Tabela com principais espec.
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|A, H, M, R||ICC, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG2b liquid in buffer containing 0.02M phosphate buffer, 0.25M NaCl with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 6 months at 2-8ºC in undiluted aliquots from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||50 µg|
Referências | 62 Disponível | Ver todas as referências
|Visão geral das referências||Aplicação||Espécies||Pub Med ID|
|Zinc finger independent genome-wide binding of Sp2 potentiates recruitment of histone-fold protein Nf-y distinguishing it from Sp1 and Sp3. |
Völkel, S; Stielow, B; Finkernagel, F; Stiewe, T; Nist, A; Suske, G
PLoS genetics 11 e1005102 2015
Transcription factors are grouped into families based on sequence similarity within functional domains, particularly DNA-binding domains. The Specificity proteins Sp1, Sp2 and Sp3 are paradigmatic of closely related transcription factors. They share amino-terminal glutamine-rich regions and a conserved carboxy-terminal zinc finger domain that can bind to GC rich motifs in vitro. All three Sp proteins are ubiquitously expressed; yet they carry out unique functions in vivo raising the question of how specificity is achieved. Crucially, it is unknown whether they bind to distinct genomic sites and, if so, how binding site selection is accomplished. In this study, we have examined the genomic binding patterns of Sp1, Sp2 and Sp3 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts by ChIP-seq. Sp1 and Sp3 essentially occupy the same promoters and localize to GC boxes. The genomic binding pattern of Sp2 is different; Sp2 primarily localizes at CCAAT motifs. Consistently, re-expression of Sp2 and Sp3 mutants in corresponding knockout MEFs revealed strikingly different modes of genomic binding site selection. Most significantly, while the zinc fingers dictate genomic binding of Sp3, they are completely dispensable for binding of Sp2. Instead, the glutamine-rich amino-terminal region is sufficient for recruitment of Sp2 to its target promoters in vivo. We have identified the trimeric histone-fold CCAAT box binding transcription factor Nf-y as the major partner for Sp2-chromatin interaction. Nf-y is critical for recruitment of Sp2 to co-occupied regulatory elements. Equally, Sp2 potentiates binding of Nf-y to shared sites indicating the existence of an extensive Sp2-Nf-y interaction network. Our results unveil strikingly different recruitment mechanisms of Sp1/Sp2/Sp3 transcription factor members uncovering an unexpected layer of complexity in their binding to chromatin in vivo.
|Shifts in temperature within the physiologic range modify strand-specific expression of select human microRNAs. |
Potla, R; Singh, IS; Atamas, SP; Hasday, JD
RNA (New York, N.Y.) 21 1261-73 2015
Previous studies have revealed that clinically relevant changes in temperature modify clinically relevant gene expression profiles through transcriptional regulation. Temperature dependence of post-transcriptional regulation, specifically, through expression of miRNAs has been less studied. We comprehensively analyzed the effect of 24 h exposure to 32°C or 39.5°C on miRNA expression profile in primary cultured human small airway epithelial cells (hSAECs) and its impact on expression of a targeted protein, protein kinase C α (PKCα). Using microarray, and solution hybridization-based nCounter assays, with confirmation by quantitative RT-PCR, we found significant temperature-dependent changes in expression level of only five mature human miRNAs, representing only 1% of detected miRNAs. Four of these five miRNAs are the less abundant passenger (star) strands. They exhibited a similar pattern of increased expression at 32°C and reduced expression at 39.5°C relative to 37°C. As PKCα mRNA has multiple potential binding sites for three of these miRNAs, we analyzed PKCα protein expression in HEK 293T cells and hSAECs. PKCα protein levels were lowest at 32°C and highest at 39.5°C and specific miRNA inhibitors reduced these effects. Finally, we analyzed cell-cycle progression in hSAECs and found 32°C cells exhibited the greatest G1 to S transition, a process known to be inhibited by PKCα, and the effect was mitigated by specific miRNA inhibitors. These results demonstrate that exposure to clinically relevant hypothermia or hyperthermia modifies expression of a narrow subset of miRNAs and impacts expression of at least one signaling protein involved in multiple important cellular processes.
|Type-1 interferons contribute to oxygen glucose deprivation induced neuro-inflammation in BE(2)M17 human neuroblastoma cells. |
Minter, MR; Zhang, M; Ates, RC; Taylor, JM; Crack, PJ
Journal of neuroinflammation 11 43 2014
Hypoxic-ischaemic injuries such as stroke and traumatic brain injury exhibit features of a distinct neuro-inflammatory response in the hours and days post-injury. Microglial activation, elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and macrophage infiltration contribute to core tissue damage and contribute to secondary injury within a region termed the penumbra. Type-1 interferons (IFNs) are a super-family of pleiotropic cytokines that regulate pro-inflammatory gene transcription via the classical Jak/Stat pathway; however their role in hypoxia-ischaemia and central nervous system neuro-inflammation remains unknown. Using an in vitro approach, this study investigated the role of type-1 IFN signalling in an inflammatory setting induced by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD).Human BE(2)M17 neuroblastoma cells or cells expressing a type-1 interferon-α receptor 1 (IFNAR1) shRNA or negative control shRNA knockdown construct were subjected to 4.5 h OGD and a time-course reperfusion period (0 to 24 h). Q-PCR was used to evaluate IFNα, IFNβ, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine expression levels. Phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-1, STAT-3 and cleavage of caspase-3 was detected by western blot analysis. Post-OGD cellular viability was measured using a MTT assay.Elevated IFNα and IFNβ expression was detected during reperfusion post-OGD in parental M17 cells. This correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of STAT-1, a downstream type-1 IFN signalling mediator. Significantly, ablation of type-1 IFN signalling, through IFNAR1 knockdown, reduced IFNα, IFNβ, IL-6 and TNF-α expression in response to OGD. In addition, MTT assay confirmed the IFNAR1 knockdown cells were protected against OGD compared to negative control cells with reduced pro-apoptotic cleaved caspase-3 levels.This study confirms a role for type-1 IFN signalling in the neuro-inflammatory response following OGD in vitro and suggests its modulation through therapeutic blockade of IFNAR1 may be beneficial in reducing hypoxia-induced neuro-inflammation.
|The sphingolipid receptor S1PR2 is a receptor for Nogo-a repressing synaptic plasticity. |
Kempf, A; Tews, B; Arzt, ME; Weinmann, O; Obermair, FJ; Pernet, V; Zagrebelsky, M; Delekate, A; Iobbi, C; Zemmar, A; Ristic, Z; Gullo, M; Spies, P; Dodd, D; Gygax, D; Korte, M; Schwab, ME
PLoS biology 12 e1001763 2014
Nogo-A is a membrane protein of the central nervous system (CNS) restricting neurite growth and synaptic plasticity via two extracellular domains: Nogo-66 and Nogo-A-Δ20. Receptors transducing Nogo-A-Δ20 signaling remained elusive so far. Here we identify the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) as a Nogo-A-Δ20-specific receptor. Nogo-A-Δ20 binds S1PR2 on sites distinct from the pocket of the sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and signals via the G protein G13, the Rho GEF LARG, and RhoA. Deleting or blocking S1PR2 counteracts Nogo-A-Δ20- and myelin-mediated inhibition of neurite outgrowth and cell spreading. Blockade of S1PR2 strongly enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus of wild-type but not Nogo-A(-/-) mice, indicating a repressor function of the Nogo-A/S1PR2 axis in synaptic plasticity. A similar increase in LTP was also observed in the motor cortex after S1PR2 blockade. We propose a novel signaling model in which a GPCR functions as a receptor for two structurally unrelated ligands, a membrane protein and a sphingolipid. Elucidating Nogo-A/S1PR2 signaling platforms will provide new insights into regulation of synaptic plasticity.
|Comparative analysis of single and combined APP/APLP knockouts reveals reduced spine density in APP-KO mice that is prevented by APPsα expression. |
Weyer, SW; Zagrebelsky, M; Herrmann, U; Hick, M; Ganss, L; Gobbert, J; Gruber, M; Altmann, C; Korte, M; Deller, T; Müller, UC
Acta neuropathologica communications 2 36 2014
Synaptic dysfunction and synapse loss are key features of Alzheimer's pathogenesis. Previously, we showed an essential function of APP and APLP2 for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here, we used organotypic hippocampal cultures to investigate the specific role(s) of APP family members and their fragments for dendritic complexity and spine formation of principal neurons within the hippocampus. Whereas CA1 neurons from APLP1-KO or APLP2-KO mice showed normal neuronal morphology and spine density, APP-KO mice revealed a highly reduced dendritic complexity in mid-apical dendrites. Despite unaltered morphology of APLP2-KO neurons, combined APP/APLP2-DKO mutants showed an additional branching defect in proximal apical dendrites, indicating redundancy and a combined function of APP and APLP2 for dendritic architecture. Remarkably, APP-KO neurons showed a pronounced decrease in spine density and reductions in the number of mushroom spines. No further decrease in spine density, however, was detectable in APP/APLP2-DKO mice. Mechanistically, using APPsα-KI mice lacking transmembrane APP and expressing solely the secreted APPsα fragment we demonstrate that APPsα expression alone is sufficient to prevent the defects in spine density observed in APP-KO mice. Collectively, these studies reveal a combined role of APP and APLP2 for dendritic architecture and a unique function of secreted APPs for spine density.
|Localization of heat shock proteins in cerebral cortical cultures following induction by celastrol. |
Chow, AM; Tang, DW; Hanif, A; Brown, IR
Cell stress & chaperones 19 845-51 2014
Hsp70, Hsp32, and Hsp27 were induced by celastrol in rat cerebral cortical cultures at dosages that did not affect cell viability. Pronounced differences were observed in the cellular localization of these heat shock proteins in cell types of cerebral cortical cultures. Celastrol-induced Hsp70 localized to the cell body and cellular processes of neurons that were identified by neuron-specific βIII-tubulin. Hsp70 was not detected in adjacent GFAP-positive glial cells that demonstrated a strong signal for Hsp27 and Hsp32 in both glial cell bodies and cellular processes. Cells in the cerebral cortex region of the brain are selectively impacted during the progression of Alzheimer's disease which is a "protein misfolding disorder." Heat shock proteins provide a line of defense against misfolded, aggregation-prone proteins. Celastrol is a potential agent to counter this neurodegenerative disorder as recent evidence indicates that in vivo administration of celastrol in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's reduces an important neuropathological hallmark of this disease, namely, amyloid beta pathology that involves protein aggregation.
|Nucleosome positioning and histone modifications define relationships between regulatory elements and nearby gene expression in breast epithelial cells. |
Rhie, SK; Hazelett, DJ; Coetzee, SG; Yan, C; Noushmehr, H; Coetzee, GA
BMC genomics 15 331 2014
The precise nature of how cell type specific chromatin structures at enhancer sites affect gene expression is largely unknown. Here we identified cell type specific enhancers coupled with gene expression in two different types of breast epithelial cells, HMEC (normal breast epithelial cells) and MDAMB231 (triple negative breast cancer cell line).Enhancers were defined by modified neighboring histones [using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq)] and nucleosome depletion [using formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements followed by sequencing (FAIRE-seq)]. Histone modifications at enhancers were related to the expression levels of nearby genes up to 750 kb away. These expression levels were correlated with enhancer status (poised or active), defined by surrounding histone marks. Furthermore, about fifty percent of poised and active enhancers contained nucleosome-depleted regions. We also identified response element motifs enriched at these enhancer sites that revealed key transcription factors (e.g. TP63) likely involved in regulating breast epithelial enhancer-mediated gene expression. By utilizing expression data, potential target genes of more than 600 active enhancers were identified. These genes were involved in proteolysis, epidermis development, cell adhesion, mitosis, cell cycle, and DNA replication.These findings facilitate the understanding of epigenetic regulation specifically, such as the relationships between regulatory elements and gene expression and generally, how breast epithelial cellular phenotypes are determined by cell type specific enhancers.
|Contactin-1 regulates myelination and nodal/paranodal domain organization in the central nervous system. |
Çolakoğlu, G; Bergstrom-Tyrberg, U; Berglund, EO; Ranscht, B
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 E394-403 2014
Myelin, a multilayered membrane sheath formed by oligodendrocytes around axons in the CNS, enables rapid nerve impulse conduction and sustains neuronal health. The signals exchanged between axons and oligodendrocytes in myelin remain to be fully elucidated. Here we provide genetic evidence for multiple and critical functions of Contactin-1 in central myelin. We document dynamic Contactin-1 expression on oligodendrocytes in vivo, and progressive accumulation at nodes of Ranvier and paranodes during postnatal mouse development. Nodal and paranodal expression stabilized in mature myelin, but overall membranous expression diminished. Contactin-1-deficiency disrupted paranodal junction formation as evidenced by loss of Caspr, mislocalized potassium Kv1.2 channels, and abnormal myelin terminal loops. Reduced numbers and impaired maturation of sodium channel clusters accompanied this phenotype. Histological, electron microscopic, and biochemical analyses uncovered significant hypomyelination in Contactin-1-deficient central nerves, with up to 60% myelin loss. Oligodendrocytes were present in normal numbers, albeit a minor population of neuronal/glial antigen 2-positive (NG2(+)) progenitors lagged in maturation by postnatal day 18, when the mouse null mutation was lethal. Major contributing factors to hypomyelination were defects in the generation and organization of myelin membranes, as judged by electron microscopy and quantitative analysis of oligodendrocyte processes labeled by GFP transgenically expressed from the proteolipid protein promoter. These data reveal that Contactin-1 regulates both myelin formation and organization of nodal and paranodal domains in the CNS. These multiple roles distinguish central Contactin-1 functions from its specific role at paranodes in the periphery, and emphasize mechanistic differences in central and peripheral myelination.
|Stress-induced localization of HSPA6 (HSP70B') and HSPA1A (HSP70-1) proteins to centrioles in human neuronal cells. |
Khalouei, S; Chow, AM; Brown, IR
Cell stress & chaperones 19 321-7 2014
The localization of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged HSP70 proteins was employed to identify stress-sensitive sites in human neurons following temperature elevation. Stable lines of human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were established that expressed YFP-tagged protein products of the human inducible HSP70 genes HSPA6 (HSP70B') and HSPA1A (HSP70-1). Following a brief period of thermal stress, YFP-tagged HSPA6 and HSPA1A rapidly appeared at centrioles in the cytoplasm of human neuronal cells, with HSPA6 demonstrating a more prolonged signal compared to HSPA1A. Each centriole is composed of a distal end and a proximal end, the latter linking the centriole doublet. The YFP-tagged HSP70 proteins targeted the proximal end of centrioles (identified by γ-tubulin marker) rather than the distal end (centrin marker). Centrioles play key roles in cellular polarity and migration during neuronal differentiation. The proximal end of the centriole, which is involved in centriole stabilization, may be stress-sensitive in post-mitotic, differentiating human neurons.
|Induction of heat shock proteins in cerebral cortical cultures by celastrol. |
Chow, AM; Tang, DW; Hanif, A; Brown, IR
Cell stress & chaperones 18 155-60 2013
Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are 'protein misfolding disorders' of the mature nervous system that are characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates and selective cell loss. Different brain regions are impacted, with Alzheimer's affecting cells in the cerebral cortex, Parkinson's targeting dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra and ALS causing degeneration of cells in the spinal cord. These diseases differ widely in frequency in the human population. Alzheimer's is more frequent than Parkinson's and ALS. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are 'protein repair agents' that provide a line of defense against misfolded, aggregation-prone proteins. We have suggested that differing levels of constitutively expressed Hsps (Hsc70 and Hsp27) in neural cell populations confer a variable buffering capacity against 'protein misfolding disorders' that correlates with the relative frequencies of these neurodegenerative diseases. The high relative frequency of Alzheimer's may due to low levels of Hsc70 and Hsp27 in affected cell populations that results in a reduced defense capacity against protein misfolding. Here, we demonstrate that celastrol, but not classical heat shock treatment, is effective in inducing a set of neuroprotective Hsps in cultures derived from cerebral cortices, including Hsp70, Hsp27 and Hsp32. This set of Hsps is induced by celastrol at 'days in vitro' (DIV) 13 when cultured cortical cells reached maturity. The inducibility of a set of neuroprotective Hsps in mature cortical cultures at DIV13 suggests that celastrol is a potential agent to counter Alzheimer's disease, a neurodegenerative 'protein misfolding disorder' of the adult brain that targets cells in the cerebral cortex.
|Missense mutation in mouse GALC mimics human gene defect and offers new insights into Krabbe disease. |
Potter, GB; Santos, M; Davisson, MT; Rowitch, DH; Marks, DL; Bongarzone, ER; Petryniak, MA
Human molecular genetics 22 3397-414 2013
Krabbe disease is a devastating pediatric leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene. A significant subset of the infantile form of the disease is due to missense mutations that result in aberrant protein production. The currently used mouse model, twitcher, has a nonsense mutation not found in Krabbe patients, although it is similar to the human 30 kb deletion in abrogating GALC expression. Here, we identify a spontaneous mutation in GALC, GALCtwi-5J, that precisely matches the E130K missense mutation in patients with infantile Krabbe disease. GALCtwi-5J homozygotes show loss of enzymatic activity despite normal levels of precursor protein, and manifest a more severe phenotype than twitcher, with half the life span. Although neuropathological hallmarks such as gliosis, globoid cells and psychosine accumulation are present throughout the nervous system, the CNS does not manifest significant demyelination. In contrast, the PNS is severely hypomyelinated and lacks large diameter axons, suggesting primary dysmyelination, rather than a demyelinating process. Our data indicate that early demise is due to mechanisms other than myelin loss and support an important role for neuroinflammation in Krabbe disease progression. Furthermore, our results argue against a causative relationship between psychosine accumulation, white matter loss and gliosis.
|Control of cultured human cells with femtosecond laser ablated patterns on steel and plastic surfaces. |
Nuutinen, T; Silvennoinen, M; Päiväsaari, K; Vahimaa, P
Biomedical microdevices 15 279-88 2013
The purpose of the present study is to explore topographical patterns produced with femtosecond laser pulses as a means of controlling the behaviour of living human cells (U2OS) on stainless steel surfaces and on negative plastic imprints (polycarbonate). The results show that the patterns on both types of material strongly affect cell behaviour and are particularly powerful in controlling cell spreading/elongation, localization and orientation. Analysis by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy shows that on periodic 1D grating structures, cells and cell nuclei are highly elongated and aligned, whereas on periodic 2D grid structures, cell spreading and shape is affected. The results also show that the density and morphology of the cells can be affected. This was observed particularly on pseudo-periodic, coral-like structures which clearly inhibited cell growth. The results suggest that these patterns could be used in a variety of applications among the fields of clinical research and implant design, as well as in diagnosis and in cell and drug research. Furthermore, this article highlights the noteworthy aspects and the unique strengths of the technique and proposes directions for further research.
|RNA polymerase II progression through H3K27me3-enriched gene bodies requires JMJD3 histone demethylase. |
Estarás, C; Fueyo, R; Akizu, N; Beltrán, S; Martínez-Balbás, MA
Molecular biology of the cell 24 351-60 2013
JMJD3 H3K27me3 demethylase plays an important role in the transcriptional response to different signaling pathways; however, the mechanism by which it facilitates transcription has been unclear. Here we show that JMJD3 regulates transcription of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-responsive genes by promoting RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) progression along the gene bodies. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing experiments, we show that, upon TGFβ treatment, JMJD3 and elongating RNAPII colocalize extensively along the intragenic regions of TGFβ target genes. According to these data, genome-wide analysis shows that JMJD3-dependent TGFβ target genes are enriched in H3K27me3 before TGFβ signaling pathway activation. Further molecular analyses demonstrate that JMJD3 demethylates H3K27me3 along the gene bodies, paving the way for the RNAPII progression. Overall these findings uncover the mechanism by which JMJD3 facilitates transcriptional activation.
|Interferon regulatory factor 4 regulates obesity-induced inflammation through regulation of adipose tissue macrophage polarization. |
Eguchi, J; Kong, X; Tenta, M; Wang, X; Kang, S; Rosen, ED
Diabetes 62 3394-403 2013
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) play functionally diverse roles in the transcriptional regulation of the immune system. We have previously shown that several IRFs are regulators of adipogenesis and that IRF4 is a critical transcriptional regulator of adipocyte lipid handling. However, the functional role of IRF4 in adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) remains unclear, despite high expression there. Here we show that IRF4 expression is regulated in primary macrophages and in ATMs of high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Irf4(-/-) macrophages produce higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, in response to fatty acids. In coculture experiments, IRF4 deletion in macrophages leads to reduced insulin signaling and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To determine the macrophage-specific function of IRF4 in the context of obesity, we generated myeloid cell-specific IRF4 knockout mice, which develop significant insulin resistance on a high-fat diet, despite no difference in adiposity. This phenotype is associated with increased expression of inflammatory genes and decreased insulin signaling in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. Furthermore, Irf4(-/-) ATMs express markers suggestive of enhanced M1 polarization. These findings indicate that IRF4 is a negative regulator of inflammation in diet-induced obesity, in part through regulation of macrophage polarization.
|Genome-wide localization and expression profiling establish Sp2 as a sequence-specific transcription factor regulating vitally important genes. |
Terrados, G; Finkernagel, F; Stielow, B; Sadic, D; Neubert, J; Herdt, O; Krause, M; Scharfe, M; Jarek, M; Suske, G
Nucleic acids research 40 7844-57 2012
The transcription factor Sp2 is essential for early mouse development and for proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts in culture. Yet its mechanisms of action and its target genes are largely unknown. In this study, we have combined RNA interference, in vitro DNA binding, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and global gene-expression profiling to investigate the role of Sp2 for cellular functions, to define target sites and to identify genes regulated by Sp2. We show that Sp2 is important for cellular proliferation that it binds to GC-boxes and occupies proximal promoters of genes essential for vital cellular processes including gene expression, replication, metabolism and signalling. Moreover, we identified important key target genes and cellular pathways that are directly regulated by Sp2. Most significantly, Sp2 binds and activates numerous sequence-specific transcription factor and co-activator genes, and represses the whole battery of cholesterol synthesis genes. Our results establish Sp2 as a sequence-specific regulator of vitally important genes.
|The histone demethylase PHF8 is essential for cytoskeleton dynamics. |
Asensio-Juan, E; Gallego, C; Martínez-Balbás, MA
Nucleic acids research 40 9429-40 2012
PHF8 is a histone demethylase associated with X-linked mental retardation. It has been described as a transcriptional co-activator involved in cell cycle progression, but its physiological role is still poorly understood. Here we show that PHF8 controls the expression of genes involved in cell adhesion and cytoskeleton organization such as RhoA, Rac1 and GSK3β. A lack of PHF8 not only results in a cell cycle delay but also in a disorganized actin cytoskeleton and impaired cell adhesion. Our data demonstrate that PHF8 directly regulates the expression of these genes by demethylating H4K20me1 at promoters. Moreover, c-Myc transcription factor cooperates with PHF8 to regulate the analysed promoters. Further analysis in neurons shows that depletion of PHF8 results in down-regulation of cytoskeleton genes and leads to a deficient neurite outgrowth. Overall, our results suggest that the mental retardation phenotype associated with loss of function of PHF8 could be due to abnormal neuronal connections as a result of alterations in cytoskeleton function.
|Merlin/NF2 regulates angiogenesis in schwannomas through a Rac1/semaphorin 3F-dependent mechanism. |
Wong, HK; Shimizu, A; Kirkpatrick, ND; Garkavtsev, I; Chan, AW; di Tomaso, E; Klagsbrun, M; Jain, RK
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 14 84-94 2012
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal-dominant multiple neoplasia syndrome that results from mutations in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene. Patients with NF2 develop hallmark schwannomas that require surgery or radiation, both of which have significant adverse effects. Recent studies have indicated that the tumor microenvironment-in particular, tumor blood vessels-of schwannomas may be an important therapeutic target. Furthermore, although much has been done to understand how merlin, the NF2 gene product, functions as a tumor suppressor gene in schwannoma cells, the functional role of merlin in the tumor microenvironment and the mechanism(s) by which merlin regulates angiogenesis to support schwannoma growth is largely unexplored. Here we report that the expression of semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F) was specifically downregulated in schwannoma cells lacking merlin/NF2. When we reintroduced SEMA3F in schwannoma cells, we observed normalized tumor blood vessels, reduced tumor burden, and extended survival in nude mice bearing merlin-deficient brain tumors. Next, using chemical inhibitors and gene knockdown with RNA interference, we found that merlin regulated expression of SEMA3F through Rho GTPase family member Rac1. This study shows that, in addition to the tumor-suppressing activity of merlin, it also functions to maintain physiological angiogenesis in the nervous system by regulating antiangiogenic factors such as SEMA3F. Restoring the relative balance of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors, such as increases in SEMA3F, in schwannoma microenvironment may represent a novel strategy to alleviate the clinical symptoms of NF2-related schwannomas.
|dKDM5/LID regulates H3K4me3 dynamics at the transcription-start site (TSS) of actively transcribed developmental genes. |
Lloret-Llinares, M; Pérez-Lluch, S; Rossell, D; Morán, T; Ponsa-Cobas, J; Auer, H; Corominas, M; Azorín, F
Nucleic acids research 40 9493-505 2012
H3K4me3 is a histone modification that accumulates at the transcription-start site (TSS) of active genes and is known to be important for transcription activation. The way in which H3K4me3 is regulated at TSS and the actual molecular basis of its contribution to transcription remain largely unanswered. To address these questions, we have analyzed the contribution of dKDM5/LID, the main H3K4me3 demethylase in Drosophila, to the regulation of the pattern of H3K4me3. ChIP-seq results show that, at developmental genes, dKDM5/LID localizes at TSS and regulates H3K4me3. dKDM5/LID target genes are highly transcribed and enriched in active RNApol II and H3K36me3, suggesting a positive contribution to transcription. Expression-profiling show that, though weakly, dKDM5/LID target genes are significantly downregulated upon dKDM5/LID depletion. Furthermore, dKDM5/LID depletion results in decreased RNApol II occupancy, particularly by the promoter-proximal Pol llo(ser5) form. Our results also show that ASH2, an evolutionarily conserved factor that locates at TSS and is required for H3K4me3, binds and positively regulates dKDM5/LID target genes. However, dKDM5/LID and ASH2 do not bind simultaneously and recognize different chromatin states, enriched in H3K4me3 and not, respectively. These results indicate that, at developmental genes, dKDM5/LID and ASH2 coordinately regulate H3K4me3 at TSS and that this dynamic regulation contributes to transcription.
|The arginine methyltransferase PRMT6 regulates cell proliferation and senescence through transcriptional repression of tumor suppressor genes. |
Stein, C; Riedl, S; Rüthnick, D; Nötzold, RR; Bauer, UM
Nucleic acids research 40 9522-33 2012
The protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) is a coregulator of gene expression and executes its repressing as well as activating function by asymmetric dimethylation of histone H3 at R2 (H3 R2me2a). Given that elevated expression levels of PRMT6 have been reported in various cancer types, we explore here its role in cell proliferation and senescence. We find that knockdown of PRMT6 results in proliferation defects of transformed as well as non-transformed cells, causes G1-phase arrest and induces senescence. This phenotype is accompanied by transcriptional upregulation of important cell cycle regulators, most prominently the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor gene p21 (p21(CIP1/WAF1), CDKN1A) and p16 (p16(INK4A), CDKN2A). Chromatin immuno-precipitation analysis reveals that the p21 gene is a direct target of PRMT6 and the corresponding histone mark H3 R2me2a. Using a cell model of oncogene-induced senescence (OIS), in which p21 is an essential activator of the senescent phenotype, we show that PRMT6 expression declines upon induction of senescence and conversely p21 gene expression increases. Moreover, overexpression of PRMT6 leads to reduced levels of OIS. These findings indicate that the transcriptional repressor activity of PRMT6 facilitates cell proliferation and blocks senescence by regulation of tumor suppressor genes and that this might contribute to the oncogenic capacity of PRMT6.
|NOTCH1 promotes T cell leukemia-initiating activity by RUNX-mediated regulation of PKC-θ and reactive oxygen species. |
Giambra, V; Jenkins, CR; Wang, H; Lam, SH; Shevchuk, OO; Nemirovsky, O; Wai, C; Gusscott, S; Chiang, MY; Aster, JC; Humphries, RK; Eaves, C; Weng, AP
Nature medicine 18 1693-8 2012
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a byproduct of cellular metabolism, damage intracellular macromolecules and, when present in excess, can promote normal hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and exhaustion. However, mechanisms that regulate the amount of ROS in leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) and the biological role of ROS in these cells are largely unknown. We show here that the ROS(low) subset of CD44(+) cells in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), a malignancy of immature T cell progenitors, is highly enriched in the most aggressive LICs and that ROS accumulation is restrained by downregulation of protein kinase C θ (PKC-θ). Notably, primary mouse T-ALLs lacking PKC-θ show improved LIC activity, whereas enforced PKC-θ expression in both mouse and human primary T-ALLs compromised LIC activity. We also show that PKC-θ is regulated by a new pathway in which NOTCH1 induces runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), RUNX3 represses RUNX1 and RUNX1 induces PKC-θ. NOTCH1, which is frequently activated by mutation in T-ALL and required for LIC activity in both mouse and human models, thus acts to repress PKC-θ. These results reveal key functional roles for PKC-θ and ROS in T-ALL and suggest that aggressive biological behavior in vivo could be limited by therapeutic strategies that promote PKC-θ expression or activity, or the accumulation of ROS.
|The human testis-determining factor SRY localizes in midbrain dopamine neurons and regulates multiple components of catecholamine synthesis and metabolism. |
Czech, DP; Lee, J; Sim, H; Parish, CL; Vilain, E; Harley, VR
Journal of neurochemistry 122 260-71 2012
The male gender is determined by the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) transcription factor. The unexpected action of SRY in the control of voluntary movement in male rodents suggests a role in the regulation of dopamine transmission and dopamine-related disorders with gender bias, such as Parkinson's disease. We investigated SRY expression in the human brain and function in vitro. SRY immunoreactivity was detected in the human male, but not female substantia nigra pars compacta, within a sub-population of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons. SRY protein also co-localized with TH positive neurons in the ventral tegmental area, and with GAD-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human precursor NT2 cells into dopaminergic cells increased expression of TH, NURR1, D2 R and SRY. In the human neuroblastoma cell line, M17, SRY knockdown resulted in a reduction in TH, DDC, DBH and MAO-A expression; enzymes which control dopamine synthesis and metabolism. Conversely, SRY over-expression increased TH, DDC, DBH, D2 R and MAO-A levels, accompanied by increased extracellular dopamine levels. A luciferase assay demonstrated that SRY activated a 4.6 kb 5' upstream regulatory region of the human TH promoter/nigral enhancer. Combined, these results suggest that SRY plays a role as a positive regulator of catecholamine synthesis and metabolism in the human male midbrain. This ancillary genetic mechanism might contribute to gender bias in fight-flight behaviours in men or their increased susceptibility to dopamine disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia.
|N-cadherin induces partial differentiation of cholinergic presynaptic terminals in heterologous cultures of brainstem neurons and CHO cells. |
Flannery, RJ; Brusés, JL
Frontiers in synaptic neuroscience 4 6 2012
N-cadherin is a calcium-sensitive cell adhesion molecule commonly expressed at synaptic junctions and contributes to formation and maturation of synaptic contacts. This study used heterologous cell cultures of brainstem cholinergic neurons and transfected Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells to examine whether N-cadherin is sufficient to induce differentiation of cholinergic presynaptic terminals. Brainstem nuclei isolated from transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) transcriptional regulatory elements (ChAT(BAC)EGFP) were cultured as tissue explants for 5 days and cocultured with transfected CHO cells for an additional 2 days. Immunostaining for synaptic vesicle proteins SV2 and synapsin I revealed a ~3-fold increase in the area of SV2 immunolabeling over N-cadherin expressing CHO cells, and this effect was enhanced by coexpression of p120-catenin. Synapsin I immunolabeling per axon length was also increased on N-cadherin expressing CHO cells but required coexpression of p120-catenin. To determine whether N-cadherin induces formation of neurotransmitter release sites, whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings of CHO cells expressing α3 and β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in contact with cholinergic axons were used to monitor excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and miniature EPSPs (mEPSPs). EPSPs and mEPSPs were not detected in both, control and in N-cadherin expressing CHO cells in the absence or presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX). These results indicate that expression of N-cadherin in non-neuronal cells is sufficient to initiate differentiation of presynaptic cholinergic terminals by inducing accumulation of synaptic vesicles; however, development of readily detectable mature cholinergic release sites and/or clustering of postsynaptic nAChR may require expression of additional synaptogenic proteins.
|Delivery of siRNA into breast cancer cells via phage fusion protein-targeted liposomes. |
Bedi D, Musacchio T, Fagbohun OA, Gillespie JW, Deinnocentes P, Bird RC, Bookbinder L, Torchilin VP, Petrenko VA.
Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 7 315-23 2011
Efficacy of siRNAs as potential anticancer therapeutics can be increased by their targeted delivery into cancer cells via tumor-specific ligands. Phage display offers a unique approach to identify highly specific and selective ligands that can deliver nanocarriers to the site of disease. In this study, we proved a novel approach for intracellular delivery of siRNAs into breast cancer cells through their encapsulation into liposomes targeted to the tumor cells with preselected intact phage proteins. The targeted siRNA liposomes were obtained by a fusion of two parental liposomes containing spontaneously inserted siRNA and fusion phage proteins. The presence of pVIII coat protein fused to a MCF-7 cell-targeting peptide DMPGTVLP in the liposomes was confirmed by Western blotting. The novel phage-targeted siRNA-nanopharmaceuticals demonstrate significant down-regulation of PRDM14 gene expression and PRDM14 protein synthesis in the target MCF-7 cells. This approach offers the potential for development of new anticancer siRNA-based targeted nanomedicines. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: In this study, the authors report a novel approach for targeted intracellular delivery of siRNAs into breast cancer cells through encapsulation into liposomes targeted to the tumor cells with preselected intact phage proteins.
|Transcriptional control of adipose lipid handling by IRF4. |
Eguchi, J; Wang, X; Yu, S; Kershaw, EE; Chiu, PC; Dushay, J; Estall, JL; Klein, U; Maratos-Flier, E; Rosen, ED
Cell metabolism 13 249-59 2011
Adipocytes store triglyceride during periods of nutritional affluence and release free fatty acids during fasting through coordinated cycles of lipogenesis and lipolysis. While much is known about the acute regulation of these processes during fasting and feeding, less is understood about the transcriptional basis by which adipocytes control lipid handling. Here, we show that interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is a critical determinant of the transcriptional response to nutrient availability in adipocytes. Fasting induces IRF4 in an insulin- and FoxO1-dependent manner. IRF4 is required for lipolysis, at least in part due to direct effects on the expression of adipocyte triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. Conversely, reduction of IRF4 enhances lipid synthesis. Mice lacking adipocyte IRF4 exhibit increased adiposity and deficient lipolysis. These studies establish a link between IRF4 and the disposition of calories in adipose tissue, with consequences for systemic metabolic homeostasis.
|Response of mice to continuous 5-day passive hyperthermia resembles human heat acclimation. |
Houtan Sareh,Mohan E Tulapurkar,Nirav G Shah,Ishwar S Singh,Jeffrey D Hasday
Cell stress & chaperones 16 2011
Chronic repeated exposure to hyperthermia in humans results in heat acclimation (HA), an adaptive process that is attained in humans by repeated exposure to hyperthermia and is characterized by improved heat elimination and increased exercise capacity, and acquired thermal tolerance (ATT), a cellular response characterized by increased baseline heat shock protein (HSP) expression and blunting of the acute increase in HSP expression stimulated by re-exposure to thermal stress. Epidemiologic studies in military personnel operating in hot environments and elite athletes suggest that repeated exposure to hyperthermia may also exert long-term health effects. Animal models demonstrate that coincident exposure to mild hyperthermia or prior exposure to severe hyperthermia can profoundly affect the course of experimental infection and injury, but these models do not represent HA. In this study, we demonstrate that CD-1 mice continuously exposed to mild hyperthermia (ambient temperature ~37°C causing ~2°C increase in core temperature) for 5 days and then exposed to a thermal stress (42°C ambient temperature for 40 min) exhibited some of the salient features of human HA, including (1) slower warming during thermal stress and more rapid cooling during recovery and (2) increased activity during thermal stress, as well as some of the features of ATT, including (1) increased baseline expression of HSP72 and HSP90 in lung, heart, spleen, liver, and brain; and (2) blunted incremental increase in HSP72 expression following acute thermal stress. This study suggests that continuous 5-day exposure of CD-1 mice to mild hyperthermia induces a state that resembles the physiologic and cellular responses of human HA. This model may be useful for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of HA and its consequences on host responsiveness to subsequent stresses.Texto completo do artigo
|Altered ERK MAPK signaling in the hippocampus of the mrsk2_ KO mouse model of Coffin-Lowry syndrome. |
Schneider A, Mehmood T, Pannetier S, Hanauer A
Journal of neurochemistry 119 447-59. doi 2011
Coffin-Lowry syndrome is a syndromic form of mental retardation caused by mutations of the Rps6ka3 gene encoding ribosomal s6 kinase (RSK)2. RSK2 belongs to a family containing four members in mammals: RSK1-4. RSKs are serine/threonine kinases and cytosolic substrates of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. RSK2 is highly expressed in the hippocampus, and mrsk2_KO mice display spatial learning and memory impairment. In the present study, we provide evidence of abnormally increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the hippocampus of mrsk2_KO mice. Further studies based on cultured hippocampal neurons revealed that glutamate activates ERK1/2 and RSKs, and confirmed a stronger activation of ERK1/2 in mrsk2_KO neurons than in WT cells. We, thus, provide further evidence that RSK2 exerts a feedback inhibitory effect on the ERK1/2 pathway. We also observed a transient sequestration of P-ERK1/2 in the cytoplasm upon glutamate stimulation. In addition, the transcription factors cAMP response element binding and Ets LiKe gene1 show over-activation in RSK2-deficient neurons. Finally, c-Fos, Zif268 and Arc were significantly over-expressed in mrsk2_KO neurons upon glutamate stimulation. Importantly, the increased phosphorylation of other RSK family members observed in mutant neurons was unable to compensate for RSK2 deficiency. This aberrant ERK1/2 signaling can influence various neuronal functions, and thus play a significant role in cognitive dysfunction in mrsk2_KO mice and in the Coffin-Lowry syndrome.© 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.
|Total internal reflection STED microscopy. |
Travis J Gould,Jordan R Myers,Joerg Bewersdorf
Optics express 19 2011
Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy achieves diffraction-unlimited resolution in far-field fluorescence microscopy well below 100 nm. As common for (single-lens) far-field microscopy techniques, the lateral resolution is better than the axial sectioning capabilities. Here we present the first implementation of total internal reflection (TIR) illumination into STED microscopy which limits fluorophore excitation to ~70 nm in the vicinity of the cover slip while simultaneously providing ~50 nm lateral resolution. We demonstrate the performance of this new microscope technique with fluorescent bead test samples as well as immuno-stained microtubules. Total internal reflection STED microscopy provides superior axial sectioning capabilities with the potential to reduce photo-bleaching and photo-damage in live cell imaging.
|Norepinephrine inhibits intercellular coupling in rat cardiomyocytes by ubiquitination of connexin43 gap junctions. |
Mollerup S, Hofgaard JP, Braunstein TH, Kjenseth A, Leithe E, Rivedal E, Holstein-Rathlou NH, Nielsen MS.
Cell communication & adhesion 18 57-65 2011
Abstract Gα(q)-stimulation reduces intercellular coupling within 10 min via a decrease in the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), but the mechanism is unknown. Here we show that uncoupling in rat cardiomyocytes after stimulation of α-adrenergic Gα(q)-coupled receptors with norepinephrine is prevented by proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors, suggesting that internalization and possibly degradation of connexin43 (Cx43) is involved. Uncoupling was accompanied by increased Triton X-100 solubility of Cx43, which is considered a measure of the non-junctional pool of Cx43. However, inhibition of the proteasome and lysosome further increased solubility while preserving coupling, suggesting that communicating gap junctions can be part of the soluble fraction. Ubiquitination of Cx43 was also increased, and Cx43 co-immunoprecipitated with the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4. Conclusions: Norepinephrine increases ubiquitination of Cx43 in cardiomyocytes, possibly via Nedd4. We suggest that Cx43 is subsequently internalized, which is preceded by acquired solubility in Triton X-100, which does not lead to uncoupling per se.
|Prenatal cocaine exposure increases synaptic localization of a neuronal RasGEF, GRASP-1 via hyperphosphorylation of AMPAR anchoring protein, GRIP. |
Bakshi, K; Kosciuk, M; Nagele, RG; Friedman, E; Wang, HY
PloS one 6 e25019 2011
Prenatal cocaine exposure causes sustained phosphorylation of the synaptic anchoring protein, glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP1/2), preventing synaptic targeting of the GluR2/3-containing alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs; J. Neurosci. 29: 6308-6319, 2009). Because overexpression of GRIP-associated neuronal rasGEF protein (GRASP-1) specifically reduces the synaptic targeting of AMPARs, we hypothesized that prenatal cocaine exposure enhances GRASP-1 synaptic membrane localization leading to hyper-activation of ras family proteins and heightened actin polymerization. Our results show a markedly increased GRIP1-associated GRASP-1 content with approximately 40% reduction in its rasGEF activity in frontal cortices (FCX) of 21-day-old (P21) prenatal cocaine-exposed rats. This cocaine effect is the result of a persistent protein kinase C (PKC)- and downstream Src tyrosine kinase-mediated GRIP phosphorylation. The hyperactivated PKC also increased membrane-associated GRASP-1 and activated small G-proteins RhoA, cdc42/Rac1 and Rap1 as well as filamentous actin (F-actin) levels without an effect on the phosphorylation state of actin. Since increased F-actin facilitates protein transport, our results suggest that increased GRASP-1 synaptic localization in prenatal cocaine-exposed brains is an adaptive response to restoring the synaptic expression of AMPA-GluR2/3. Our earlier data demonstrated that persistent PKC-mediated GRIP phosphorylation reduces GluR2/3 synaptic targeting in prenatal cocaine-exposed brains, we now show that the increased GRIP-associated GRASP-1 may contribute to the reduction in GluR2/3 synaptic expression and AMPAR signaling defects.
|Delta-like 1-Lysine613 regulates notch signaling. |
Zhang, L; Widau, RC; Herring, BP; Gallagher, PJ
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1813 2036-43 2011
Delta ligands are important for regulating Notch signaling through transcellular stimulation of Notch receptors. The cytoplasmic tails of Delta ligands have multiple potential regulatory sites including several lysine residues that are putative targets for ubiquitination by the E3 ubiquitin ligases, Mind Bomb and Neuralized. To identify possible roles for specific lysine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of the Notch ligand Dll1 a mutational and functional analysis was performed. Examination of a panel of individual or clustered lysine mutants demonstrated that lysine 613 (K613) in the cytoplasmic tail of Dll1 is a key residue necessary for transcellular activation of Notch signaling. Multi-ubiquitination of the Dll1 mutant Dll1-K613R was altered compared to wild type Dll1, and the K613R mutation blocked the ability of Dll1 to interact with Notch1. Finally, mutation of K613 did not affect the stability of Dll1 or its ability to traffic to recycle to the plasma membrane, but did enhance the fraction associated with lipid rafts. Collectively these results suggest that the transcellular defect in Notch signaling attributed to residue K613 in cytoplasmic tail of Dll1 may result from altering its multi-ubiquitination and increasing its retention in lipid rafts.
|Polycystin-1 is a microtubule-driven desmosome-associated component in polarized epithelial cells. |
Basora, Nuria, et al.
Exp. Cell Res., 316: 1454-64 (2010) 2010
In this study, we have analyzed the expression and localization of polycystin-1 in intestinal epithelial cells, a system lacking primary cilia. Polycystin-1 was found to be expressed in the epithelium of the small intestine during development and levels remained elevated in the adult. Dual-labelling indirect immunofluorescence revealed polycystin-1 at sites of cell-cell contact co-localizing with the desmosomes both in situ as well as in polarized Caco-2/15 cells. In unpolarized cultures of Caco-2/15 cells, polycystin-1 was recruited to the cell surface early during initiation of cell junction assembly. In isolated Caco-2/15 cells and HIEC-6 cell cultures, where junctional complexes are absent, polycystin-1 was found predominantly associated with the cytoskeletal elements of the intermediate filaments and microtubule networks. More precisely, polycystin-1 was seen as brightly labelled puncta decorating the keratin-18 positive filaments as well as the beta-tubulin positive microtubules, which was particularly obvious in the lamellipodia. Treatment with the microtubule-disrupting agent, nocodazole, eliminated the microtubule association of polycystin-1 but did not seem to affect its association with keratin or the desmosomes. Taken together these data suggest that polycystin-1 is involved with the establishment of cell-cell junctions in absorptive intestinal epithelial cells and exploits the microtubule-based machinery in order to be transported to the plasma membrane.
|Heteromeric complexes of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family members, including Hsp70B', in differentiated human neuronal cells. |
Chow, AM; Mok, P; Xiao, D; Khalouei, S; Brown, IR
Cell stress & chaperones 15 545-53 2010
Human neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have been termed "protein misfolding disorders." Upregulation of heat shock proteins that target misfolded aggregation-prone proteins has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy to counter neurodegenerative disorders. The heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family is well characterized for its cytoprotective effects against cell death and has been implicated in neuroprotection by overexpression studies. HSP70 family members exhibit sequence and structural conservation. The significance of the multiplicity of HSP70 proteins is unknown. In this study, coimmunoprecipitation was employed to determine if association of HSP70 family members occurs, including Hsp70B' which is present in the human genome but not in mouse and rat. Heteromeric complexes of Hsp70B', Hsp70, and Hsc70 were detected in differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. Hsp70B' also formed complexes with Hsp40 suggesting a common co-chaperone for HSP70 family members.Texto completo do artigo
|Gangliosides are important for the preservation of the structure and organization of RBL-2H3 mast cells. |
Adriana Maria Mariano Silveira e Souza,Edvaldo S Trindade,Maria Célia Jamur,Constance Oliver
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 58 2010
Gangliosides are known to be important in many biological processes. However, details concerning the exact function of these glycosphingolipids in cell physiology are poorly understood. In this study, the role of gangliosides present on the surface of rodent mast cells in maintaining cell structure was examined using RBL-2H3 mast cells and two mutant cell lines (E5 and D1) deficient in the gangliosides, GM(1) and the alpha-galactosyl derivatives of the ganglioside GD(1b). The two deficient cell lines were morphologically different from each other as well as from the parental RBL-2H3 cells. Actin filaments in RBL-2H3 and E5 cells were under the plasma membrane following the spindle shape of the cells, whereas in D1 cells, they were concentrated in large membrane ruffles. Microtubules in RBL-2H3 and E5 cells radiated from the centrosome and were organized into long, straight bundles. The bundles in D1 cells were thicker and organized circumferentially under the plasma membrane. The endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi complex, and the secretory granule matrix were also altered in the mutant cell lines. These results suggest that the mast cell-specific alpha-galactosyl derivatives of ganglioside GD(1b) and GM(1) are important in maintaining normal cell morphology.Texto completo do artigo
|Oligodendrocyte PTEN is required for myelin and axonal integrity, not remyelination. |
Harrington, EP; Zhao, C; Fancy, SP; Kaing, S; Franklin, RJ; Rowitch, DH
Annals of neurology 68 703-16 2010
Repair of myelin injury in multiple sclerosis may fail, resulting in chronic demyelination, axonal loss, and disease progression. As cellular pathways regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN; eg, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase [PI-3K]) have been reported to enhance axon regeneration and oligodendrocyte maturation, we investigated potentially beneficial effects of Pten loss of function in the oligodendrocyte lineage on remyelination.We characterized oligodendrocyte numbers and myelin sheath thickness in mice with conditional inactivation of Pten in oligodendrocytes, Olig2-cre, Pten(fl/fl) mice. Using a model of central nervous system demyelination, lysolecithin injection into the spinal cord white matter, we performed short- and long-term lesioning experiments and quantified oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin sheath thickness in remyelinating lesions.During development, we observed dramatic hypermyelination in the corpus callosum and spinal cord. Following white matter injury, however, there was no detectable improvement in remyelination. Moreover, we observed progressive myelin sheath abnormalities and massive axon degeneration in the fasciculus gracilis of mutant animals, as indicated by ultrastructure and expression of SMI-32, amyloid precursor protein, and caspase 6.These studies indicate adverse effects of chronic Pten inactivation (and by extension, activation PI-3K signaling) on myelinating oligodendrocytes and their axonal targets. We conclude that PTEN function in oligodendrocytes is required to regulate myelin thickness and preserve axon integrity. In contrast, PTEN is dispensable during myelin repair, and its inactivation confers no detectable benefit.
|Gamma-diketone axonopathy: analyses of cytoskeletal motors and highways in CNS myelinated axons. |
Zhang, L; Gavin, T; DeCaprio, AP; LoPachin, RM
Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology 117 180-9 2010
2,5-Hexanedione (HD) intoxication is associated with axon atrophy that might be responsible for the characteristic gait abnormalities, hindlimb skeletal muscle weakness and other neurological deficits that accompany neurotoxicity. Although previous mechanistic research focused on neurofilament triplet proteins (NFL, NFM, NFH), other cytoskeletal targets are possible. Therefore, to identify potential non-NF protein targets, we characterized the effects of HD on protein-protein interactions in cosedimentation assays using microtubules and NFs prepared from spinal cord of rats intoxicated at different daily dose rates (175 and 400 mg/kg/day). Results indicate that HD did not alter the presence of alpha- or beta-tubulins in these preparations, nor were changes noted in the distribution of either anterograde (KIF1A, KIF3, KIF5) or retrograde (dynein) molecular motors. The cosedimentation of dynactin, a dynein-associated protein, also was not affected. Immunoblot analysis of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in microtubule preparations revealed substantial reductions (45-80%) in MAP1A, MAP1B heavy chain, MAP2, and tau regardless of HD dose rate. MAP1B light chain content was not altered. Finally, HD intoxication did not influence native NF protein content in either preparation. As per previous research, microtubule and NF preparations were enriched in high-molecular weight NF species. However, these NF derivatives were common to both HD and control samples, suggesting a lack of pathognomonic relevance. These data indicate that, although motor proteins were not affected, HD selectively impaired MAP-microtubule binding, presumably through adduction of lysine residues that mediate such interactions. Given their critical role in cytoskeletal physiology, MAPs could represent a relevant target for the induction of gamma-diketone axonopathy.
|Gene-specific transcriptional activation mediated by the p150 subunit of the chromatin assembly factor 1. |
Lee, SB; Ou, DS; Lee, CF; Juan, LJ
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 14040-9 2009
Chromatin assembly factor 1 contains three subunits, p150, p60, and p48. It is essential for coupling nucleosome assembly to newly synthesized DNA. Whether chromatin assembly factor 1 subunits have functions beyond escorting histones, which depends on the complex formation of p150 and p60, has been an issue of great interest. This study reveals a novel role of p150, but not p60, in gene-specific transcriptional activation. We found that p150 transcriptionally activated an essential viral promoter, the major immediate early promoter (MIEP) of the human cytomegalovirus, independently of p60. Knocking down p150 decreased the MIEP function in both transfected and virally infected cells. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and the in vitro protein-DNA binding assay demonstrated that p150 used its KER domain to associate with the MIEP from -593 to -574 bp. The N-terminal 244 residues were also found essential for p150-mediated MIEP activation, likely through recruiting the acetyltransferase p300 to acetylate local histones. Domain swapping experiments further showed that the KER and the N terminus of p150 acted as an independent DNA binding and transcriptional activation domain, respectively. Because p60 did not seem involved in the reaction, together these results indicate for the first time that p150 directly activates transcription, independently of its histone deposition function.Texto completo do artigo
|Differential expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 3 in schizophrenia: a mechanism for antipsychotic drug action? |
Subroto Ghose, Kelly A Gleason, Bryan W Potts, Kelly Lewis-Amezcua, Carol A Tamminga, Subroto Ghose, Kelly A Gleason, Bryan W Potts, Kelly Lewis-Amezcua, Carol A Tamminga, Subroto Ghose, Kelly A Gleason, Bryan W Potts, Kelly Lewis-Amezcua, Carol A Tamminga
The American journal of psychiatry 166 812-20 2009
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical and clinical data implicate the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR2 and mGluR3 in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Moreover, a recent phase II clinical trial demonstrated the antipsychotic efficacy of a mGluR2/mGluR3 agonist. The purpose of the present study was to distinguish the expression of mGluR2 and mGluR3 receptor proteins in schizophrenia and to quantify glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II) in order to explore a role for the metabotropic receptors in schizophrenia therapeutics. GCP II is an enzyme that metabolizes N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), which is the only known specific endogenous agonist of mGluR3 in the mammalian brain. METHOD: The normal expression levels of mGluR2, mGluR3, and GCP II were determined for 10 regions of the postmortem human brain using specific antibodies. Differences in expression levels of each protein were examined in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and motor cortex in 15 postmortem schizophrenia subjects and 15 postmortem matched normal comparison subjects. Chronic antipsychotic treatment in rodents was conducted to examine the potential effect of antipsychotic drugs on expression of the three proteins. RESULTS: Findings revealed a significant increase in GCP II protein and a reduction in mGluR3 protein in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia subjects, with mGluR2 protein levels unchanged. Chronic antipsychotic treatment in rodents did not influence GCP II or mGluR3 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Increased GCP II expression and low mGluR3 expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex suggest that NAAG-mediated signaling is impaired in this brain region in schizophrenia. Further, these data implicate the mGluR3 receptor in the antipsychotic action of mGluR2/mGluR3 agonists.
|B-MYB is required for recovery from the DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint in p53 mutant cells. |
Mirijam Mannefeld, Elena Klassen, Stefan Gaubatz
Cancer research 69 4073-80 2009
In response to DNA damage, several signaling pathways that arrest the cell cycle in G(1) and G(2) are activated. The down-regulation of mitotic genes contributes to the stable maintenance of the G(2) arrest. The human LINC or DREAM complex, together with the B-MYB transcription factor, plays an essential role in the expression of G(2)-M genes. Here, we show that DNA damage results in the p53-dependent binding of p130 and E2F4 to LINC and the dissociation of B-MYB from LINC. We find that B-MYB fails to dissociate from LINC in p53 mutant cells, that this contributes to increased G(2)-M gene expression in response to DNA damage in these cells, and, importantly, that B-MYB is required for recovery from the G(2) DNA damage checkpoint in p53-negative cells. Reanalysis of microarray expression data sets revealed that high levels of B-MYB correlate with a p53 mutant status and an advanced tumor stage in primary human breast cancer. Taken together, these data suggest that B-MYB/LINC plays an important role in the DNA damage response downstream of p53.
|Phosphorylation of connexin43 on serine 306 regulates electrical coupling. |
Procida, K; Jørgensen, L; Schmitt, N; Delmar, M; Taffet, SM; Holstein-Rathlou, NH; Nielsen, MS; Braunstein, TH
Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 6 1632-8 2009
Phosphorylation is a key regulatory event in controlling the function of the cardiac gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43). Three new phosphorylation sites (S296, S297, S306) have been identified on Cx43; two of these sites (S297 and S306) are dephosphorylated during ischemia. The functional significance of these new sites is currently unknown.The purpose of this study was to examine the role of S296, S297, and S306 in the regulation of electrical intercellular communication.To mimic constitutive dephosphorylation, serine was mutated to alanine at the three sites and expressed in HeLa cells. Electrical coupling and single channel measurements were performed by double patch clamp. Protein expression levels were assayed by western blotting, localization of Cx43, and phosphorylation of S306 by immunolabeling. Free hemichannels were assessed by biotinylation.Macroscopic conductance in cells expressing S306A was reduced to 57% compared to wild type (WT), whereas coupling was not significantly changed in cells expressing either S296A or S297A. S306A-expressing cells displayed similar protein and free hemichannel abundance compared to WT Cx43, whereas the fractional area of plaques in cell-to-cell interfaces was increased. However, single channel measurements showed a WT Cx43 main state conductance of 119 pS, whereas the main state conductance of S306A channels was reduced to 95 pS. Furthermore, channel gating was affected in S306A channels.Lack of phosphorylation at serine 306 results in reduced coupling, which can be explained by reduced single channel conductance. We suggest that dephosphorylation of S306 partly explains the electrical uncoupling seen in myocardial ischemia.
|Inactivation of the CDKL3 gene at 5q31.1 by a balanced t(X;5) translocation associated with nonspecific mild mental retardation. |
Aline Dubos,Solange Pannetier,André Hanauer
American journal of medical genetics. Part A 146A 2008
We have investigated the breakpoints of a balanced reciprocal translocation between chromosomes X and 5, [46,X,t(X;5)(p11.1;q31.1)], in a woman with mild mental retardation (MR). Methylation studies showed a 100% skewed X-inactivation in patient-derived lymphocytes. Cloning and sequencing of the junction fragment from the X derivative showed that the breakpoint occurred in intron 3 of the CDKL3 gene on chromosome 5 and in a region devoid of genes on chromosome X. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses on patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells documented a significant 50% decrease of the CDKL3 transcript level. Allelic expression analysis, using an intronic SNP that was RT-PCR amplified from CDKL3 pre-mRNA, provided further evidence that the CDKL3 gene was transcribed from only one allele. Decreased CDKL3 gene expression was definitively confirmed at the protein level by immunoblot analysis. CDKL3 is a member of a subset of the cdc2-related protein kinase family that shows similarity to both mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and cyclin-dependant kinases (cdks). Importantly, one member of the family, CDKL5, has been implicated in atypical Rett syndrome, West syndrome, and X-linked infantile spasm, all including MR as a manifestation. Expression studies demonstrated that the mouse homologue, mCdkl3, was expressed in all brain regions investigated and throughout mouse development, a pattern that is consistent with a role in development and brain function. Together the data suggest that haploinsufficiency of CDKL3 in the t(X;5) patient contributes to her phenotype, and that the CDKL3 gene is a strong candidate for nonsyndromal autosomal dominant MR.
|The protein arginine methyltransferases CARM1 and PRMT1 cooperate in gene regulation. |
Kleinschmidt, MA; Streubel, G; Samans, B; Krause, M; Bauer, UM
Nucleic acids research 36 3202-13 2008
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT) have been implicated in the regulation of transcription. They are recruited to promoters via interaction with transcription factors and exert their coactivator function by methylating arginine residues in histones and other chromatin proteins. Here, we employ an unbiased approach to identify novel target genes, which are under the control of two members of the enzyme family, PRMT1 and CARM1/PRMT4 (coactivator associated arginine methyltransferase 1). By using cDNA microarray analysis, we find that the siRNA-mediated single knockdown of neither CARM1 nor PRMT1 causes significant changes in gene expression. In contrast, double knockdown of both enzymes results in the deregulated expression of a large group of genes, among them the CITED2 gene. Cytokine-stimulated expression analysis indicates that transcriptional activation of CITED2 depends on STAT5 and the coactivation of both PRMTs. ChIP analysis identifies the CITED2 gene as a direct target gene of STAT5, CARM1 and PRMT1. In reporter gene assays, we show that STAT5-mediated transcription is cooperatively enhanced by CARM1 and PRMT1. Interaction assays reveal a cytokine-induced association of STAT5 and the two PRMTs. Our data demonstrate a widespread cooperation of CARM1 and PRMT1 in gene activation as well as repression and that STAT5-dependent transcription of the CITED2 gene is a novel pathway coactivated by the two methyltransferases.Texto completo do artigo
|The in vivo mitochondrial two-step maturation of human frataxin. |
Schmucker, S; Argentini, M; Carelle-Calmels, N; Martelli, A; Puccio, H
Human molecular genetics 17 3521-31 2008
Deficiency in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein frataxin causes Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associating spinocerebellar ataxia and cardiomyopathy. Although the exact function of frataxin is still a matter of debate, it is widely accepted that frataxin is a mitochondrial iron chaperone involved in iron-sulfur cluster and heme biosynthesis. Frataxin is synthesized as a precursor polypeptide, directed to the mitochondrial matrix where it is proteolytically cleaved by the mitochondrial processing peptidase to the mature form via a processing intermediate. The mature form was initially reported to be encoded by amino acids 56-210 (m(56)-FXN). However, two independent reports have challenged these studies describing two different forms encoded by amino acids 78-210 (m(78)-FXN) and 81-210 (m(81)-FXN). Here, we provide evidence that mature human frataxin corresponds to m(81)-FXN, and can rescue the lethal phenotype of fibroblasts completely deleted for frataxin. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the migration profile of frataxin depends on the experimental conditions, a behavior which most likely contributed to the confusion concerning the endogenous mature frataxin. Interestingly, we show that m(56)-FXN and m(78)-FXN can be generated when the normal maturation process of frataxin is impaired, although the physiological relevance is not clear. Furthermore, we determine that the d-FXN form, previously reported to be a degradation product, corresponds to m(78)-FXN. Finally, we demonstrate that all frataxin isoforms are generated and localized within the mitochondria. The clear identification of the N-terminus of mature FXN is an important step for designing therapeutic approaches for FRDA based on frataxin replacement.
|Zbtb4 represses transcription of P21CIP1 and controls the cellular response to p53 activation. |
Axel Weber, Judith Marquardt, David Elzi, Nicole Forster, Sven Starke, Andre Glaum, Daisuke Yamada, Pierre-Antoine Defossez, Jeffrey Delrow, Robert N Eisenman, Holger Christiansen, Martin Eilers, Axel Weber, Judith Marquardt, David Elzi, Nicole Forster, Sven Starke, Andre Glaum, Daisuke Yamada, Pierre-Antoine Defossez, Jeffrey Delrow, Robert N Eisenman, Holger Christiansen, Martin Eilers
The EMBO journal 27 1563-74 2008
In response to stimuli that activate p53, cells can undergo either apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, depending on the precise pattern of p53 target genes that is activated. We show here that Zbtb4, a transcriptional repressor protein, associates with the Sin3/histone deacetylase co-repressor and represses expression of P21CIP1 as part of a heterodimeric complex with Miz1. In vivo, expression of ZBTB4 is downregulated in advanced stages of multiple human tumours. In cell culture, depletion of ZBTB4 promotes cell cycle arrest in response to activation of p53 and suppresses apoptosis through regulation of P21CIP1, thereby promoting long-term cell survival. Our data suggest that Zbtb4 is a critical determinant of the cellular response to p53 activation and reinforce the notion that p21Cip1 can provide an essential survival signal in cells with activated p53.Texto completo do artigo
|WAVE2- and microtubule-dependent formation of long protrusions and invasion of cancer cells cultured on three-dimensional extracellular matrices. |
Keiji Kikuchi,Kazuhide Takahashi
Cancer science 99 2008
Invadopodia, small protrusions formed at ventral membranes of several types of invasive cancer cells upon contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM), are implicated in cell invasion; however, the relationship between invadopodia formation and cell invasion through the ECM is still unknown. To correlate the formation of membrane protrusions and cell invasion, a three-dimensional (3-D) gel culture system with native collagen type-I matrix overlaid with a thin basement membrane equivalent (Matrigel) was made. Human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 formed long protrusions in addition to small protrusions reminiscent of invadopodia and migrated into the collagen layer. Comparative analyses with other cancer cell lines indicate that cellular ability to form long protrusions, but not small protrusions or invadopodia, correlates with cellular invasiveness in the 3-D culture. Some of the long protrusions in MDA-MB-231 cells appeared to extend from the adherence membrane, implying that they are derived from small protrusions. The formation of long protrusions and invasion, as well as the formation of invadopodia, required WAVE2 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Accumulation of tubulin was observed in long protrusions but not in invadopodia. Correspondingly, a microtubule-stabilizing agent, paclitaxel, suppressed the formation of long protrusions and invasion, but not the formation of invadopodia, in MDA-MB-231 cells. These results suggest that long protrusions formed in a WAVE2- and microtubule-dependent manner may identify the cells at the later stage of invasion, possibly after the formation of invadopodia in the 3-D cultures.
|Developmental regulation of the NMDA receptor subunits, NR3A and NR1, in human prefrontal cortex. |
Henson, MA; Roberts, AC; Salimi, K; Vadlamudi, S; Hamer, RM; Gilmore, JH; Jarskog, LF; Philpot, BD
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 18 2560-73 2008
Subunit composition of N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) dictates their function, yet the ontogenic profiles of human NMDAR subunits from gestation to adulthood have not been determined. We examined NMDAR mRNA and protein development in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an area in which NMDARs are critical for higher cognitive processing and NMDAR hypofunction is hypothesized in schizophrenia. Using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, we found NR1 expression begins low prenatally, peaks in adolescence, yet remains high throughout life, suggesting lifelong importance of NMDAR function. In contrast, NR3A levels are low during gestation, surge soon after birth, and decline progressively through adolescence and into adulthood. Because NR3A subunits uniquely attenuate NMDAR-mediated currents, limit calcium influx, and suppress dendritic spine formation, high levels during early childhood may be important for regulating neuroprotection and activity-dependent sculpting of synapses. We also examined whether subunit changes underlie reduced NMDAR activity in schizophrenia. Our results reveal normal NR1 and NR3A protein levels in DLPFC from schizophrenic patients, indicating that NMDAR hypofunction is unlikely to be maintained by gross changes in NR3A-containing NMDARs or overall NMDAR numbers. These data provide insights into NMDAR functions in the developing CNS and will contribute to designing pharmacotherapies for neurological disorders.
|Wild-type huntingtin participates in protein trafficking between the Golgi and the extracellular space. |
Strehlow, AN; Li, JZ; Myers, RM
Human molecular genetics 16 391-409 2007
Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the HD gene, which results in a toxic polyglutamine stretch within huntingtin, the protein it encodes. Understanding the normal function of this essential protein is vital to understanding the root of the disease, yet despite more than a decade of investigation, its role in the cell remains elusive. Identifying the subcellular localization of huntingtin and understanding its effects on global gene expression are critical to this endeavor. While most reports agree that huntingtin is predominantly a cytoplasmic protein, conflicting distribution patterns have been demonstrated at the subcellular level. Here, we examine wild-type huntingtin's localization in cultured cells by expressing the full-length human protein tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) within its unspliced genomic context. In fibrosarcoma and neuroblastoma cells, huntingtin shows discrete punctate, perinuclear localization overlapping largely with the trans-Golgi and cytoplasmic clathrin-coated vesicles, implicating huntingtin in vesicle trafficking. To determine whether huntingtin is involved in trafficking a specific subset of proteins, we measured changes in global transcription levels in embryonic stem cells and neurons lacking huntingtin. Huntingtin null neurons exhibit a significant reduction in transcripts encoding proteins destined for the extracellular space, many of which are components of the extracellular matrix or involved in cellular adhesion, receptor binding and hormone activity. Together, these findings support a role for huntingtin in the intracellular trafficking of proteins required for the construction of the extracellular matrix.
|Inhibition of telomerase by targeting MAP kinase signaling. |
Dakang Xu,He Li,Jun-Ping Liu
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 405 2007
Constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway by oncogenic stimulation is widespread in human cancers. With the recently demonstrated links between MAP kinase, histone phosphorylation, gene transcription factors, and hTERT gene promoter activity, abnormal MAP kinase activity is likely to be one of the essential forces that impact on hTERT gene transcription in transformed human cells. Several proteins have been implicated as playing important roles in MAP kinase signaling to hTERT gene, including Ets and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Inhibition of these signaling mechanisms may have a consequential effect on hTERT gene expression and telomerase activity. In this study, we brief the current progress and strategy in molecular targeting to the interface between MAP kinase and hTERT gene promoter in cancer.
|Learning with half a brain. |
David D Lent, Marianna Pintér, Nicholas J Strausfeld, David D Lent, Marianna Pintér, Nicholas J Strausfeld
Developmental neurobiology 67 740-51 2007
Since the 1970s, human subjects that have undergone corpus callosotomy have provided important insights into neural mechanisms of perception, memory, and cognition. The ability to test the function of each hemisphere independently of the other offers unique advantages for investigating systems that are thought to underlie cognition. However, such approaches have been limited to mammals. Here we describe comparable experiments on an insect brain to demonstrate learning-associated changes within one brain hemisphere. After training one half of their bisected brains, cockroaches learn to extend the antenna supplying that brain hemisphere towards an illuminated diode after this has been paired with an odor stimulus. The antenna supplying the naïve hemisphere shows no response. Cockroaches retain this ability for up to 24 h, during which, shortly after training, the mushroom body of the trained hemisphere alone undergoes specific post-translational alterations of microglomerular synaptic complexes in its calyces.
|MSN2 and MSN4 link calorie restriction and TOR to sirtuin-mediated lifespan extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. |
Medvedik, O; Lamming, DW; Kim, KD; Sinclair, DA
PLoS biology 5 e261 2007
Calorie restriction (CR) robustly extends the lifespan of numerous species. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, CR has been proposed to extend lifespan by boosting the activity of sirtuin deacetylases, thereby suppressing the formation of toxic repetitive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) circles. An alternative theory is that CR works by suppressing the TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway, which extends lifespan via mechanisms that are unknown but thought to be independent of sirtuins. Here we show that TOR inhibition extends lifespan by the same mechanism as CR: by increasing Sir2p activity and stabilizing the rDNA locus. Further, we show that rDNA stabilization and lifespan extension by both CR and TOR signaling is due to the relocalization of the transcription factors Msn2p and Msn4p from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where they increase expression of the nicotinamidase gene PNC1. These findings suggest that TOR and sirtuins may be part of the same longevity pathway in higher organisms, and that they may promote genomic stability during aging.Texto completo do artigo
|PRMT6-mediated methylation of R2 in histone H3 antagonizes H3 K4 trimethylation. |
Hyllus, D; Stein, C; Schnabel, K; Schiltz, E; Imhof, A; Dou, Y; Hsieh, J; Bauer, UM
Genes & development 21 3369-80 2007
The arginine methyltransferase PRMT6 (protein arginine methyltransferase 6) has been shown recently to regulate DNA repair and gene expression. As arginine methylation of histones is an important mechanism in transcriptional regulation, we asked whether PRMT6 possesses activity toward histones. We show here that PRMT6 methylates histone H3 at R2 and histones H4/H2A at R3 in vitro. Overexpression and knockdown analysis identify PRMT6 as the major H3 R2 methyltransferase in vivo. We find that H3 R2 methylation inhibits H3 K4 trimethylation and recruitment of WDR5, a subunit of the MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) K4 methyltransferase complex, to histone H3 in vitro. Upon PRMT6 overexpression, transcription of Hox genes and Myc-dependent genes, both well-known targets of H3 K4 trimethylation, decreases. This transcriptional repression coincides with enhanced occurrence of H3 R2 methylation and PRMT6 as well as reduced levels of H3 K4 trimethylation and MLL1/WDR5 recruitment at the HoxA2 gene. Upon retinoic acid-induced transcriptional activation of HoxA2 in a cell model of neuronal differentiation, PRMT6 recruitment and H3 R2 methylation are diminished and H3 K4 trimethylation increases at the gene. Our findings identify PRMT6 as the mammalian methyltransferase for H3 R2 and establish the enzyme as a crucial negative regulator of H3 K4 trimethylation and transcriptional activation.Texto completo do artigo
|Induction of heat shock proteins in differentiated human and rodent neurons by celastrol. |
Ari M Chow, Ian R Brown
Cell stress chaperones 12 237-44 2007
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have been termed protein misfolding disorders that are characterized by the neuronal accumulation of protein aggregates. Manipulation of the cellular stress-response involving induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in differentiated neurons offers a therapeutic strategy to counter conformational changes in neuronal proteins that trigger pathogenic cascades resulting in neurodegenerative diseases. Hsps are protein repair agents that provide a line of defense against misfolded, aggregation-prone proteins. These proteins are not induced in differentiated neurons by conventional heat shock. We have found that celastrol, a quinine methide triterpene, induced expression of a wider set of Hsps, including Hsp70B', in differentiated human neurons grown in tissue culture compared to cultured rodent neuronal cells. Hence the beneficial effect of celastrol against human neurodegenerative diseases may exceed its potential in rodent models of these diseases.Texto completo do artigo
|LINC, a human complex that is related to pRB-containing complexes in invertebrates regulates the expression of G2/M genes. |
Fabienne Schmit, Michael Korenjak, Mirijam Mannefeld, Kathrin Schmitt, Claudia Franke, Björn von Eyss, Sladjana Gagrica, Frank Hänel, Alexander Brehm, Stefan Gaubatz
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 6 1903-13 2007
Here we report the identification of the LIN complex (LINC), a human multiprotein complex that is required for transcriptional activation of G2/M genes. LINC is related to the recently identified dREAM and DRM complexes of Drosophila and C. elegans that contain homologs of the mammalian retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. The LINC core complex consists of at least five subunits including the chromatin-associated LIN-9 and RbAp48 proteins. LINC dynamically associates with pocket proteins, E2F and B-MYB during the cell cycle. In quiescent cells, LINC binds to p130 and E2F4. During cell cycle entry, E2F4 and p130 dissociate and LINC switches to B-MYB and p107. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that LINC associates with a large number of E2F-regulated promoters in quiescent cells. However, RNAi experiments reveal that LINC is not required for repression. In S-phase, LINC selectively binds to the promoters of G2/M genes whose products are required for mitosis and plays an important role in their cell cycle dependent activation.
|Frataxin is essential for extramitochondrial Fe-S cluster proteins in mammalian tissues. |
Martelli, A; Wattenhofer-Donzé, M; Schmucker, S; Bouvet, S; Reutenauer, L; Puccio, H
Human molecular genetics 16 2651-8 2007
Friedreich ataxia, the most common recessive ataxia, is caused by the deficiency of the mitochondrial protein frataxin (Fxn), an iron chaperone involved in the assembly of Fe-S clusters (ISC). In yeast, mitochondria play a central role for all Fe-S proteins, independently of their subcellular localization. In mammalian cells, this central role of mitochondria remains controversial as an independent cytosolic ISC assembly machinery has been suggested. In the present work, we show that three extramitochondrial Fe-S proteins (xanthine oxido-reductase, glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase and Nth1) are affected in Fxn-deleted mouse tissues. Furthermore, we show that Fxn is strictly localized to the mitochondria, excluding the presence of a cytosolic pool of Fxn in normal adult tissues. Together, these results demonstrate that in mammals, Fxn and mitochondria play a cardinal role in the maturation of extramitochondrial Fe-S proteins. The Fe-S scaffold protein IscU progressively decreases in Fxn-deleted tissues, further contributing to the impairment of Fe-S proteins. These results thus provide new cellular pathways that may contribute to molecular mechanisms of the disease.
|The secreted beta-amyloid precursor protein ectodomain APPs alpha is sufficient to rescue the anatomical, behavioral, and electrophysiological abnormalities of APP-deficient mice. |
Ring, S; Weyer, SW; Kilian, SB; Waldron, E; Pietrzik, CU; Filippov, MA; Herms, J; Buchholz, C; Eckman, CB; Korte, M; Wolfer, DP; Müller, UC
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 7817-26 2007
It is well established that the proteolytic processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates beta-amyloid (Abeta), which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast, the physiological role of APP and of its numerous proteolytic fragments and the question of whether a loss of these functions contributes to AD are still unknown. To address this question, we replaced the endogenous APP locus by gene-targeted alleles and generated two lines of knock-in mice that exclusively express APP deletion variants corresponding either to the secreted APP ectodomain (APPs alpha) or to a C-terminal (CT) truncation lacking the YENPTY interaction motif (APPdeltaCT15). Interestingly, the deltaCT15 deletion resulted in reduced turnover of holoAPP, increased cell surface expression, and strongly reduced Abeta levels in brain, likely because of reduced processing in the endocytic pathway. Most importantly, we demonstrate that in both APP knock-in lines the expression of APP N-terminal domains either grossly attenuated or completely rescued the prominent deficits of APP knock-out mice, such as reductions in brain and body weight, grip strength deficits, alterations in circadian locomotor activity, exploratory activity, and the impairment in spatial learning and long-term potentiation. Together, our data suggest that the APP C terminus is dispensable and that APPs alpha is sufficient to mediate the physiological functions of APP assessed by these tests.
|BMI1 is a target gene of E2F-1 and is strongly expressed in primary neuroblastomas. |
Nowak, K; Kerl, K; Fehr, D; Kramps, C; Gessner, C; Killmer, K; Samans, B; Berwanger, B; Christiansen, H; Lutz, W
Nucleic acids research 34 1745-54 2006
The oncogene BMI1 encodes a polycomb group transcription factor that is required for embryonic development and self-renewal of stem cells. Despite these important functions little is known about the regulation of BMI1 expression. A cDNA microarray based search for target genes of E2F-1 in neuroblastoma cells expressing a 4-OHT-regulated E2F-1-ER fusion protein identified many hitherto unknown E2F-1 regulated genes. A total of 10% of these genes, including BMI1, encode proteins that function primarily in the regulation of gene expression. The BMI1 promoter contains a putative E2F binding site that was required for the activation of a BMI1 promoter-dependent reporter construct by E2F-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed 4-OHT-dependent binding of E2F-1-ER and binding of endogenous E2F-1 to the BMI1 promoter in tumor cells. We have previously shown activation of the oncogene MYCN by E2F. Thus, in neuroblastomas deregulated E2F-1 can activate two oncogenes, MYCN and BMI1 that are known to co-operate in tumor formation. Consistent with a role of Bmi1 in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis we found strong Bmi1 expression in primary neuroblastomas. Our results reveal a novel link between E2F and polycomb transcription factors and suggest a role of Bmi1 in neuroblastomas.
|Stargazin modulates native AMPA receptor functional properties by two distinct mechanisms. |
Turetsky, D; Garringer, E; Patneau, DK
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 7438-48 2005
AMPA receptors play a central role in basal excitatory synaptic transmission as well as synaptic maturation and plasticity. The transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) stargazin (gamma2) serves multiple roles in trafficking and stabilizing synaptic AMPA receptors and may be incorporated as an auxiliary subunit. We wanted to determine whether stargazin altered channel function of neuronal AMPA receptors. Transfection of cultured hippocampal neurons with stargazin produced two distinct effects on AMPA receptor functional properties: a sixfold reduction in glutamate-evoked desensitization and a twofold increase in the relative size of responses to the partial agonist kainate. Kinetic and dose-response analyses suggest that the effect of stargazin on glutamate desensitization results from an allosteric interaction that destabilizes the desensitized state of the receptor and that potentiation of kainate responses reflects increased efficacy rather than a change in affinity. These functional effects were also observed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with various heteromeric and homomeric AMPA receptors, with distinct subunit-dependent effects on glutamate desensitization, kainate efficacy, and trafficking. Two regions of stargazin mediate its functional effects: the C-terminal intracellular domain seems to be more important for effects on glutamate-evoked desensitization and receptor trafficking, whereas the first extracellular domain makes a larger contribution to effects on kainate efficacy. These data indicate that TARPs are involved both in trafficking and direct modulation of channel function and, as auxiliary subunits of neuronal AMPA receptors, must be considered in the functional heterogeneity of neuronal AMPA receptors.
|The RXR-type endoplasmic reticulum-retention/retrieval signal of GABAB1 requires distant spacing from the membrane to function. |
Gassmann, M; Haller, C; Stoll, Y; Abdel Aziz, S; Biermann, B; Mosbacher, J; Kaupmann, K; Bettler, B
Molecular pharmacology 68 137-44 2005
Functional gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptors are normally only observed upon coexpression of GABA(B1) with GABA(B2) subunits. A C-terminal arginine-based endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention/retrieval signal, RSRR, prevents escape of unassembled GABA(B1) subunits from the ER and restricts surface expression to correctly assembled heteromeric receptors. The RSRR signal in GABA(B1) is proposed to be shielded by C-terminal coiled-coil interaction of the GABA(B1) with the GABA(B2) subunit. Here, we investigated whether the RSRR motif in GABA(B1) remains functional when grafted to ectopic sites. We found that the RSRR signal in GABA(B1) is inactive in any of the three intracellular loops but remains functional when moved within the distal zone of the C-terminal tail. C-terminal deletions that position the RSRR signal closer to the plasma membrane drastically reduce its effectiveness, supporting that proximity to the membrane restricts access to the RSRR motif. Functional ectopic RSRR signals in GABA(B1) are efficiently inactivated by the GABA(B2) subunit in the absence of coiled-coil dimerization, supporting that coiled-coil interaction is not critical for release of the receptor complex from the ER. The data are consistent with a model in which removal of RSRR from its active zone rather than its direct shielding by coiled-coil dimerization triggers forward trafficking. Because arginine-based intracellular retention signals of the type RXR, where X represents any amino acid, are used to regulate assembly and surface transport of several multimeric complexes, such a mechanism may apply to other proteins as well.
|Visual deprivation modifies both presynaptic glutamate release and the composition of perisynaptic/extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in adult visual cortex. |
Yashiro, K; Corlew, R; Philpot, BD
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 11684-92 2005
Use-dependent modifications of synapses have been well described in the developing visual cortex, but the ability for experience to modify synapses in the adult visual cortex is poorly understood. We found that 10 d of late-onset visual deprivation modifies both presynaptic and postsynaptic elements at the layer 4--greater than 2/3 connection in the visual cortex of adult mice, and these changes differ from those observed in juveniles. Although visual deprivation in juvenile mice modifies the subunit composition and increases the current duration of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), no such effect is observed at synapses between layer 4 and layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in adult mice. Surprisingly, visual deprivation in adult mice enhances the temporal summation of NMDAR-mediated currents induced by bursts of high-frequency stimulation. The enhanced temporal summation of NMDAR-mediated currents in deprived cortex could not be explained by a reduction in the rate of synaptic depression, because our data indicate that late-onset visual deprivation actually increases the rate of synaptic depression. Biochemical and electrophysiological evidence instead suggest that the enhanced temporal summation in adult mice could be accounted for by a change in the molecular composition of NMDARs at perisynaptic/extrasynaptic sites. Our data demonstrate that the experience-dependent modifications observed in the adult visual cortex are different from those observed during development. These differences may help to explain the unique consequences of sensory deprivation on plasticity in the developing versus mature cortex.
|Inhibition of oncogenic transformation by mammalian Lin-9, a pRB-associated protein. |
Sladjana Gagrica, Stefanie Hauser, Ingrid Kolfschoten, Lisa Osterloh, Reuven Agami, Stefan Gaubatz
The EMBO journal 23 4627-38 2004
Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans identified lin-9 to function together with the retinoblastoma homologue lin-35 in vulva differentiation. We have now identified a human homologue of Lin-9 (hLin-9) and provide evidence about its function in the mammalian pRB pathway. hLin-9 binds to pRB and cooperates with pRB in flat cell formation in Saos-2 cells. In addition, hLin-9 synergized with pRB and Cbfal to transactivate an osteoblast-specific reporter gene. In contrast, hLin-9 was not involved in pRB-mediated inhibition of cell cycle progression or repression of E2F-dependent transactivation. Consistent with these data, hLin-9 was able to associate with partially penetrant pRB mutants that do not bind to E2F, but retain the ability to activate transcription and to promote differentiation. hLin-9 can also inhibit oncogenic transformation, dependent on the presence of a functional pRB protein. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Lin-9 can substitute for the loss of pRB in transformation of human primary fibroblasts. These data suggest that hLin-9 has tumor-suppressing activities and that the ability of hLin-9 to inhibit transformation is mediated through its association with pRB.Texto completo do artigo
|A major role for mitotic CDC2 kinase inactivation in the establishment of the mitotic DNA damage checkpoint. |
Bayart, E; Grigorieva, O; Leibovitch, S; Onclercq-Delic, R; Amor-Guéret, M
Cancer research 64 8954-9 2004
Cdc2 kinase is inactivated when DNA damage occurs during the spindle assembly checkpoint. Here, we show that the level of mitotic Bloom syndrome protein phosphorylation reflects the level of cdc2 activity. A complete inactivation of cdc2 by either introduction of DNA double-strand breaks or roscovitine treatment prevents exit from mitosis. Thus, mitotic cdc2 inactivation plays a major role in the establishment of the mitotic DNA damage checkpoint. In response to mitotic cdc2 inactivation, the M/G(1) transition is delayed after releasing the drug block in nonmalignant cells, whereas tumor cells exit mitosis without dividing and rereplicate their DNA, which results in mitotic catastrophe. This opens the way for new chemotherapeutic strategies.
|Thyroid hormone, retinoic acid, and testosterone suppress proliferation and induce markers of differentiation in cultured rat sertoli cells. |
Jeremy J Buzzard, Nigel G Wreford, John R Morrison
Endocrinology 144 3722-31 2003
This study uses a high purity cell culture system to extend previous observations of factors controlling the end of the Sertoli cell proliferative phase. Thyroid hormone, retinoic acid, and testosterone were assessed for their ability to halt the proliferative phase and regulate the expression of markers associated with maturation of the Sertoli cell. We show that these hormones share similar suppressive effects on the rate of Sertoli cell division without any apparent additive effects. We demonstrate that these hormones induce the progressive accumulation of cell cycle inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 in Sertoli cells, a likely regulatory mechanism controlling the suppression of proliferation. We used real-time RT-PCR to examine the effects of these factors on the expression of mRNA encoding the Id proteins, demonstrating an increase in Id2 and Id3 expression in Sertoli cells treated with thyroid hormone, retinoic acid, or testosterone. Finally, we examined the expression of a number of genes that have been implicated in the Sertoli cell differentiation process. Our results suggest that these hormones can induce aspects of Sertoli cell differentiation in vitro, providing a valuable in vitro model for studying Sertoli cell function.
|Use of monoclonal antibodies to analyse the expression of a multi-tubulin family. |
Birkett, C R, et al.
FEBS Lett., 187: 211-8 (1985) 1985
Ficha de dados
|Anti-Tubulin, beta, clone KMX-1 - Data Sheet|