Tabela com principais espec.
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, Ca, H, Po, Sh||ELISA, FC, WB, IHC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Referências | 31 Disponível | Ver todas as referências
|Visão geral das referências||Aplicação||Espécies||Pub Med ID|
|Dental pulp stem cells: a new cellular resource for corneal stromal regeneration. |
Syed-Picard, FN; Du, Y; Lathrop, KL; Mann, MM; Funderburgh, ML; Funderburgh, JL
Stem cells translational medicine 4 276-85 2015
Corneal blindness afflicts millions of individuals worldwide and is currently treated by grafting with cadaveric tissues; however, there are worldwide donor tissue shortages, and many allogeneic grafts are eventually rejected. Autologous stem cells present a prospect for personalized regenerative medicine and an alternative to cadaveric tissue grafts. Dental pulp contains a population of adult stem cells and, similar to corneal stroma, develops embryonically from the cranial neural crest. We report that adult dental pulp cells (DPCs) isolated from third molars have the capability to differentiate into keratocytes, cells of the corneal stoma. After inducing differentiation in vitro, DPCs expressed molecules characteristic of keratocytes, keratocan, and keratan sulfate proteoglycans at both the gene and the protein levels. DPCs cultured on aligned nanofiber substrates generated tissue-engineered, corneal stromal-like constructs, recapitulating the tightly packed, aligned, parallel fibrillar collagen of native stromal tissue. After injection in vivo into mouse corneal stroma, human DPCs produced corneal stromal extracellular matrix containing human type I collagen and keratocan and did not affect corneal transparency or induce immunological rejection. These findings demonstrate a potential for the clinical application of DPCs in cellular or tissue engineering therapies for corneal stromal blindness.
|Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells modulate the tissue response and mechanical behavior of polyamide mesh implants for pelvic organ prolapse repair. |
Ulrich, D; Edwards, SL; Su, K; Tan, KS; White, JF; Ramshaw, JA; Lo, C; Rosamilia, A; Werkmeister, JA; Gargett, CE
Tissue engineering. Part A 20 785-98 2014
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is defined as the descent of one or more of the pelvic structures into the vagina and includes uterine, vaginal vault, and anterior or posterior vaginal wall prolapse. The treatment of POP may include implantation of a synthetic mesh. However, the long-term benefit of mesh surgery is controversial due to complications such as mesh exposure or pain. The aim of this study was to use a tissue engineering (TE) approach to assess the in vivo biological and biomechanical behavior of a new gelatin/polyamide mesh, seeded with a novel source of mesenchymal stem cells in a subcutaneous rat model of wound repair.W5C5-enriched human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSC) were seeded onto meshes (gelatin-coated polyamide knit) at 100,000 cells/cm². Meshes, with or without cells were subcutaneously implanted dorsally in immunocompromised rats for 7, 30, 60, and 90 days. Flow cytometry was used to detect DiO labeled cells after explantation. Immunohistochemical assessment of foreign body reaction and tissue integration were conducted. Total collagen and the levels of collagens type III and type I were determined. Uniaxial tensiometry was performed on explanted meshes, originally seeded with and without cells, at days 7 and 90.Implanted meshes were well tolerated, with labeled cells detected on the mesh up to 14 days postimplantation. Meshes with cells promoted significantly more neovascularization at 7 days (pless than 0.05) and attracted fewer macrophages at 90 days (pless than 0.05). Similarly, leukocyte infiltration was significantly lower in the cell-seeded meshes at 90 days (pless than 0.05). Meshes with cells were generally less stiff than those without cells, after 7 and 90 days implantation.The TE approach used in this study significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells around the implanted mesh and promoted neovascularization. Seeding with eMSC exerts an anti-inflammatory effect and promotes wound repair with new tissue growth and minimal fibrosis, and produces mesh with greater extensibility. Cell seeding onto polyamide/gelatin mesh improves mesh biocompatibility and may be an alternative option for future treatment of POP.
|Thrombin induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and collagen production by retinal pigment epithelial cells via autocrine PDGF-receptor signaling. |
Bastiaans, J; van Meurs, JC; van Holten-Neelen, C; Nagtzaam, NM; van Hagen, PM; Chambers, RC; Hooijkaas, H; Dik, WA
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 54 8306-14 2013
De-differentiation of RPE cells into mesenchymal cells (epithelial-mesenchymal transition; EMT) and associated collagen production contributes to development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In patients with PVR, intraocular coagulation cascade activation occurs and may play an important initiating role. Therefore, we examined the effect of the coagulation proteins factor Xa and thrombin on EMT and collagen production by RPE cells.Retinal pigment epithelial cells were stimulated with factor Xa or thrombin and the effect on zonula occludens (ZO)-1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B were determined by real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR), immunofluorescence microscopy, and HPLC and ELISA for collagen and PDGF-BB in culture supernatants, respectively. PDGF-receptor activation was determined by phosphorylation analysis and inhibition studies using the PDGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1296.Thrombin reduced ZO-1 gene expression (P less than 0.05) and enhanced expression of the genes encoding α-SMA and the pro-alpha1 chain of collagen type-1 (P less than 0.05), indicating EMT. Also, ZO-1 protein expression declined on thrombin stimulation, whereas production of α-SMA and collagen increased. In contrast to thrombin, factor Xa hardly stimulated EMT by RPE. Thrombin clearly induced PDGF-BB production and PDGF-Rβ chain phosphorylation in RPE. Moreover, AG1296 significantly blocked the effect of thrombin on EMT and collagen production.Our findings demonstrate that thrombin is a potent inducer of EMT by RPE via autocrine activation of PDGF-receptor signaling. Coagulation cascade-induced EMT of RPE may thus contribute to the formation of fibrotic retinal membranes in PVR and should be considered as treatment target in PVR.
|Isolation and characterization of novel, highly proliferative human CD34/CD73-double-positive testis-derived stem cells for cell therapy. |
Choi, WY; Jeon, HG; Chung, Y; Lim, JJ; Shin, DH; Kim, JM; Ki, BS; Song, SH; Choi, SJ; Park, KH; Shim, SH; Moon, J; Jung, SJ; Kang, HM; Park, S; Chung, HM; Ko, JJ; Cha, KY; Yoon, TK; Kim, H; Lee, DR
Stem cells and development 22 2158-73 2013
Human adult stem cells are a readily available multipotent cell source that can be used in regenerative medicine. Despite many advantages, including low tumorigenicity, their rapid senescence and limited plasticity have curtailed their use in cell-based therapies. In this study, we isolated CD34/CD73-double-positive (CD34(+)/CD73(+)) testicular stromal cells (HTSCs) and found that the expression of CD34 was closely related to the cells' stemness and proliferation. The CD34(+)/CD73(+) cells grew in vitro for an extended period of time, yielding a multitude of cells (5.6×10(16) cells) without forming tumors in vivo. They also differentiated into all three germ layer lineages both in vitro and in vivo, produced cartilage more efficiently compared to bone marrow stem cells and, importantly, restored erectile function in a cavernous nerve crush injury rat model. Thus, these HTSCs may represent a promising new autologous cell source for clinical use.
|Sliding contact loading enhances the tensile properties of mesenchymal stem cell-seeded hydrogels. |
A H Huang,B M Baker,G A Ateshian,R L Mauck
European cells & materials 24 2012
The primary goal of cartilage tissue engineering is to recapitulate the functional properties and structural features of native articular cartilage. While there has been some success in generating near-native compressive properties, the tensile properties of cell-seeded constructs remain poor, and key features of cartilage, including inhomogeneity and anisotropy, are generally absent in these engineered constructs. Therefore, in an attempt to instill these hallmark properties of cartilage in engineered cell-seeded constructs, we designed and characterized a novel sliding contact bioreactor to recapitulate the mechanical stimuli arising from physiologic joint loading (two contacting cartilage layers). Finite element modeling of this bioreactor system showed that tensile strains were direction-dependent, while both tensile strains and fluid motion were depth-dependent and highest in the region closest to the contact surface. Short-term sliding contact of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-seeded agarose improved chondrogenic gene expression in a manner dependent on both the axial strain applied and transforming growth factor-β supplementation. Using the optimized loading parameters derived from these short-term studies, long-term sliding contact was applied to MSC-seeded agarose constructs for 21 d. After 21 d, sliding contact significantly improved the tensile properties of MSC-seeded constructs and elicited alterations in type II collagen and proteoglycan accumulation as a function of depth; staining for these matrix molecules showed intense localization in the surface regions. These findings point to the potential of sliding contact to produce engineered cartilage constructs that begin to recapitulate the complex mechanical features of the native tissue.
|Fibroblast growth factor 2 enhances the kinetics of mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis. |
Tiffany Cheng,Christina Yang,Norbert Weber,Hubert T Kim,Alfred C Kuo
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 426 2012
Treatment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) during monolayer expansion leads to increased expression of cartilage-related molecules during subsequent pellet chondrogenesis. This may be due to faster differentiation and/or a durable change in phenotype. In order to evaluate changes over time, we assessed chondrogenesis of human MSCs at early and late time points during pellet culture using real-time PCR, measurement of glycosaminoglycan accumulation, and histology. Marked enhancement of chondrogenesis was seen early compared to controls. However, the differences from controls in gene expression dramatically diminished over time. Depending on conditions, increases in glycosaminoglycan accumulation were maintained. These results suggest that FGF-2 can enhance the kinetics of MSC chondrogenesis, leading to early differentiation, possibly by a priming mechanism.
|Hypoxia mediated isolation and expansion enhances the chondrogenic capacity of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. |
Adesida, AB; Mulet-Sierra, A; Jomha, NM
Stem cell research & therapy 3 9 2012
The capacity of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) to be induced into chondrocytes has drawn much attention for cell-based cartilage repair. BMSCs represent a small proportion of cells of the bone marrow stromal compartment and, thus, culture expansion is a necessity for therapeutic use. However, there is no consensus on how BMSCs should be isolated nor expanded to maximize their chondrogenic potential. During embryonic development pluripotent stem cells differentiate into chondrocytes and form cartilage in a hypoxic microenvironment.Freshly harvested human BMSCs were isolated and expanded from the aspirates of six donors, under either hypoxic conditions (3% O2) or normoxic conditions (21% O2). A colony-forming unit fibroblastic (Cfu-f) assay was used to determine the number of cell colonies developed from each donor. BMSCs at passage 2 (P2) were characterized by flow cytometry for the phenotypic expression of cell surface markers on mesenchymal stem cells. BMSCs at P2 were subsequently cultured in vitro as three-dimensional cell pellets in a defined serum-free chondrogenic medium under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Chondrogenic differentiation of the BMSCs was characterized by biochemical and histological methods and by quantitative gene-expression analysis.After 14 days of culture, the number of BMSC colonies developed under hypoxia was generally higher (8% to 38% depending on donor) than under normoxia. BMSCs were positive for the cell surface markers CD13, CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105 and CD151, and negative for CD34. Regardless of the oxygen tension during pellet culture, hypoxia-expanded BMSC pellets underwent a more robust chondrogenesis than normoxia-expanded BMSC pellets after three weeks of culture, as judged by increased glycosaminoglycan synthesis and Safranin O staining, along with increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, collagen II and Sox9. Hypoxic conditions enhanced the mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2α) but suppressed the mRNA expression of collagen X in BMSC pellet cultures regardless of the oxygen tension during BMSC isolation and propagation.Taken together, our data demonstrate that isolation and expansion of BMSCs under hypoxic conditions augments the chondrogenic potential of BMSCs. This suggests that hypoxia-mediated isolation and expansion of BMSCs may improve clinical applications of BMSCs for cartilage repair.
|Decreased hypertrophic differentiation accompanies enhanced matrix formation in co-cultures of outer meniscus cells with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. |
Saliken, DJ; Mulet-Sierra, A; Jomha, NM; Adesida, AB
Arthritis research & therapy 14 R153 2012
The main objective of this study was to determine whether meniscus cells from the outer (MCO) and inner (MCI) regions of the meniscus interact similarly to or differently with mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs). Previous study had shown that co-culture of meniscus cells with bone marrow-derived MSCs result in enhanced matrix formation relative to mono-cultures of meniscus cells and MSCs. However, the study did not examine if cells from the different regions of the meniscus interacted similarly to or differently with MSCs.Human menisci were harvested from four patients undergoing total knee replacements. Tissue from the outer and inner regions represented pieces taken from one third and two thirds of the radial distance of the meniscus, respectively. Meniscus cells were released from the menisci after collagenase treatment. Bone marrow MSCs were obtained from the iliac crest of two patients after plastic adherence and in vitro culture until passage 2. Primary meniscus cells from the outer (MCO) or inner (MCI) regions of the meniscus were co-cultured with MSCs in three-dimensional (3D) pellet cultures at 1:3 ratio, respectively, for 3 weeks in the presence of serum-free chondrogenic medium containing TGF-β1. Mono-cultures of MCO, MCI and MSCs served as experimental control groups. The tissue formed after 3 weeks was assessed biochemically, histochemically and by quantitative RT-PCR.Co-culture of inner (MCI) or outer (MCO) meniscus cells with MSCs resulted in neo-tissue with increased (up to 2.2-fold) proteoglycan (GAG) matrix content relative to tissues formed from mono-cultures of MSCs, MCI and MCO. Co-cultures of MCI or MCO with MSCs produced the same amount of matrix in the tissue formed. However, the expression level of aggrecan was highest in mono-cultures of MSCs but similar in the other four groups. The DNA content of the tissues from co-cultured cells was not statistically different from tissues formed from mono-cultures of MSCs, MCI and MCO. The expression of collagen I (COL1A2) mRNA increased in co-cultured cells relative to mono-cultures of MCO and MCI but not compared to MSC mono-cultures. Collagen II (COL2A1) mRNA expression increased significantly in co-cultures of both MCO and MCI with MSCs compared to their own controls (mono-cultures of MCO and MCI respectively) but only the co-cultures of MCO:MSCs were significantly increased compared to MSC control mono-cultures. Increased collagen II protein expression was visible by collagen II immuno-histochemistry. The mRNA expression level of Sox9 was similar in all pellet cultures. The expression of collagen × (COL10A1) mRNA was 2-fold higher in co-cultures of MCI:MSCs relative to co-cultures of MCO:MSCs. Additionally, other hypertrophic genes, MMP-13 and Indian Hedgehog (IHh), were highly expressed by 4-fold and 18-fold, respectively, in co-cultures of MCI:MSCs relative to co-cultures of MCO:MSCs.Co-culture of primary MCI or MCO with MSCs resulted in enhanced matrix formation. MCI and MCO increased matrix formation similarly after co-culture with MSCs. However, MCO was more potent than MCI in suppressing hypertrophic differentiation of MSCs. These findings suggest that meniscus cells from the outer-vascular regions of the meniscus can be supplemented with MSCs in order to engineer functional grafts to reconstruct inner-avascular meniscus.
|Neuregulin induces CTGF expression in hypertrophic scarring fibroblasts. |
Jun-Sub Kim,Ihn-Geun Choi,Boung-Chul Lee,Jae-Bong Park,Jin-Hee Kim,Je Hoon Jeong,Ji Hoon Jeong,Cheong Hoon Seo
Molecular and cellular biochemistry 365 2012
Hypertrophic scarring (HTS) is a common fibroproliferative disorder that typically follows thermal and other injuries involving the deep dermis. These pathogenic mechanisms are regulated by connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor-β. We found that neuregulin-1 (NRG1), as well as NRG receptors, HER-2, and HER-3 were upregulated in HTS fibroblasts (HTSF), compared with normal fibroblasts. Furthermore, NRG1 stimulation increased the expression of CTGF in HTSF. In the presence of inhibitors of PI3K, Src, Smad, or reactive oxygen species, the effect of NRG1 on CTGF expression decreased significantly. In particular, the combination of LY294002 or PP2 with SB431542 blocked NRG1-mediated CTGF expression in HTSF. Finally, we demonstrated that siRNA for CTGF, AG825, LY294002, and PP2, either alone or in co-treatment, effectively reduced extracellular matrix expression. Taken together, our results suggest that NRG1 is involved in fibrotic scar pathogenesis via PI3K- or Src-mediated CTGF expression.
|Oxygen tension is a determinant of the matrix-forming phenotype of cultured human meniscal fibrochondrocytes. |
Adesida, AB; Mulet-Sierra, A; Laouar, L; Jomha, NM
PloS one 7 e39339 2012
Meniscal cartilage displays a poor repair capacity, especially when injury is located in the avascular region of the tissue. Cell-based tissue engineering strategies to generate functional meniscus substitutes is a promising approach to treat meniscus injuries. Meniscus fibrochondrocytes (MFC) can be used in this approach. However, MFC are unable to retain their phenotype when expanded in culture. In this study, we explored the effect of oxygen tension on MFC expansion and on their matrix-forming phenotype.MFC were isolated from human menisci followed by basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) mediated cell expansion in monolayer culture under normoxia (21%O(2)) or hypoxia (3%O(2)). Normoxia and hypoxia expanded MFC were seeded on to a collagen scaffold. The MFC seeded scaffolds (constructs) were cultured in a serum free chondrogenic medium for 3 weeks under normoxia and hypoxia. Constructs containing normoxia-expanded MFC were subsequently cultured under normoxia while those formed from hypoxia-expanded MFC were subsequently cultured under hypoxia. After 3 weeks of in vitro culture, the constructs were assessed biochemically, histologically and for gene expression via real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays. The results showed that constructs under normoxia produced a matrix with enhanced mRNA ratio (3.5-fold higher; pless than 0.001) of collagen type II to I. This was confirmed by enhanced deposition of collagen II using immuno-histochemistry. Furthermore, the constructs under hypoxia produced a matrix with higher mRNA ratio of aggrecan to versican (3.5-fold, pless than 0.05). However, both constructs had the same capacity to produce a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) -specific extracellular matrix.Our data provide evidence that oxygen tension is a key player in determining the matrix phenotype of cultured MFC. These findings suggest that the use of normal and low oxygen tension during MFC expansion and subsequent neo-tissue formation cultures may be important in engineering different regions of the meniscus.
|Role for circulating osteogenic precursor cells in aortic valvular disease. |
Egan, KP; Kim, JH; Mohler, ER; Pignolo, RJ
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 31 2965-71 2011
Approximately 13% of aortic valves removed from patients with end-stage aortic valve disease contain heterotopic ossification (HO). Recently, we identified a novel population of circulating osteogenic precursor (COP) cells that are derived from bone marrow and have the capability to form bone. These cells are identified by coexpression of the osteogenic marker type 1 collagen or osteoclacin and the hematopoietic marker CD45. We tested the hypothesis that these cells may contribute to heart valve stenosis.Quantification of CD45(+) osteoclacin(+) COP cells by flow cytometry showed that they represent up to 1.1% of mononuclear cells. Clonally derived COP cells produce bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 by immunohistochemical analysis. We reviewed 105 cases of end-stage aortic valvular disease and confirmed HO in 13 archived specimens. Using immunohistochemistry, we identified COP cells by coexpression of CD45 and type 1 collagen. There was a statistically significant association between the presence of COP cells and early HO lesions. COP cells were negligible in regions of unaffected valve leaflets (no HO) from the same individuals.This study provides the first evidence that osteogenic cells in the blood home to sites of vascular injury and are associated with HO formation in heart valves.
|Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)||Human||21903944|
|Vascular effects of cardiotrophin-1: a role in hypertension? |
Lopez-Andres, Natalia, et al.
J. Hypertens., 28: 1261-72 (2010) 2010
AIMS: To investigate cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) effects and regulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro and in aortic tunica media ex vivo in normotensive Wistar rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). METHODS AND RESULTS: CT-1 expression was quantified by real-time reverse-transcription PCR and western blotting. CT-1-activated intracellular pathways were assessed by western bloting analysis. Proliferation was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and ki67 immunodetection, and cell hypertrophy by planimetry. Extracellular matrix components were quantified by real-time reverse-transcription PCR and western blot, and metalloproteinases activities by zymography. VSMCs from Wistar rats and SHRs expressed spontaneously CT-1 at the mRNA and the protein level, with a two-fold more increase in SHRs. CT-1 phosphorylated p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt and Stat-3 in both strains. CT-1 stimulated VSMCs proliferation and hypertrophy in both strains, with an enhanced stimulation in SHRs. CT-1 increased the secretion of collagen type I and fibronectin in VSMCs and aortic tunica media of Wistar rats and SHRs, with greater magnitude in SHRs. In SHRs VSMCs in vitro and ex vivo, CT-1 increased the secretion of collagen type III and elastin and the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, without altering metalloproteinase activity. These effects were blocked by CT-1 receptor antibodies. Aldosterone treatment increased CT-1 expression in VSMCs and aortic tunica media from both strains, with a greater magnitude in SHRs. CONCLUSION: CT-1 induces VSMCs proliferation, hypertrophy and extracellular matrix production, and is upregulated in hypertension and by aldosterone. CT-1 may represent a new target of vascular wall remodeling in hypertension.
|A new mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) paradigm: polarization into a pro-inflammatory MSC1 or an Immunosuppressive MSC2 phenotype. |
Waterman, RS; Tomchuck, SL; Henkle, SL; Betancourt, AM
PloS one 5 e10088 2010
Our laboratory and others reported that the stimulation of specific Toll-like receptors (TLRs) affects the immune modulating responses of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Toll-like receptors recognize "danger" signals, and their activation leads to profound cellular and systemic responses that mobilize innate and adaptive host immune cells. The danger signals that trigger TLRs are released following most tissue pathologies. Since danger signals recruit immune cells to sites of injury, we reasoned that hMSCs might be recruited in a similar way. Indeed, we found that hMSCs express several TLRs (e.g., TLR3 and TLR4), and that their migration, invasion, and secretion of immune modulating factors is drastically affected by specific TLR-agonist engagement. In particular, we noted diverse consequences on the hMSCs following stimulation of TLR3 when compared to TLR4 by our low-level, short-term TLR-priming protocol.Here we extend our studies on the effect on immune modulation by specific TLR-priming of hMSCs, and based on our findings, propose a new paradigm for hMSCs that takes its cue from the monocyte literature. Specifically, that hMSCs can be polarized by downstream TLR signaling into two homogenously acting phenotypes we classify here as MSC1 and MSC2. This concept came from our observations that TLR4-primed hMSCs, or MSC1, mostly elaborate pro-inflammatory mediators, while TLR3-primed hMSCs, or MSC2, express mostly immunosuppressive ones. Additionally, allogeneic co-cultures of TLR-primed MSCs with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) predictably lead to suppressed T-lymphocyte activation following MSC2 co-culture, and permissive T-lymphocyte activation in co-culture with MSC1.Our study provides an explanation to some of the conflicting reports on the net effect of TLR stimulation and its downstream consequences on the immune modulating properties of stem cells. We further suggest that MSC polarization provides a convenient way to render these heterogeneous preparations of cells more uniform while introducing a new facet to study, as well as provides an important aspect to consider for the improvement of current stem cell-based therapies.Texto completo do artigo
|Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells onto highly adherent radio frequency-sputtered carbonated hydroxylapatite thin films. |
Sima, Livia E, et al.
J Biomed Mater Res A, 95: 1203-14 (2010) 2010
In this work, an improved version of the radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) technique was used to prepare highly adherent B-type carbonated hydroxylapatite (B-CHA) thin films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies proved that the coatings maintained the composition and revealed the polycrystalline structure of HA. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the CHA films are rough and exhibit a homogeneous microstructure. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) mapping demonstrated a uniform distribution of the Ca and P cations while a Ca/P ratio of 1.8 was found. In addition, the FTIR experiments showed a remarkable reproducibility of the nanostructures. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), in vitro differentiated osteoblasts, and explanted bone cells were grown over the surface of CHA coatings for periods between a few hours and 21 days. Osteoprogenitor cells maintained viability and characteristic morphology after adhesion on CHA coatings. Ki67-positive osteoblasts were the evidence of cell proliferation events. Cells showed positive staining for markers of osteoblast phenotype such as collagen type I, bone sialoprotein and osteonectin. Our data showed the formation of mineralized foci by differentiation of hMSCs to human primary osteoblasts after cultivation in osteogenic media on RF-sputtered films. The results demonstrate the capacity of B-type CHA coating to support MSCs adhesion and osteogenic differentiation ability.
|Evaluation of the complex transcriptional topography of mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis for cartilage tissue engineering. |
Huang, AH; Stein, A; Mauck, RL
Tissue engineering. Part A 16 2699-708 2010
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising cell source for cartilage tissue engineering given their chondrogenic potential. This potential has yet to be fully realized, as the mechanical properties of MSC-based constructs are lower than those of chondrocyte-based constructs cultured identically. The aim of this study was to better understand the transcriptional underpinnings of this functional limitation. Matched chondrocytes and MSCs from three donors were cultured in agarose in a defined medium containing transforming growth factor beta3 (TGF-beta3). We evaluated the compressive mechanical properties and matrix deposition of maturing constructs over 56 days. Transcriptional differences between the two cell types were assessed on day 0 and 28 via microarray analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction; differential deposition of matrix molecules was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Although the mechanical and biochemical properties of cell-seeded constructs improved with culture duration, MSC values plateaued at day 28, and remained lower than chondrocyte values. Using microarray analysis, 324 genes were identified as mis-expressed during chondrogenesis. Differential expression of 18 genes was validated, and differential deposition of proteoglycan 4 and TGF-beta-induced 68 kDa protein (TGFBI) was confirmed. Temporal expression profiles of these 18 genes showed that some genes were never expressed (chondromodulin), some were expressed at lower levels (proteoglycan 4), and some were expressed only at later time points (TGFBI) in MSCs compared to chondrocytes. These findings further define the complex transcriptional topography of MSC chondrogenesis, and provide new benchmarks for optimizing the growth of MSC-based engineered cartilage.Texto completo do artigo
|Long-term dynamic loading improves the mechanical properties of chondrogenic mesenchymal stem cell-laden hydrogel. |
Huang AH, Farrell MJ, Kim M, Mauck RL
European cells & materials 19 72-85 2010
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for cartilage tissue engineering given their ability to undergo chondrogenesis in 3D culture systems. Mechanical forces play an important role in regulating both cartilage development and MSC chondrogenic gene expression, however, mechanical stimulation has yet to enhance the mechanical properties of engineered constructs. In this study, we applied long-term dynamic compression to MSC-seeded constructs and assessed whether varying pre-culture duration, loading regimens and inclusion of TGF-beta3 during loading would influence functional outcomes and these phenotypic transitions. Loading initiated before chondrogenesis decreased functional maturation, although chondrogenic gene expression increased. In contrast, loading initiated after chondrogenesis and matrix elaboration further improved the mechanical properties of MSC-based constructs, but only when TGF-beta3 levels were maintained and under specific loading parameters. Although matrix quantity was not affected by dynamic compression, matrix distribution, assessed histologically and by FT-IRIS analysis, was significantly improved on the micro- (pericellular) and macro- (construct expanse) scales. Further, whole genome expression profiling revealed marked shifts in the molecular topography with dynamic loading. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that dynamic compressive loading initiated after a sufficient period of chondro-induction and with sustained TGF-beta exposure enhances matrix distribution and the mechanical properties of MSC-seeded constructs.
|Shear stress magnitude and duration modulates matrix composition and tensile mechanical properties in engineered cartilaginous tissue. |
Christopher V Gemmiti,Robert E Guldberg
Biotechnology and bioengineering 104 2009
Cartilage tissue-engineering strategies aim to produce a functional extracellular matrix similar to that of the native tissue. However, none of the myriad approaches taken have successfully generated a construct possessing the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of healthy articular cartilage. One possible approach to modulating the matrix composition and mechanical properties of engineered tissues is through the use of bioreactor-driven mechanical stimulation. In this study, we hypothesized that exposing scaffold-free cartilaginous tissue constructs to 7 days of continuous shear stress at 0.001 or 0.1 Pa would increase collagen deposition and tensile mechanical properties compared to that of static controls. Histologically, type II collagen staining was evident in all construct groups, while a surface layer of type I collagen increased in thickness with increasing shear stress magnitude. The areal fraction of type I collagen was higher in the 0.1-Pa group (25.2 +/- 2.2%) than either the 0.001-Pa (13.6 +/- 3.8%) or the static (7.9 +/- 1.5%) group. Type II collagen content, as assessed by ELISA, was also higher in the 0.1-Pa group (7.5 +/- 2.1%) compared to the 0.001-Pa (3.0 +/- 2.25%) or static groups (3.7 +/- 3.2%). Temporal gene expression analysis showed a flow-induced increase in type I and type II collagen expression within 24 h of exposure. Interestingly, while the 0.1-Pa group showed higher collagen content, this group retained less sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the matrix over time in bioreactor culture. Increases in both tensile Young's modulus and ultimate strength were observed with increasing shear stress, yielding constructs possessing a modulus of nearly 5 MPa and strength of 1.3 MPa. This study demonstrates that shear stress is a potent modulator of both the amount and type of synthesized extracellular matrix constituents in engineered cartilaginous tissue with corresponding effects on mechanical function.Texto completo do artigo
|Macromer density influences mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis and maturation in photocrosslinked hyaluronic acid hydrogels. |
Erickson IE, Huang AH, Sengupta S, Kestle S, Burdick JA, Mauck RL
Osteoarthritis and cartilage OARS, Osteoarthritis Research 17 1639-1648 2009
OBJECTIVE: Engineering cartilage requires that a clinically relevant cell type be situated within a 3D environment that supports cell viability, the production and retention of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM), and eventually, the establishment of mechanical properties that approach that of the native tissue. In this study, we investigated the ability of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to undergo chondrogenesis in crosslinked methacrylated hyaluronic acid hydrogels (MeHA) of different macromer concentrations (1, 2, and 5%). DESIGN: Over a 6 week culture period under pro-chondrogenic conditions, we evaluated cartilage-specific gene expression, ECM deposition within constructs and released to the culture media, and mechanical properties in both compression and tension. Further, we examined early matrix assembly and long term histological features of the forming tissues, as well as the ability of macromolecules to diffuse within hydrogels as a function of MeHA macromer concentration. RESULTS: Findings from this study show that variations in macromer density influence MSC chondrogenesis in distinct ways. Increasing HA macromer density promoted chondrogenesis and matrix formation and retention, but yielded functionally inferior constructs due to limited matrix distribution throughout the construct expanse. In 1% MeHA constructs, the equilibrium compressive modulus reached 0.12MPa and s-GAG content reached nearly 3% of the wet weight, values that matched or exceeded those of control agarose constructs and that are 25 and 50% of native tissue levels, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide new insight into how early matrix deposition regulates long term construct development, and defines new parameters for optimizing the formation of functional MSC-based engineered articular cartilage using HA hydrogels.
|Chondrogenesis of adipose-derived adult stem cells in a poly-lactide-co-glycolide scaffold. |
Alexander T Mehlhorn,Jorn Zwingmann,Guenter Finkenzeller,Phillip Niemeyer,Martin Dauner,Bjoern Stark,Norbert P Südkamp,Hagen Schmal
Tissue engineering. Part A 15 2009
Adult adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are considered to be an alternative cell source for cell-based cartilage repair because of their multiple differentiation potentials. This article addresses the chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs seeded into poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) scaffolds after implantation in a subcutaneous pocket of nude mice. Human ASCs were seeded into PLGA (polylactic acid:polyglycolic acid = 90:10) scaffolds and cultured in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1)-containing medium for 3 weeks in vitro. Then specimens were implanted into a subcutaneous pocket of severe combined immunodeficiency mice and harvested after 8 weeks. Chondrospecific messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Corresponding extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis was demonstrated using immunohistochemical staining. Chondrospecific marker molecules such as collagen type II and type X, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, and aggrecan subsequently increased during the 3 weeks period in vitro. After a further 8 weeks, in vivo samples pretreated with TGF-beta1 continued expressing collagen type II and aggrecan mRNA, and collagen type II was found within the ECM using immunohistochemistry. Chondrospecific mRNA was not detected in control samples. ASC-seeded PLGA scaffolds express a stable chondrogenic phenotype in a heterotopic model of cartilage transplantation and represent a suitable tool for tissue engineering of cartilage.
|Alterations of human acellular tissue matrix by gamma irradiation: histology, biomechanical property, stability, in vitro cell repopulation, and remodeling. |
Sok-Siam Gouk,Tit-Meng Lim,Swee-Hin Teoh,Wendell Q Sun
Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials 84 2008
AlloDerm, a processed acellular human tissue matrix, is used in a number of surgical applications for tissue repair and regeneration. In the present work, AlloDerm serves as a model system for studying gamma radiation-induced changes in tissue structure and stability as well as the effect of such changes on the cell-matrix interactions, including cell repopulation and matrix remodeling. AlloDerm tissue matrix was treated with 2-30 kGy gamma irradiation at room temperature. Gamma irradiation reduced the swelling of tissue matrix upon rehydration and caused significant structural modifications, including collagen condensation and hole formation in collagen fibres. The tensile strength of AlloDerm increased at low gamma dose but decreased with increasing gamma dosage. The elasticity of irradiated AlloDerm was reduced significantly. Calorimetric study showed that gamma irradiation destabilized the tissue matrix, resulting in greater susceptibility to proteolytic enzyme degradation. Although gamma irradiation did not affect in vitro proliferation of fibroblast cells, it promoted tissue degradation upon cell repopulation and influenced synthesis and deposition of new collagen.
|Tensile properties of engineered cartilage formed from chondrocyte- and MSC-laden hydrogels. |
A H Huang,M Yeger-McKeever,A Stein,R L Mauck
Osteoarthritis and cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society 16 2008
The objective of this study was to determine the capacity of chondrocyte- and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-laden hydrogel constructs to achieve native tissue tensile properties when cultured in a chemically defined medium supplemented with transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-beta3).Texto completo do artigo
|The anchorless adhesin Eap (extracellular adherence protein) from Staphylococcus aureus selectively recognizes extracellular matrix aggregates but binds promiscuously to monomeric matrix macromolecules. |
Uwe Hansen, Muzaffar Hussain, Daniela Villone, Mathias Herrmann, Horst Robenek, Georg Peters, Bhanu Sinha, Peter Bruckner
Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 25 252-60 2006
Besides a number of cell wall-anchored adhesins, the majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains produce anchorless, cell wall-associated proteins, such as Eap (extracellular adherence protein). Eap contains four to six tandem repeat (EAP)-domains. Eap mediates diverse biological functions, including adherence and immunomodulation, thus contributing to S. aureus pathogenesis. Eap binding to host macromolecules is unusually promiscuous and includes matrix or matricellular proteins as well as plasma proteins. The structural basis of this promiscuity is poorly understood. Here, we show that in spite of the preferential location of the binding epitopes within triple helical regions in some collagens there is a striking specificity of Eap binding to different collagen types. Collagen I, but not collagen II, is a binding substrate in monomolecular form. However, collagen I is virtually unrecognized by Eap when incorporated into banded fibrils. By contrast, microfibrils containing collagen VI as well as basement membrane-associated networks containing collagen IV, or aggregates containing fibronectin bound Eap as effectively as the monomeric proteins. Therefore, Eap-binding to extracellular matrix ligands is promiscuous at the molecular level but not indiscriminate with respect to supramolecular structures containing the same macromolecules. In addition, Eap bound to banded fibrils after their partial disintegration by matrix-degrading proteinases, including matrix metalloproteinase 1. Therefore, adherence to matrix suprastructures by S. aureus can be supported by inflammatory reactions.
|Regulating stem cell research & therapy. |
S S Agarwal
The Indian journal of medical research 124 2006
|Fluid flow increases type II collagen deposition and tensile mechanical properties in bioreactor-grown tissue-engineered cartilage. |
Christopher V Gemmiti, Robert E Guldberg
Tissue engineering 12 469-79 2006
A novel parallel-plate bioreactor has been designed to apply a consistent level of fluid flow-induced shear stress to tissue-engineered articular cartilage in order to improve the matrix composition and mechanical properties and more nearly approximate to that of native tissue. Primary bovine articular chondrocytes were seeded into the bioreactor at high densities (1.7 x 10(6) cell/cm2) without a scaffold and cultured for two weeks under static, no-flow conditions. A mean fluid flow-induced shear stress of 1 dyne/cm2 was then applied continuously for 3 days. The application of flow produced constructs with significantly (p 0.05) higher amounts of total collagen (via hydroxyproline) and specifically type II collagen (via ELISA) (25.3 +/- 2.5% and 22.1 +/- 4.7% of native tissue, respectively) compared to static controls (22.4 +/- 1.7% and 9.5 +/- 2.3%, respectively). Concurrently, the tensile Young's modulus and ultimate strength were significantly increased in flow samples (2.28 +/- 0.19 MPa and 0.81 +/- 0.07 MPa, respectively) compared to static controls (1.55 +/- 0.10 MPa and 0.62 +/- 0.05 MPa, respectively). This study suggests that flow-induced shear stresses and/or enhanced mass transport associated with the hydrodynamic environment of our novel bioreactor may be an effective functional tissue-engineering strategy for improving matrix composition and mechanical properties in vitro.
|Molecular and immunohistological characterization of human cartilage two years following autologous cell transplantation. |
Brunella Grigolo, Livia Roseti, Luciana De Franceschi, Anna Piacentini, Luca Cattini, Massimiliano Manfredini, Riccardo Faccini, Andrea Facchini
The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume 87 46-57 2005
BACKGROUND: There are only a few studies concerning the cellular, biochemical, and genetic processes that occur during the remodeling of graft tissue after autologous chondrocyte transplantation. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins and regulatory factors that are essential for cell differentiation in cartilage biopsy specimens from patients who had this treatment two years previously. METHODS: Two cartilage biopsy specimens from each of four patients who had been treated with autologous chondrocyte transplantation and from two multiorgan donors were used. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of types I, II, and X collagen; aggrecan; cathepsin B; and early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1) and Sry-type high-mobility-group box transcription factor-9 (Sox-9) mRNAs. Immunohistochemical analysis for matrix proteins and regulatory proteins was carried out on paraffin-embedded sections. RESULTS: Type-I collagen mRNA was expressed in all of the samples evaluated. Type-II collagen was present in autologous chondrocyte transplantation samples but at lower levels than in the controls. Type-X collagen messenger was undetectable. Aggrecan mRNA was present in all of the samples at lower levels than in the controls, while cathepsin-B messenger levels were higher and Egr-1 and Sox-9 mRNAs were expressed at lower levels. The immunohistochemical analysis showed slight positivity for type-I collagen in all of the sections. Type-II collagen was found in all of the samples with positivity confined inside the cells, while the controls displayed a positivity that was diffuse in the extracellular matrix. Cathepsin B was slightly positive in all of the samples, while the controls were negative. Egr-1 protein was particularly evident in the areas negative for type-II collagen. Sox-9 was positive in all samples, with evident localization in the superficial and middle layers. CONCLUSIONS: In biopsy specimens from autologous chondrocyte transplantation tissue at two years, there is evidence of the formation of new tissue, which displays varying degrees of organization with some fibrous and fibrocartilaginous features. Long-term follow-up investigations are needed to verify whether, once all of the remodeling processes are completed, the newly formed tissue will acquire the more typical features of articular cartilage.
|Co-culture of osteoblasts and chondrocytes modulates cellular differentiation in vitro. |
Jie Jiang, Steven B Nicoll, Helen H Lu
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 338 762-70 2005
Biological integration of cartilage grafts with subchondral bone remains a significant clinical challenge. We hypothesize that interaction between osteoblasts and chondrocytes is important in regenerating the osteochondral interface on tissue-engineered osteochondral grafts. We describe here a sequential co-culturing model which permits cell-cell contact and paracrine interaction between osteoblast and chondrocytes in 3-D culture. This model was used to determine the effects of co-culture on the phenotypic maintenance of osteoblasts and chondrocytes. It was found that while chondrocytes synthesized a type II collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) matrix, GAG deposition was significantly lower in co-culture. Alkaline phosphatase activity was maintained in osteoblasts, but cell-mediated mineralization in co-culture was markedly lower compared to osteoblast controls. These results collectively suggest that interactions between osteoblasts and chondrocytes modulate cell phenotypes, and the importance of these interactions on osteochondral interface regeneration will be explored in future studies.
|A paradigm for functional tissue engineering of articular cartilage via applied physiologic deformational loading. |
Clark T Hung, Robert L Mauck, Christopher C B Wang, Eric G Lima, Gerard A Ateshian
Annals of biomedical engineering 32 35-49 2004
Deformational loading represents a primary component of the chondrocyte physical environment in vivo. This review summarizes our experience with physiologic deformational loading of chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogels to promote development of cartilage constructs having mechanical properties matching that of the parent calf tissue, which has a Young's modulus E(Y) = 277 kPa and unconfined dynamic modulus at 1 Hz G* = 7 MPa. Over an 8-week culture period, cartilage-like properties have been achieved for 60 x 10(6) cells/ml seeding density agarose constructs, with E(Y) = 186 kPa, G* = 1.64 MPa. For these constructs, the GAG content reached 1.74% ww and collagen content 2.64% ww compared to 2.4% ww and 21.5% ww for the parent tissue, respectively. Issues regarding the deformational loading protocol, cell-seeding density, nutrient supply, growth factor addition, and construct mechanical characterization are discussed. In anticipation of cartilage repair studies, we also describe early efforts to engineer cylindrical and anatomically shaped bilayered constructs of agarose hydrogel and bone (i.e., osteochondral constructs). The presence of a bony substrate may facilitate integration upon implantation. These efforts will provide an underlying framework from which a functional tissue-engineering approach, as described by Butler and coworkers (2000), may be applied to general cell-scaffold systems adopted for cartilage tissue engineering.
|Chondrogenic and adipogenic potential of microvascular pericytes. |
Farrington-Rock, C; Crofts, NJ; Doherty, MJ; Ashton, BA; Griffin-Jones, C; Canfield, AE
Circulation 110 2226-32 2004
Previous studies have shown that pericytes can differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone. This study investigated whether pericytes can also differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that pericytes express mRNA for the chondrocyte markers Sox9, aggrecan, and type II collagen. Furthermore, when cultured at high density in the presence of a defined chondrogenic medium, pericytes formed well-defined pellets comprising cells embedded in an extracellular matrix rich in sulfated proteoglycans and type II collagen. In contrast, when endothelial cells were cultured under the same conditions, the pellets disintegrated after 48 hours. In the presence of adipogenic medium, pericytes but not endothelial cells expressed mRNA for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (an adipocyte-specific transcription factor) and incorporated lipid droplets that stained with oil red O. To confirm that pericytes can differentiate along the chondrocytic and adipocytic lineages in vivo, these cells were inoculated into diffusion chambers and implanted into athymic mice for 56 days. Accordingly, mineralized cartilage, fibrocartilage, and a nonmineralized cartilaginous matrix with lacunae containing chondrocytes were observed within these chambers. Small clusters of cells that morphologically resembled adipocytes were also identified.These data demonstrate that pericytes are multipotent cells that may contribute to growth, wound healing, repair, and/or the development and progression of various pathological states.
|Synergistic action of growth factors and dynamic loading for articular cartilage tissue engineering. |
Robert L Mauck, Steven B Nicoll, Sara L Seyhan, Gerard A Ateshian, Clark T Hung
Tissue engineering 9 597-611 2003
It has previously been demonstrated that dynamic deformational loading of chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogels over the course of 1 month can increase construct mechanical and biochemical properties relative to free-swelling controls. The present study examines the manner in which two mediators of matrix biosynthesis, the growth factors TGF-beta1 and IGF-I, interact with applied dynamic deformational loading. Under free-swelling conditions in control medium (C), the [proteoglycan content][collagen content][equilibrium aggregate modulus] of cell-laden (10 x 10(6) cells/mL) 2% agarose constructs reached a peak of [0.54% wet weight (ww)][0.16% ww][13.4 kPa]c, whereas the addition of TGF-beta1 or IGF-I to the control medium led to significantly higher peaks of [1.18% ww][0.97% ww][23.6 kPa](C-TGF) and [1.00% ww][0.63% ww][19.3 kPa](C-IGF), respectively, by day 28 or 35 (p0.01). Under dynamic loading in control medium (L), the measured parameters were [1.10% ww][0.52% ww][24.5 kPa]L, and with the addition of TGF-beta1 or IGF-I to the control medium these further increased to [1.49% ww][1.07% ww][50.5 kPa](L-TGF) and [1.48% ww][0.81% ww][46.2 kPa](L-IGF), respectively (p0.05). Immunohistochemical staining revealed that type II collagen accumulated primarily in the pericellular area under free-swelling conditions, but spanned the entire tissue in dynamically loaded constructs. Applied in concert, dynamic deformational loading and TGF-beta1 or IGF-I increased the aggregate modulus of engineered constructs by 277 or 245%, respectively, an increase greater than the sum of either stimulus applied alone. These results support the hypothesis that the combination of chemical and mechanical promoters of matrix biosynthesis can optimize the growth of tissue-engineered cartilage constructs.
|Cutis laxa: analysis of metalloproteinases and extracellular matrix expression by immunohistochemistry and histochemistry. |
Weijie Gu,Wei Liu,Xueqin Yang,Xiaoying Yuan,Yan Tian,Rusong Meng,Qingli Zhao
European journal of dermatology : EJD 21 2001
Upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and downregulation of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) have been reported in cultured fibroblasts from patients with congenital cutis laxa (CL) or anetoderma. We determined the protein expressions of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-12, TIMP-1 and collagen I, collagen III in vivo, to confirm their roles in the pathogenesis of cutis laxa. The protein expression of the MMPs and collagens from skin lesions of CL were detected by immunohistochemistry and analyzed by image analysis software. Markedly increased MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-12, TIMP-1 associated with alteration of elastic and collagen fibers were found in two cases of CL, whereas increased MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-12 accompanying a degradation of elastic fibers were detected in the third case. These results suggest an elevated expression of MMPs may play a role in the evolution or genesis of CL.
|Electrophoresis and electroblotting of native collagens. |
Ramshaw, J A and Werkmeister, J A
Anal. Biochem., 168: 82-7 (1988) 1988
Electrophoretic and immunoblotting techniques, while now used routinely for the biochemical characterization of many proteins, have not been used for the identification of native collagens. We present here an acidic electrophoresis system using very low percentage acrylamide gels which maintains collagen solubility and allows migration of native dermal collagens. The method gives uniform gels which can be made mechanically stable for subsequent electroblotting. The resulting nitrocellulose transfer allows immunological detection of collagens using either polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies and can be used to screen antibody specificities. The majority of murine monoclonal antibodies directed against collagen bind only to conformational epitopes on the native triple-helical collagen, and thus cannot be screened by Western blotting. This method therefore enables the electrophoretic screening of these monoclonal antibodies and provides an alternative approach for their characterization.
Ficha de dados
|ANTI-COLLAGEN TYPE I MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY|