|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgM conjugated to Cy3 in PBS with 0.1% sodium azide and 15mg/ml BSA.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8ºC protected from light in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Anti-TRA-1-81 Antibody, clone TRA-1-81, Cy3 conjugate (M)SDS
|参考資料の概要||Pub Med ID|
|Somatic coding mutations in human induced pluripotent stem cells.|
Gore A, Li Z, Fung HL, Young JE, Agarwal S, Antosiewicz-Bourget J, Canto I, Giorgetti A, Israel MA, Kiskinis E, Lee JH, Loh YH, Manos PD, Montserrat N, Panopoulos AD, Ruiz S, Wilbert ML, Yu J, Kirkness EF, Izpisua Belmonte JC, Rossi DJ, Thomson JA, Eggan K, Daley GQ, Goldstein LS, Zhang K.
Nature 471 63-7 2011
Defined transcription factors can induce epigenetic reprogramming of adult mammalian cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Although DNA factors are integrated during some reprogramming methods, it is unknown whether the genome remains unchanged at the single nucleotide level. Here we show that 22 human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cell lines reprogrammed using five different methods each contained an average of five protein-coding point mutations in the regions sampled (an estimated six protein-coding point mutations per exome). The majority of these mutations were non-synonymous, nonsense or splice variants, and were enriched in genes mutated or having causative effects in cancers. At least half of these reprogramming-associated mutations pre-existed in fibroblast progenitors at low frequencies, whereas the rest occurred during or after reprogramming. Thus, hiPS cells acquire genetic modifications in addition to epigenetic modifications. Extensive genetic screening should become a standard procedure to ensure hiPS cell safety before clinical use.
|A nonviral minicircle vector for deriving human iPS cells.|
Jia, Fangjun, et al.
Nat. Methods, 7: 197-9 (2010) 2010
Owing to the risk of insertional mutagenesis, viral transduction has been increasingly replaced by nonviral methods to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We report the use of 'minicircle' DNA, a vector type that is free of bacterial DNA and capable of high expression in cells, for this purpose. Here we use a single minicircle vector to generate transgene-free iPSCs from adult human adipose stem cells.
|Reprogramming of human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells under xeno-free conditions.|
Rodríguez-Pizà I, Richaud-Patin Y, Vassena R, González F, Barrero MJ, Veiga A, Raya A, Belmonte JC
Stem Cells 28 36-44. 2010
The availability of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has created extraordinary opportunities for modeling and perhaps treating human disease. However, all reprogramming protocols used to date involve the use of products of animal origin. Here, we set out to develop a protocol to generate and maintain human iPSC that would be entirely devoid of xenobiotics. We first developed a xeno-free cell culture media that supported the long-term propagation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to a similar extent as conventional media containing animal origin products or commercially available xeno-free medium. We also derived primary cultures of human dermal fibroblasts under strict xeno-free conditions (XF-HFF), and we show that they can be used as both the cell source for iPSC generation as well as autologous feeder cells to support their growth. We also replaced other reagents of animal origin (trypsin, gelatin, matrigel) with their recombinant equivalents. Finally, we used vesicular stomatitis virus G-pseudotyped retroviral particles expressing a polycistronic construct encoding Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and GFP to reprogram XF-HFF cells under xeno-free conditions. A total of 10 xeno-free human iPSC lines were generated, which could be continuously passaged in xeno-free conditions and maintained characteristics indistinguishable from hESCs, including colony morphology and growth behavior, expression of pluripotency-associated markers, and pluripotent differentiation ability in vitro and in teratoma assays. Overall, the results presented here demonstrate that human iPSCs can be generated and maintained under strict xeno-free conditions and provide a path to good manufacturing practice (GMP) applicability that should facilitate the clinical translation of iPSC-based therapies.
|The human embryonal carcinoma marker antigen TRA-1-60 is a sialylated keratan sulfate proteoglycan.|
Badcock, G, et al.
Cancer Res., 59: 4715-9 (1999) 1999
Human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are the stem cells of teratocarcinomas, and they are key components of germ cell tumors (GCTs). They express several high molecular weight glycoprotein antigens that are down-regulated upon differentiation. One of these antigens, defined by monoclonal antibody TRA-1-60, can be detected in the serum of GCT patients and provides a useful complement to the established serum markers human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein, especially in those patients without elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin or alpha-fetoprotein. To examine the relationship of the TRA-1-60-defined antigen to similar antigens defined by other monoclonal antibodies, we have carried out comparative Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses of human GCT-derived cell lines with monoclonal antibodies TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, GCTM2, and K21. The TRA-1-60 antigen was detected by Western blot analysis in extracts of all human EC cell lines and in clinical specimens of GCT tested as a diffuse band with a molecular weight of >200,000. A similar but noticeably fainter band was detected in GCT composed of seminoma only. The antigen was not expressed by GCT-derived lines without an EC phenotype. Affinity bead-purified TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, GCTM2 and K21 antigens reacted in Western blot analysis with each of the other antibodies tested, indicating that the epitopes recognized by each antibody are carried by the same molecular species. This molecule could be metabolically labeled with inorganic [35S]sulfate and was degraded by keratanase. Glycopeptides produced from affinity-purified TRA-1-60 antigen by extensive digestion with Pronase exhibited a molecular weight in excess of 10,000 and were degraded by keratanase. The TRA-1-60 epitope was destroyed by digestion with neuraminidase, but the epitopes defined by TRA-1-81, GCTM2, and K21 were not. Our results indicate that human EC cells generally express a cell surface sialylated keratan sulfate proteoglycan that is subject to modification to yield a variety of epitopes, one of which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody TRA-1-60. Sensitivity to milk alkaline digestion suggests that the oligosaccharides of this proteoglycan are O-linked to a core polypeptide.
|Three monoclonal antibodies defining distinct differentiation antigens associated with different high molecular weight polypeptides on the surface of human embryonal carcinoma cells.|
Andrews, P W, et al.
Hybridoma, 3: 347-61 (1984) 1984
Two monoclonal antibodies (TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81) recognizing distinct cell surface antigens on human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells were produced and characterized. These antibodies reacted strongly with undifferentiated human EC cells in indirect radioimmunoassays (RIA) and immunofluorescence (IF) assays, but only weakly or not at all with cells derived from pluripotent EC cells differentiating in vitro or in xenograft tumors, nor with other germ cell tumor cell lines that did not also express the typical features of human EC cells. They did not react with murine teratocarcinoma cell lines. A survey of other human tumor cell lines and normal human tissues disclosed that molecules recognized by these antibodies are not confined to human EC cells but that cross-reacting epitopes appear on several neoplastic and normal tissues, although in a different anatomical pattern for each antibody. Both antibodies immunoprecipitated a major polypeptide (apparent molecular weight approximately 240,000) and a minor polypeptide (apparent molecular weight approximately 415,000) from lysates of 125I surface-labeled human EC cells, in this respect resembling another monoclonal antibody, 8-7D, previously described by Blaineau et al. (1,2) However, sequential immunoprecipitation revealed that each of the three antibodies reacted with different molecules of slightly different molecular weights. The epitopes defined by the present antibodies differ from those recognized by the other human EC cell-specific monoclonal antibodies that have been described and provide new markers for studying the differentiation of pluripotent human EC cells.