Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R||WB, IP, FC, ChIP, IHC, ChIP-seq||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Anti-Androgen Receptor - 2387519||2387519|
|Anti-Androgen Receptor - 2328016||2328016|
|Anti-Androgen Receptor - 2489005||2489005|
|Anti-Androgen Receptor - 2500466||2500466|
|Anti-Androgen Receptor -2551210||2551210|
|Anti-Androgen Receptor -2585789||2585789|
|Anti-Androgen Receptor -2605374||2605374|
|Anti-Androgen Receptor -2638891||2638891|
|Anti-Androgen Receptor -2639117||2639117|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Effect of Testosterone on Neuronal Morphology and Neuritic Growth of Fetal Lamb Hypothalamus-Preoptic Area and Cerebral Cortex in Primary Culture.|
Reddy, RC; Amodei, R; Estill, CT; Stormshak, F; Meaker, M; Roselli, CE
PloS one 10 e0129521 2015
Testosterone plays an essential role in sexual differentiation of the male sheep brain. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN), is 2 to 3 times larger in males than in females, and this sex difference is under the control of testosterone. The effect of testosterone on oSDN volume may result from enhanced expansion of soma areas and/or dendritic fields. To test this hypothesis, cells derived from the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) and cerebral cortex (CTX) of lamb fetuses were grown in primary culture to examine the direct morphological effects of testosterone on these cellular components. We found that within two days of plating, neurons derived from both the HPOA and CTX extend neuritic processes and express androgen receptors and aromatase immunoreactivity. Both treated and control neurites continue to grow and branch with increasing time in culture. Treatment with testosterone (10 nM) for 3 days significantly (P less than 0.05) increased both total neurite outgrowth (35%) and soma size (8%) in the HPOA and outgrowth (21%) and number of branch points (33%) in the CTX. These findings indicate that testosterone-induced somal enlargement and neurite outgrowth in fetal lamb neurons may contribute to the development of a fully masculine sheep brain.
|Divergent androgen regulation of unfolded protein response pathways drives prostate cancer.|
Sheng, X; Arnoldussen, YJ; Storm, M; Tesikova, M; Nenseth, HZ; Zhao, S; Fazli, L; Rennie, P; Risberg, B; Wæhre, H; Danielsen, H; Mills, IG; Jin, Y; Hotamisligil, G; Saatcioglu, F
EMBO molecular medicine 7 788-801 2015
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a homeostatic mechanism to maintain endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function. The UPR is activated by various physiological conditions as well as in disease states, such as cancer. As androgens regulate secretion and development of the normal prostate and drive prostate cancer (PCa) growth, they may affect UPR pathways. Here, we show that the canonical UPR pathways are directly and divergently regulated by androgens in PCa cells, through the androgen receptor (AR), which is critical for PCa survival. AR bound to gene regulatory sites and activated the IRE1α branch, but simultaneously inhibited PERK signaling. Inhibition of the IRE1α arm profoundly reduced PCa cell growth in vitro as well as tumor formation in preclinical models of PCa in vivo. Consistently, AR and UPR gene expression were correlated in human PCa, and spliced XBP-1 expression was significantly upregulated in cancer compared with normal prostate. These data establish a genetic switch orchestrated by AR that divergently regulates the UPR pathways and suggest that targeting IRE1α signaling may have therapeutic utility in PCa.
|Pten Regulates Epithelial Cytodifferentiation during Prostate Development.|
Lokody, IB; Francis, JC; Gardiner, JR; Erler, JT; Swain, A
PloS one 10 e0129470 2015
Gene expression and functional studies have indicated that the molecular programmes involved in prostate development are also active in prostate cancer. PTEN has been implicated in human prostate cancer and is frequently mutated in this disease. Here, using the Nkx3.1:Cre mouse strain and a genetic deletion approach, we investigate the role of Pten specifically in the developing mouse prostate epithelia. In contrast to its role in other developing organs, this gene is dispensable for the initial developmental processes such as budding and branching. However, as cytodifferentiation progresses, abnormal luminal cells fill the ductal lumens together with augmented epithelial proliferation. This phenotype resembles the hyperplasia seen in postnatal Pten deletion models that develop neoplasia at later stages. Consistent with this, gene expression analysis showed a number of genes affected that are shared with Pten mutant prostate cancer models, including a decrease in androgen receptor regulated genes. In depth analysis of the phenotype of these mice during development revealed that loss of Pten leads to the precocious differentiation of epithelial cells towards a luminal cell fate. This study provides novel insight into the role of Pten in prostate development as part of the process of coordinating the differentiation and proliferation of cell types in time and space to form a functional organ.
|Androgen Receptor-Mediated Growth Suppression of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR Prostate Epithelial Cells.|
Kim, YC; Chen, C; Bolton, EC
PloS one 10 e0138286 2015
The androgen receptor (AR) mediates the developmental, physiologic, and pathologic effects of androgens including 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). However, the mechanisms whereby AR regulates growth suppression and differentiation of luminal epithelial cells in the prostate gland and proliferation of malignant versions of these cells are not well understood, though they are central to prostate development, homeostasis, and neoplasia. Here, we identify androgen-responsive genes that restrain cell cycle progression and proliferation of human prostate epithelial cell lines (HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR), and we investigate the mechanisms through which AR regulates their expression. DHT inhibited proliferation of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, and cell cycle analysis revealed a prolonged G1 interval. In the cell cycle, the G1/S-phase transition is initiated by the activity of cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes, which relieve growth suppression. In HPr-1AR, cyclin D1/2 and CDK4/6 mRNAs were androgen-repressed, whereas CDK inhibitor, CDKN1A, mRNA was androgen-induced. The regulation of these transcripts was AR-dependent, and involved multiple mechanisms. Similar AR-mediated down-regulation of CDK4/6 mRNAs and up-regulation of CDKN1A mRNA occurred in PC3-Lenti-AR. Further, CDK4/6 overexpression suppressed DHT-inhibited cell cycle progression and proliferation of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, whereas CDKN1A overexpression induced cell cycle arrest. We therefore propose that AR-mediated growth suppression of HPr-1AR involves cyclin D1 mRNA decay, transcriptional repression of cyclin D2 and CDK4/6, and transcriptional activation of CDKN1A, which serve to decrease CDK4/6 activity. AR-mediated inhibition of PC3-Lenti-AR proliferation occurs through a similar mechanism, albeit without down-regulation of cyclin D. Our findings provide insight into AR-mediated regulation of prostate epithelial cell proliferation.
|Therapeutic targeting of BET bromodomain proteins in castration-resistant prostate cancer.|
Asangani, IA; Dommeti, VL; Wang, X; Malik, R; Cieslik, M; Yang, R; Escara-Wilke, J; Wilder-Romans, K; Dhanireddy, S; Engelke, C; Iyer, MK; Jing, X; Wu, YM; Cao, X; Qin, ZS; Wang, S; Feng, FY; Chinnaiyan, AM
Nature 510 278-82 2014
Men who develop metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) invariably succumb to the disease. Progression to CRPC after androgen ablation therapy is predominantly driven by deregulated androgen receptor (AR) signalling. Despite the success of recently approved therapies targeting AR signalling, such as abiraterone and second-generation anti-androgens including MDV3100 (also known as enzalutamide), durable responses are limited, presumably owing to acquired resistance. Recently, JQ1 and I-BET762 two selective small-molecule inhibitors that target the amino-terminal bromodomains of BRD4, have been shown to exhibit anti-proliferative effects in a range of malignancies. Here we show that AR-signalling-competent human CRPC cell lines are preferentially sensitive to bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) inhibition. BRD4 physically interacts with the N-terminal domain of AR and can be disrupted by JQ1 (refs 11, 13). Like the direct AR antagonist MDV3100, JQ1 disrupted AR recruitment to target gene loci. By contrast with MDV3100, JQ1 functions downstream of AR, and more potently abrogated BRD4 localization to AR target loci and AR-mediated gene transcription, including induction of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion and its oncogenic activity. In vivo, BET bromodomain inhibition was more efficacious than direct AR antagonism in CRPC xenograft mouse models. Taken together, these studies provide a novel epigenetic approach for the concerted blockade of oncogenic drivers in advanced prostate cancer.
|Characterization of aromatase expression in the adult male and female mouse brain. I. Coexistence with oestrogen receptors α and β, and androgen receptors.|
Stanić, D; Dubois, S; Chua, HK; Tonge, B; Rinehart, N; Horne, MK; Boon, WC
PloS one 9 e90451 2014
Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, olfactory tubercle, medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area, with the densest distributions of EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. Differences between male and female mice were apparent, with the density of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres being lower in some brain regions of female mice, including the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus, lateral septum, medial amygdala and hypothalamus co-expressed oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β, or the androgen receptor (AR), although single-labelled EGFP-positive cells were also identified. Additionally, single-labelled ERα-, ERβ- or AR-positive cell bodies often appeared to be surrounded by EGFP-immunoreactive nerve fibres/terminals. The widespread distribution of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres suggests that aromatase signalling is common in the mouse brain, and that locally synthesised brain oestrogens could mediate biological effects by activating pre- and post-synaptic oestrogen α and β receptors, and androgen receptors. The higher number of EGFP-positive cells in male mice may indicate that the autocrine and paracrine effects of oestrogens are more prominent in males than females.
|Cooperativity and equilibrium with FOXA1 define the androgen receptor transcriptional program.|
Jin, HJ; Zhao, JC; Wu, L; Kim, J; Yu, J
Nature communications 5 3972 2014
The pioneering factor FOXA1 opens chromatin to facilitate androgen receptor (AR) binding to prostate-specific genes. How FOXA1 controls the AR cistrome, however, is incompletely understood. Here we show that AR directly binds chromatin through the androgen response elements (AREs). FOXA1 is not required for AR-chromatin interaction, but instrumental in recruiting AR to low-affinity half-AREs by opening local chromatin around adjacent FKHD sites. Too much FOXA1 creates excessive open chromatin regions, which serve as reservoirs that retain AR via abundant half-AREs, thereby reducing its availability for specific sites. FOXA1 downregulation, by contrast, relinquishes AR to permissively bind AREs across the genome, resulting in substantial AR-binding events and AR target gene expression even in the absence of androgen. Taken together, our data illustrate the mechanistic details by which cooperativity and equilibrium with FOXA1 define AR cistrome and reveal a previously unknown function of FOXA1 in inhibiting AR signalling and castration-resistant prostate cancer growth.
|Autophagy pathway is required for IL-6 induced neuroendocrine differentiation and chemoresistance of prostate cancer LNCaP cells.|
Chang, PC; Wang, TY; Chang, YT; Chu, CY; Lee, CL; Hsu, HW; Zhou, TA; Wu, Z; Kim, RH; Desai, SJ; Liu, S; Kung, HJ
PloS one 9 e88556 2014
Prostate cancer (PCa) cells undergoing neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) are clinically relevant to the development of relapsed castration-resistant PCa. Increasing evidences show that autophagy involves in the development of neuroendocrine (NE) tumors, including PCa. To clarify the effect of autophagy on NED, androgen-sensitive PCa LNCaP cells were examined. Treatment of LNCaP cells with IL-6 resulted in an induction of autophagy. In the absence of androgen, IL-6 caused an even stronger activation of autophagy. Similar result was identified in NED induction. Inhibition of autophagy with chloroquine (CQ) markedly decreased NED. This observation was confirmed by beclin1 and Atg5 silencing experiments. Further supporting the role of autophagy in NED, we found that LC3 was up-regulated in PCa tissue that had relapsed after androgen-deprivation therapy when compared with their primary tumor counterpart. LC3 staining in relapsed PCa tissue showed punctate pattern similar to the staining of chromogranin A (CgA), a marker for NED cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibition induced the apoptosis of IL-6 induced NE differentiated PCa cells. Consistently, inhibition of autophagy by knockdown of beclin1 or Atg5 sensitized NE differentiated LNCaP cells to etoposide, a chemotherapy drug. To identify the mechanisms, phosphorylation of IL-6 downstream targets was analyzed. An increase in phospho-AMPK and a decrease in phospho-mTOR were found, which implies that IL-6 regulates autophagy through the AMPK/mTOR pathway. Most important to this study is the discovery of REST, a neuronal gene-specific transcriptional repressor that is involved in autophagy activation. REST was down-regulated in IL-6 treatment. Knockdown experiments suggest that REST is critical to NED and autophagy activation by IL-6. Together, our studies imply that autophagy is involved in PCa progression and plays a cytoprotective role when NED is induced in PCa cells by IL-6 treatment. These results reveal the potential of targeting autophagy as part of a combined therapeutic regime for NE tumors.
|Negative regulation of the androgen receptor gene through a primate-specific androgen response element present in the 5' UTR.|
Hay, CW; Watt, K; Hunter, I; Lavery, DN; MacKenzie, A; McEwan, IJ
Hormones & cancer 5 299-311 2014
The androgen receptor (AR) is a widely expressed ligand-activated transcription factor which mediates androgen signalling by binding to androgen response elements (AREs) in normal tissue and prostate cancer (PCa). Within tumours, the amount of AR plays a crucial role in determining cell growth, resistance to therapy and progression to fatal castrate recurrent PCa in which prostate cells appear to become independent of androgenic steroids. Despite the pivotal role of the AR in male development and fertility and all stages of PCa development, the mechanisms governing AR expression remain poorly understood. In this work, we describe an active nonconsensus androgen response element (ARE) in the 5' UTR of the human AR gene. The ARE represses transcription upon binding of activated AR, and this downregulation is relieved by disruption of the regulatory element through mutation. Also, multiple species comparison of the genomic region reveals that this ARE is specific to primates, leading to the conclusion that care must be exercised when elucidating the operation of the human AR in PCa based upon rodent promoter studies.
|A hormone-dependent feedback-loop controls androgen receptor levels by limiting MID1, a novel translation enhancer and promoter of oncogenic signaling.|
Köhler, A; Demir, U; Kickstein, E; Krauss, S; Aigner, J; Aranda-Orgillés, B; Karagiannidis, AI; Achmüller, C; Bu, H; Wunderlich, A; Schweiger, MR; Schaefer, G; Schweiger, S; Klocker, H; Schneider, R
Molecular cancer 13 146 2014
High androgen receptor (AR) level in primary tumour predicts increased prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality. Furthermore, activations of the AR, PI3K, mTOR, NFκB and Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathways are involved in the fatal development of castration-resistant prostate cancer during androgen ablation therapy. MID1, a negative regulator of the tumor-suppressor PP2A, is known to promote PI3K, mTOR, NFκB and Hh signaling. Here we investigate the interaction of MID1 and AR.AR and MID1 mRNA and protein levels were measured by qPCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by PCR and RNA-pull-down followed by Western blot was used to investigate protein-mRNA interaction, chromatin-immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing for identification of AR chromatin binding sites. AR transcriptional activity and activity of promoter binding sites for AR were analyzed by reporter gene assays. For knockdown or overexpression of proteins of interest prostate cancer cells were transfected with siRNA or expression plasmids, respectively.The microtubule-associated MID1 protein complex associates with AR mRNA via purine-rich trinucleotide repeats, expansions of which are known to correlate with ataxia and cancer. The level of MID1 directly correlates with the AR protein level in PCa cells. Overexpression of MID1 results in a several fold increase in AR protein and activity without major changes in mRNA-levels, whereas siRNA-triggered knockdown of MID1 mRNA reduces AR-protein levels significantly. Upregulation of AR protein by MID1 occurs via increased translation as no major changes in AR protein stability could be observed. AR on the other hand, regulates MID1 via several functional AR binding sites in the MID1 gene, and, in the presence of androgens, exerts a negative feedback loop on MID1 transcription. Thus, androgen withdrawal increases MID1 and concomitantly AR-protein levels. In line with this, MID1 is significantly over-expressed in PCa in a stage-dependent manner.Promotion of AR, in addition to enhancement of the Akt-, NFκB-, and Hh-pathways by sustained MID1-upregulation during androgen deprivation therapy provides a powerful proliferative scenario for PCa progression into castration resistance. Thus MID1 represents a novel, multi-faceted player in PCa and a promising target to treat castration resistant prostate cancer.