Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, Rb||ICC, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-α-Actinin Antibody, clone AT6/172|
|Presentation||Please see product datasheet for lot-specific formulation.|
|Application||This Anti-α-Actinin Antibody, clone AT6/172 is validated for use in IC, WB for the detection of α-Actinin.|
|Application Notes||Immunoprecipitation is not recommended|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Mining the human complexome database identifies RBM14 as an XPO1-associated protein involved in HIV-1 Rev function.|
Budhiraja, S; Liu, H; Couturier, J; Malovannaya, A; Qin, J; Lewis, DE; Rice, AP
Journal of virology 89 3557-67 2015
By recruiting the host protein XPO1 (CRM1), the HIV-1 Rev protein mediates the nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral transcripts. We mined data from the recently described human nuclear complexome to identify a host protein, RBM14, which associates with XPO1 and Rev and is involved in Rev function. Using a Rev-dependent p24 reporter plasmid, we found that RBM14 depletion decreased Rev activity and Rev-mediated enhancement of the cytoplasmic levels of unspliced viral transcripts. RBM14 depletion also reduced p24 expression during viral infection, indicating that RBM14 is limiting for Rev function. RBM14 has previously been shown to localize to nuclear paraspeckles, a structure implicated in retaining unspliced HIV-1 transcripts for either Rev-mediated nuclear export or degradation. We found that depletion of NEAT1 RNA, a long noncoding RNA required for paraspeckle integrity, abolished the ability of overexpressed RBM14 to enhance Rev function, indicating the dependence of RBM14 function on paraspeckle integrity. Our study extends the known host cell interactome of Rev and XPO1 and further substantiates a critical role for paraspeckles in the mechanism of action of Rev. Our study also validates the nuclear complexome as a database from which viral cofactors can be mined.This study mined a database of nuclear protein complexes to identify a cellular protein named RBM14 that is associated with XPO1 (CRM1), a nuclear protein that binds to the HIV-1 Rev protein and mediates nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral RNAs. Functional assays demonstrated that RBM14, a protein found in paraspeckle structures in the nucleus, is involved in HIV-1 Rev function. This study validates the nuclear complexome database as a reference that can be mined to identify viral cofactors.
|Never in mitosis gene A related kinase-6 attenuates pressure overload-induced activation of the protein kinase B pathway and cardiac hypertrophy.|
Bian, Z; Liao, H; Zhang, Y; Wu, Q; Zhou, H; Yang, Z; Fu, J; Wang, T; Yan, L; Shen, D; Li, H; Tang, Q
PloS one 9 e96095 2014
Cardiac hypertrophy appears to be a specialized form of cellular growth that involves the proliferation control and cell cycle regulation. NIMA (never in mitosis, gene A)-related kinase-6 (Nek6) is a cell cycle regulatory gene that could induce centriole duplication, and control cell proliferation and survival. However, the exact effect of Nek6 on cardiac hypertrophy has not yet been reported. In the present study, the loss- and gain-of-function experiments were performed in Nek6 gene-deficient (Nek6-/-) mice and Nek6 overexpressing H9c2 cells to clarify whether Nek6 which promotes the cell cycle also mediates cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by transthoracic aorta constriction (TAC) and then evaluated by echocardiography, pathological and molecular analyses in vivo. We got novel findings that the absence of Nek6 promoted cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction, which were accompanied by a significant activation of the protein kinase B (Akt) signaling in an experimental model of TAC. Consistent with this, the overexpression of Nek6 prevented hypertrophy in H9c2 cells induced by angiotonin II and inhibited Akt signaling in vitro. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the cell cycle regulatory gene Nek6 is also a critical signaling molecule that helps prevent cardiac hypertrophy and inhibits the Akt signaling pathway.
|Proprotein convertases play an important role in regulating PKGI endoproteolytic cleavage and nuclear transport.|
Kato, S; Zhang, R; Roberts, JD
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 305 L130-40 2013
Nitric oxide and cGMP modulate vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype by regulating cell differentiation and proliferation. Recent studies suggest that cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKGI) cleavage and the nuclear translocation of a constitutively active kinase fragment, PKGIγ, are required for nuclear cGMP signaling in SMC. However, the mechanisms that control PKGI proteolysis are unknown. Inspection of the amino acid sequence of a PKGI cleavage site that yields PKGIγ and a protease database revealed a putative minimum consensus sequence for proprotein convertases (PCs). Therefore we investigated the role of PCs in regulating PKGI proteolysis. We observed that overexpression of PCs, furin and PC5, but not PC7, which are all expressed in SMC, increase PKGI cleavage in a dose-dependent manner in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Moreover, furin-induced proteolysis of mutant PKGI, in which alanines were substituted into the putative PC consensus sequence, was decreased in these cells. In addition, overexpression of furin increased PKGI proteolysis in LoVo cells, which is an adenocarcinoma cell line expressing defective furin without PC activity. Also, expression of α1-PDX, an engineered serpin-like PC inhibitor, reduced PC activity and decreased PKGI proteolysis in HEK293 cells. Last, treatment of low-passage rat aortic SMC with membrane-permeable PC inhibitor peptides decreased cGMP-stimulated nuclear PKGIγ translocation. These data indicate for the first time that PCs have a role in regulating PKGI proteolysis and the nuclear localization of its active cleavage product, which are important for cGMP-mediated SMC phenotype.
|IKKi deficiency promotes pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.|
Dai, J; Shen, DF; Bian, ZY; Zhou, H; Gan, HW; Zong, J; Deng, W; Yuan, Y; Li, F; Wu, QQ; Gao, L; Zhang, R; Ma, ZG; Li, HL; Tang, QZ
PloS one 8 e53412 2013
The inducible IκB kinase (IKKi/IKKε) is a recently described serine-threonine IKK-related kinase. Previous studies have reported the role of IKKi in infectious diseases and cancer. However, its role in the cardiac response to pressure overload remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of IKKi deficiency on the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy using in vitro and in vivo models. First, we developed mouse models of pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload using aortic banding (AB). Four weeks after AB, cardiac function was then assessed through echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements. Western blotting, real-time PCR and histological analyses were used to assess the pathological and molecular mechanisms. We observed that IKKi-deficient mice showed significantly enhanced cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac dysfunction, apoptosis and fibrosis compared with WT mice. Furthermore, we recently revealed that the IKKi-deficient mice spontaneously develop cardiac hypertrophy. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that IKKi deficiency-induced cardiac hypertrophy was associated with the activation of the AKT and NF-κB signaling pathway in response to AB. In cultured cells, IKKi overexpression suppressed the activation of this pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrate that IKKi deficiency exacerbates cardiac hypertrophy by regulating the AKT and NF-κB signaling pathway.
|Fibroblast growth factor receptors as novel therapeutic targets in SNF5-deleted malignant rhabdoid tumors.|
Wöhrle, S; Weiss, A; Ito, M; Kauffmann, A; Murakami, M; Jagani, Z; Thuery, A; Bauer-Probst, B; Reimann, F; Stamm, C; Pornon, A; Romanet, V; Guagnano, V; Brümmendorf, T; Sellers, WR; Hofmann, F; Roberts, CW; Graus Porta, D
PloS one 8 e77652 2013
Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are aggressive pediatric cancers arising in brain, kidney and soft tissues, which are characterized by loss of the tumor suppressor SNF5/SMARCB1. MRTs are poorly responsive to chemotherapy and thus a high unmet clinical need exists for novel therapies for MRT patients. SNF5 is a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex which affects gene expression by nucleosome remodeling. Here, we report that loss of SNF5 function correlates with increased expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in MRT cell lines and primary tumors and that re-expression of SNF5 in MRT cells causes a marked repression of FGFR expression. Conversely, siRNA-mediated impairment of SWI/SNF function leads to elevated levels of FGFR2 in human fibroblasts. In vivo, treatment with NVP-BGJ398, a selective FGFR inhibitor, blocks progression of a murine MRT model. Hence, we identify FGFR signaling as an aberrantly activated oncogenic pathway in MRTs and propose pharmacological inhibition of FGFRs as a potential novel clinical therapy for MRTs.
|Regulation of focal adhesions by flightless i involves inhibition of paxillin phosphorylation via a Rac1-dependent pathway.|
Kopecki, Z; O'Neill, GM; Arkell, RM; Cowin, AJ
The Journal of investigative dermatology 131 1450-9 2011
Flightless I (Flii) is an actin-remodeling protein that influences diverse processes including cell migration and gene transcription and links signal transduction with cytoskeletal regulation. Here, we show that Flii modulation of focal adhesions and filamentous actin stress fibers is Rac1-dependent. Using primary skin fibroblasts from Flii overexpressing (Flii(Tg/Tg)), wild-type, and Flii deficient (Flii(+/-)) mice, we show that elevated expression of Flii increases stress fiber formation by impaired focal adhesion turnover and enhanced formation of fibrillar adhesions. Conversely, Flii knockdown increases the percentage of focal complex positive cells. We further show that a functional effect of Flii at both the cellular level and in in vivo mouse wounds is through inhibiting paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation and suppression of signaling proteins Src and p130Cas, both of which regulate adhesion signaling pathways. Flii is upregulated in response to wounding, and overexpression of Flii inhibits paxillin activity and reduces adhesion signaling by modulating the activity of the Rho family GTPases. Overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 GTPase restores the spreading ability of Flii(Tg/Tg) fibroblasts and may explain the reduced adhesion, migration, and proliferation observed in Flii(Tg/Tg) mice and their impaired wound healing, a process dependent on effective cellular motility and adhesion.
|Activating transcription factor 3 deficiency promotes cardiac hypertrophy, dysfunction, and fibrosis induced by pressure overload.|
Zhou, H; Shen, DF; Bian, ZY; Zong, J; Deng, W; Zhang, Y; Guo, YY; Li, H; Tang, QZ
PloS one 6 e26744 2011
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), which is encoded by an adaptive-response gene induced by various stimuli, plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. However, the effect of ATF3 on cardiac hypertrophy induced by a pathological stimulus has not been determined. Here, we investigated the effects of ATF3 deficiency on cardiac hypertrophy using in vitro and in vivo models. Aortic banding (AB) was performed to induce cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Cardiac hypertrophy was estimated by echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements and by pathological and molecular analysis. ATF3 deficiency promoted cardiac hypertrophy, dysfunction and fibrosis after 4 weeks of AB compared to the wild type (WT) mice. Furthermore, enhanced activation of the MEK-ERK1/2 and JNK pathways was found in ATF3-knockout (KO) mice compared to WT mice. In vitro studies performed in cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes confirmed that ATF3 deficiency promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II, which was associated with the amplification of MEK-ERK1/2 and JNK signaling. Our results suggested that ATF3 plays a crucial role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy via negative regulation of the MEK-ERK1/2 and JNK pathways.Full Text Article
|Flightless I regulates hemidesmosome formation and integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and migration during wound repair.|
Kopecki, Z; Arkell, R; Powell, BC; Cowin, AJ
The Journal of investigative dermatology 129 2031-45 2009
Flightless I (Flii), a highly conserved member of the gelsolin family of actin-remodelling proteins associates with actin structures and is involved in cellular motility and adhesion. Our previous studies have shown that Flii is an important negative regulator of wound repair. Here, we show that Flii affects hemidesmosome formation and integrin-mediated keratinocyte adhesion and migration. Impaired hemidesmosome formation and sparse arrangements of keratin cytoskeleton tonofilaments and actin cytoskeleton anchoring fibrils were observed in Flii(Tg/+) and Flii(Tg/Tg) mice with their skin being significantly more fragile than Flii(+/-) and WT mice. Flii(+/-) primary keratinocytes showed increased adhesion on laminin and collagen I than WT and Flii(Tg/Tg) primary keratinocytes. Decreased expression of CD151 and laminin-binding integrins alpha3, beta1, alpha6 and beta4 were observed in Flii overexpressing wounds, which could contribute to the impaired wound re-epithelialization observed in these mice. Flii interacts with proteins directly linked to the cytoplasmic domain of integrin receptors suggesting that it may be a mechanical link between ligand-bound integrin receptors and the actin cytoskeleton driving adhesion-signaling pathways. Therefore Flii may regulate wound repair through its effect on hemidesmosome formation and integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and migration.
|Dynamic interplay of transcriptional machinery and chromatin regulates "late" expression of the chemokine RANTES in T lymphocytes.|
Ahn, YT; Huang, B; McPherson, L; Clayberger, C; Krensky, AM
Molecular and cellular biology 27 253-66 2007
The chemokine RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) is expressed "late" (3 to 5 days) after activation in T lymphocytes. In order to understand the molecular events that accompany changes in gene expression, a detailed analysis of the interplay between transcriptional machinery and chromatin on the RANTES promoter over time was undertaken. Krüppel-like factor 13 (KLF13), a sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor, orchestrates the induction of RANTES expression in T lymphocytes by ordered recruitment of effector molecules, including Nemo-like kinase, p300/cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CBP), p300/CBP-associated factor, and Brahma-related gene 1, that initiate sequential changes in phosphorylation and acetylation of histones and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling near the TATA box of the RANTES promoter. These events recruit RNA polymerase II to the RANTES promoter and are responsible for late expression of RANTES in T lymphocytes. Therefore, KLF13 is a key regulator of late RANTES expression in T lymphocytes.Full Text Article
|Identification of genes differentially expressed in mouse mammary epithelium transformed by an activated beta-catenin.|
Renou, JP; Bierie, B; Miyoshi, K; Cui, Y; Djiane, J; Reichenstein, M; Shani, M; Hennighausen, L
Oncogene 22 4594-610 2003
Beta-catenin is an executor of Wnt signaling and it can control cell fate and specification. Deletion of exon 3 from the endogenous beta-catenin gene in differentiating mammary alveolar epithelium of the mouse results in the generation of an activated protein that lacks amino acids 5-80. This is accompanied by a loss of mammary epithelial differentiation and a transdifferentiation process to squamous metaplasias. To further understand the molecular process of transdifferentiation, the expression of genes in mammary tissue was profiled in the absence and presence of activated of beta-catenin. Microarrays were generated that carry about 8500 cDNA clones with approximately 6000 obtained from mammary tissue. Mutant tissues, which had undergone either partial (TD1) or complete (TD2) squamous transdifferentiation, were compared with wild-type mammary tissue. Four groups of genes were identified. Group 1 contained genes whose expression was induced in both mutant tissues. Groups 2 and 3 contained genes that were active preferentially in TD2 and TD1, respectively. Group 4 contained genes suppressed in both samples. Using this approach, known and unknown genes activated in the transdifferentiation process were identified. A new 20 kDa protein (PANE1) induced upon transdifferentiation was nuclear in nonconfluent cells and cytoplasmic in confluent or dividing cells. Lastly, stabilization of beta-catenin resulted in the retention of differentiated epithelium upon involution and altered activities of several proteases in transdifferentiated mammary epithelium.