|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||ICC, WB, IP||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG2bκ antibody in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 μg|
Anti-PTB Antibody, clone BB7 (M)SDS
|Anti-PTB, clone BB7 - 3011480||3011480|
|Anti-PTB, clone BB7 - 3256994||3256994|
|Anti-PTB, clone BB7 -Q2578161||Q2578161|
|Anti-PTB, clone BB7 Monoclonal Antibody||2909934|
|Anti-PTB, clone BB7 Monoclonal Antibody||3150351|
|Anti-PTB, clone BB7_2840387||2840387|
|参考資料の概要||Pub Med ID|
|The splicing regulator Rbfox1 (A2BP1) controls neuronal excitation in the mammalian brain.|
Gehman, LT; Stoilov, P; Maguire, J; Damianov, A; Lin, CH; Shiue, L; Ares, M; Mody, I; Black, DL
Nature genetics 43 706-11 2011
The Rbfox family of RNA binding proteins regulates alternative splicing of many important neuronal transcripts, but its role in neuronal physiology is not clear. We show here that central nervous system-specific deletion of the gene encoding Rbfox1 results in heightened susceptibility to spontaneous and kainic acid-induced seizures. Electrophysiological recording revealed a corresponding increase in neuronal excitability in the dentate gyrus of the knockout mice. Whole-transcriptome analyses identified multiple splicing changes in the Rbfox1(-/-) brain with few changes in overall transcript abundance. These splicing changes alter proteins that mediate synaptic transmission and membrane excitation. Thus, Rbfox1 directs a genetic program required in the prevention of neuronal hyperexcitation and seizures. The Rbfox1 knockout mice provide a new model to study the post-transcriptional regulation of synaptic function.
|Developmental control of CaV1.2 L-type calcium channel splicing by Fox proteins.|
Tang, ZZ; Zheng, S; Nikolic, J; Black, DL
Molecular and cellular biology 29 4757-65 2009
CaV1.2 voltage-gated calcium channels play critical roles in the control of membrane excitability, gene expression, and muscle contraction. These channels show diverse functional properties generated by alternative splicing at multiple sites within the CaV1.2 pre-mRNA. The molecular mechanisms controlling this splicing are not understood. We find that two exons in the CaV1.2 channel are controlled in part by members of the Fox family of splicing regulators. Exons 9* and 33 confer distinct electrophysiological properties on the channel and show opposite patterns of regulation during cortical development, with exon 9* progressively decreasing its inclusion in the CaV1.2 mRNA over time and exon 33 progressively increasing. Both exons contain Fox protein binding elements within their adjacent introns, and Fox protein expression is induced in cortical neurons in parallel with the changes in CaV1.2 splicing. We show that knocking down expression of Fox proteins in tissue culture cells has opposite effects on exons 9* and 33. The loss of Fox protein increases exon 9* splicing and decreases exon 33, as predicted by the positions of the Fox binding elements and by the pattern of splicing in development. Conversely, overexpression of Fox1 and Fox2 proteins represses exon 9* and enhances exon 33 splicing in the endogenous CaV1.2 mRNA. These effects of Fox proteins on exons 9* and 33 can be recapitulated in transfected minigene reporters. Both the repressive and the enhancing effects of Fox proteins are dependent on the Fox binding elements within and adjacent to the target exons, indicating that the Fox proteins are directly regulating both exons. These results demonstrate that the Fox protein family is playing a key role in tuning the properties of CaV1.2 calcium channels during neuronal development.
|An inducible change in Fox-1/A2BP1 splicing modulates the alternative splicing of downstream neuronal target exons.|
Lee, JA; Tang, ZZ; Black, DL
Genes & development 23 2284-93 2009
Neuronal depolarization and CaM kinase IV signaling alter the splicing of multiple exons in transcripts for ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors, and other synaptic proteins. These splicing changes are mediated in part by special CaM kinase-responsive RNA elements, within or adjacent to exons that are repressed in the initial phase of chronic depolarization. The splicing of many neuronal transcripts is also regulated by members of the Fox (Feminizing gene on X) protein family, and these Fox targets are also often proteins affecting synaptic activity. We show that Fox-1/Ataxin 2-Binding Protein 1 (A2BP1), a protein implicated in a variety of neurological diseases, can counteract the effects of chronic depolarization on splicing. We find that exon 19 of Fox-1 is itself repressed by depolarization. Fox-1 transcripts missing exon 19 encode a nuclear isoform of Fox-1 that progressively replaces the cytoplasmic Fox-1 isoform as cells are maintained depolarizing media. The resulting increase in nuclear Fox-1 leads to the reactivation of many Fox-1 target exons, including exon 5 of the NMDA receptor 1, that were initially repressed by the high-KCl medium. These results reveal a novel mechanism for the slow modulation of splicing as cells adapt to chronic stimuli: The subcellular localization of a splicing regulator is controlled through its own alternative splicing.
|Polypyrimidine tract binding protein blocks the 5' splice site-dependent assembly of U2AF and the prespliceosomal E complex.|
Sharma, S; Falick, AM; Black, DL
Molecular cell 19 485-96 2005
Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) represses some alternatively spliced exons by direct occlusion of splice sites. In repressing the splicing of the c-src N1 exon, we find that PTB acts by a different mechanism. PTB does not interfere with U1 snRNP binding to the N1 5' splice site. Instead, PTB prevents formation of the prespliceosomal early (E) complex across the intervening intron by preventing the assembly of the splicing factor U2AF on the 3' splice site of exon 4. When the unregulated 5' splice site of the upstream exon 3 is present, U2AF binding is restored and splicing between exons 3 and 4 proceeds in spite of the N1 exon bound PTB. Thus, rather than directly blocking the N1 splice sites, PTB prevents the 5' splice site-dependent assembly of U2AF into the E complex. This mechanism likely occurs in many other alternative exons.
|Multisite RNA binding and release of polypyrimidine tract binding protein during the regulation of c-src neural-specific splicing.|
Chou, MY; Underwood, JG; Nikolic, J; Luu, MH; Black, DL
Molecular cell 5 949-57 2000
We studied the role of polypyrimidine tract binding protein in repressing splicing of the c-src neuron-specific N1 exon. Immunodepletion/add-back experiments demonstrate that PTB is essential for splicing repression in HeLa extract. When splicing is repressed, PTB cross-links to intronic CUCUCU elements flanking the N1 exon. Mutation of the downstream CU elements causes dissociation of PTB from the intact upstream CU elements and allows splicing. Thus, PTB molecules bound to multiple elements cooperate to repress splicing. Interestingly, in neuronal WERI-1 cell extract where N1 is spliced, PTB also binds to the upstream CU elements but is dissociated in the presence of ATP. We conclude that splicing repression by PTB is modulated in different cells by a combination of cooperative binding and ATP-dependent dissociation.
|Characterization of Estrogen Receptor α Phosphorylation Sites in Breast Cancer Tissue Using the SNAP i.d® 2.0 System|
|White Paper: Further considerations of antibody validation and usage.|