|Hypothalamus-olfactory system crosstalk: orexin a immunostaining in mice.|
Gascuel, J; Lemoine, A; Rigault, C; Datiche, F; Benani, A; Penicaud, L; Lopez-Mascaraque, L
Frontiers in neuroanatomy
It is well known that olfaction influences food intake, and conversely, that an individual's nutritional status modulates olfactory sensitivity. However, what is still poorly understood is the neuronal correlate of this relationship, as well as the connections between the olfactory bulb and the hypothalamus. The goal of this report is to analyze the relationship between the olfactory bulb and hypothalamus, focusing on orexin A immunostaining, a hypothalamic neuropeptide that is thought to play a role in states of sleep/wakefulness. Interestingly, orexin A has also been described as a food intake stimulator. Such an effect may be due in part to the stimulation of the olfactory bulbar pathway. In rats, orexin positive cells are concentrated strictly in the lateral hypothalamus, while their projections invade nearly the entire brain including the olfactory system. Therefore, orexin appears to be a good candidate to play a pivotal role in connecting olfactory and hypothalamic pathways. So far, orexin has been described in rats, however, there is still a lack of information concerning its expression in the brains of adult and developing mice. In this context, we revisited the orexin A pattern in adult and developing mice using immunohistological methods and confocal microscopy. Besides minor differences, orexin A immunostaining in mice shares many features with those observed in rats. In the olfactory bulb, even though there are few orexin projections, they reach all the different layers of the olfactory bulb. In contrast to the presence of orexin projections in the main olfactory bulb, almost none have been found in the accessory olfactory bulb. The developmental expression of orexin A supports the hypothesis that orexin expression only appears post-natally.
|Organization and number of orexinergic neurons in the hypothalamus of two species of Cetartiodactyla: a comparison of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).|
Dell, LA; Patzke, N; Bhagwandin, A; Bux, F; Fuxe, K; Barber, G; Siegel, JM; Manger, PR
Journal of chemical neuroanatomy
The present study describes the organization of the orexinergic (hypocretinergic) neurons in the hypothalamus of the giraffe and harbour porpoise--two members of the mammalian Order Cetartiodactyla which is comprised of the even-toed ungulates and the cetaceans as they share a monophyletic ancestry. Diencephalons from two sub-adult male giraffes and two adult male harbour porpoises were coronally sectioned and immunohistochemically stained for orexin-A. The staining revealed that the orexinergic neurons could be readily divided into two distinct neuronal types based on somal volume, area and length, these being the parvocellular and magnocellular orexin-A immunopositive (OxA+) groups. The magnocellular group could be further subdivided, on topological grounds, into three distinct clusters--a main cluster in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus, a cluster associated with the zona incerta and a cluster associated with the optic tract. The parvocellular neurons were found in the medial hypothalamus, but could not be subdivided, rather they form a topologically amorphous cluster. The parvocellular cluster appears to be unique to the Cetartiodactyla as these neurons have not been described in other mammals to date, while the magnocellular nuclei appear to be homologous to similar nuclei described in other mammals. The overall size of both the parvocellular and magnocellular neurons (based on somal volume, area and length) were larger in the giraffe than the harbour porpoise, but the harbour porpoise had a higher number of both parvocellular and magnocellular orexinergic neurons than the giraffe despite both having a similar brain mass. The higher number of both parvocellular and magnocellular orexinergic neurons in the harbour porpoise may relate to the unusual sleep mechanisms in the cetaceans.
|Immunohistochemical evidence of Orexin-A in the pancreatic beta cells of domestic animals.|
C Dall'Aglio,V Pedini,P Scocco,C Boiti,P Ceccarelli
Research in veterinary science
A large body of information proves that Orexin-A is present in the pancreatic endocrine cells of humans and laboratory animals; more detailed studies identify Orexin-A-immunopositive cells as beta cells. Because no data have been reported on the pancreas of domestic animals, we investigated the presence and the distribution of cells containing Orexin-A in the pancreas of cattle, sheep and pigs by means of immunohistochemical techniques. Using a polyclonal antibody against Orexin-A, the immunopositive reaction was identified in the cytoplasm of many insular cells in the three species studied. Double immunohistochemical staining, using a polyclonal anti-insulin antibody, showed that Orexin-A is co-expressed with insulin. Our results, besides showing the presence of Orexin-A in the endocrine pancreas of domestic animals, together with data present in the literature, could contribute to the understanding of complex mechanisms regulating the functionality of the endocrine pancreas in domestic animals.
|Immunohistochemical identification and localization of orexin A and orexin type 2 receptor in the horse gastrointestinal tract.|
Cecilia Dall'aglio,Luisa Pascucci,Francesca Mercati,Andrea Giontella,Vera Pedini,Piero Ceccarelli
Research in veterinary science
The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and the distribution of cells containing orexin A and orexin type 2 receptor in the horse stomach and gut, by means of immunohistochemical techniques. Orexin A was identified in the stomach fundic and pyloric regions and in the duodenum. In the same stomach regions, a large subset of orexin A-positive cells also showed orexin type 2 receptor-like immunoreactivity. Moreover, in the duodenum, many of them, seemed to store serotonin. Characteristically, enteric neurons or ganglia also displayed orexin A and, sometimes, orexin type 2 receptor immunoreaction. Orexin A and orexin type 2 receptor immunoreactivity was also found in the nerve fibers in the enteric submucosal layer. Our results, together with data present in the literature, could contribute to the understanding of complex mechanisms regulating the horse gut functionality that are depending very likely on the consequence of the co-operation of both a central and a peripheral control.