulate the XBP-1S-mediated transcription.
|Proteins from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostate cancer sections that predict the risk of metastatic disease.|
Dunne, JC; Lamb, DS; Delahunt, B; Murray, J; Bethwaite, P; Ferguson, P; Nacey, JN; Sondhauss, S; Jordan, TW
Clinical proteomics 12 24 2015
Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and the third leading cause of cancer related deaths among men living in developed countries. Biomarkers that predict disease outcome at the time of initial diagnosis would substantially aid disease management.Proteins extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue were identified using nanoflow liquid chromatography-MALDI MS/MS or after separation by one- or two-dimensional electrophoresis. The proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000963. A list of potential biomarker candidates, based on proposed associations with prostate cancer, was derived from the 320 identified proteins. Candidate biomarkers were then examined by multiplexed Western blotting of archival specimens from men with premetastatic disease and subsequent disease outcome data. Annexin A2 provided the best prediction of risk of metastatic disease (log-rank Chi squared p = 0. 025). A tumor/control tissue greater than 2-fold relative abundance increase predicted early biochemical failure, while less than 2-fold change predicted late or no biochemical failure.This study confirms the potential for use of archival FFPE specimens in the search for prognostic biomarkers for prostate cancer and suggests that annexin A2 abundance in diagnostic biopsies is predictive for metastatic potential. Protein profiling each cancer may lead to an overall reduction in mortality from metastatic prostate cancer as well as reduced treatment associated morbidity.
|Insulin demand regulates β cell number via the unfolded protein response.|
Sharma, RB; O'Donnell, AC; Stamateris, RE; Ha, B; McCloskey, KM; Reynolds, PR; Arvan, P; Alonso, LC
The Journal of clinical investigation 125 3831-46 2015
Although stem cell populations mediate regeneration of rapid turnover tissues, such as skin, blood, and gut, a stem cell reservoir has not been identified for some slower turnover tissues, such as the pancreatic islet. Despite lacking identifiable stem cells, murine pancreatic β cell number expands in response to an increase in insulin demand. Lineage tracing shows that new β cells are generated from proliferation of mature, differentiated β cells; however, the mechanism by which these mature cells sense systemic insulin demand and initiate a proliferative response remains unknown. Here, we identified the β cell unfolded protein response (UPR), which senses insulin production, as a regulator of β cell proliferation. Using genetic and physiologic models, we determined that among the population of β cells, those with an active UPR are more likely to proliferate. Moreover, subthreshold endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) drove insulin demand-induced β cell proliferation, through activation of ATF6. We also confirmed that the UPR regulates proliferation of human β cells, suggesting that therapeutic UPR modulation has potential to expand β cell mass in people at risk for diabetes. Together, this work defines a stem cell-independent model of tissue homeostasis, in which differentiated secretory cells use the UPR sensor to adapt organ size to meet demand.
|Increased Infiltration of Extra-Cardiac Cells in Myxomatous Valve Disease.|
Sauls, K; Toomer, K; Williams, K; Johnson, AJ; Markwald, RR; Hajdu, Z; Norris, RA
Journal of cardiovascular development and disease 2 200-213 2015
Mutations in the actin-binding gene Filamin-A have been linked to non-syndromic myxomatous valvular dystrophy and associated mitral valve prolapse. Previous studies by our group traced the adult valve defects back to developmental errors in valve interstitial cell-mediated extracellular matrix remodeling during fetal valve gestation. Mice deficient in Filamin-A exhibit enlarged mitral leaflets at E17.5, and subsequent progression to a myxomatous phenotype is observed by two months. For this study, we sought to define mechanisms that contribute to myxomatous degeneration in the adult Filamin-A-deficient mouse. In vivo experiments demonstrate increased infiltration of hematopoietic-derived cells and macrophages in adolescent Filamin-A conditional knockout mice. Concurrent with this infiltration of hematopoietic cells, we show an increase in Erk activity, which localizes to regions of MMP2 expression. Additionally, increases in cell proliferation are observed at two months, when hematopoietic cell engraftment and signaling are pronounced. Similar changes are observed in human myxomatous mitral valve tissue, suggesting that infiltration of hematopoietic-derived cells and/or increased Erk signaling may contribute to myxomatous valvular dystrophy. Consequently, immune cell targeting and/or suppression of pErk activities may represent an effective therapeutic option for mitral valve prolapse patients.
|Dynamic response of RNA editing to temperature in Drosophila.|
Rieder, LE; Savva, YA; Reyna, MA; Chang, YJ; Dorsky, JS; Rezaei, A; Reenan, RA
BMC biology 13 1 2015
Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing is a highly conserved process that post-transcriptionally modifies mRNA, generating proteomic diversity, particularly within the nervous system of metazoans. Transcripts encoding proteins involved in neurotransmission predominate as targets of such modifications. Previous reports suggest that RNA editing is responsive to environmental inputs in the form of temperature alterations. However, the molecular determinants underlying temperature-dependent RNA editing responses are not well understood.Using the poikilotherm Drosophila, we show that acute temperature alterations within a normal physiological range result in substantial changes in RNA editing levels. Our examination of particular sites reveals diversity in the patterns with which editing responds to temperature, and these patterns are conserved across five species of Drosophilidae representing over 10 million years of divergence. In addition, we show that expression of the editing enzyme, ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA), is dramatically decreased at elevated temperatures, partially, but not fully, explaining some target responses to temperature. Interestingly, this reduction in editing enzyme levels at elevated temperature is only partially reversed by a return to lower temperatures. Lastly, we show that engineered structural variants of the most temperature-sensitive editing site, in a sodium channel transcript, perturb thermal responsiveness in RNA editing profile for a particular RNA structure.Our results suggest that the RNA editing process responds to temperature alterations via two distinct molecular mechanisms: through intrinsic thermo-sensitivity of the RNA structures that direct editing, and due to temperature sensitive expression or stability of the RNA editing enzyme. Environmental cues, in this case temperature, rapidly reprogram the Drosophila transcriptome through RNA editing, presumably resulting in altered proteomic ratios of edited and unedited proteins.
|Initiation and maintenance of pluripotency gene expression in the absence of cohesin.|
Lavagnolli, T; Gupta, P; Hörmanseder, E; Mira-Bontenbal, H; Dharmalingam, G; Carroll, T; Gurdon, JB; Fisher, AG; Merkenschlager, M
Genes & development 29 23-38 2015
Cohesin is implicated in establishing and maintaining pluripotency. Whether this is because of essential cohesin functions in the cell cycle or in gene regulation is unknown. Here we tested cohesin's contribution to reprogramming in systems that reactivate the expression of pluripotency genes in the absence of proliferation (embryonic stem [ES] cell heterokaryons) or DNA replication (nuclear transfer). Contrary to expectations, cohesin depletion enhanced the ability of ES cells to initiate somatic cell reprogramming in heterokaryons. This was explained by increased c-Myc (Myc) expression in cohesin-depleted ES cells, which promoted DNA replication-dependent reprogramming of somatic fusion partners. In contrast, cohesin-depleted somatic cells were poorly reprogrammed in heterokaryons, due in part to defective DNA replication. Pluripotency gene induction was rescued by Myc, which restored DNA replication, and by nuclear transfer, where reprogramming does not require DNA replication. These results redefine cohesin's role in pluripotency and reveal a novel function for Myc in promoting the replication-dependent reprogramming of somatic nuclei.
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