Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Ca, Fe||FC, IHC, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG1 in buffer containing 70% storage buffer PBS with 0.1% sodium azide and 30% glycerol. Store at -20ºC.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-Bcl2, clone 100 - 2152221||2152221|
|Anti-Bcl2, clone 100 - 1958103||1958103|
|Anti-Bcl2, clone 100 - 1984836||1984836|
|Anti-Bcl2, clone 100 - 2037621||2037621|
|Anti-Bcl2, clone 100 - 2262774||2262774|
|Anti-Bcl2, clone 100 - 2495653||2495653|
|Anti-Bcl2, clone 100 - 26504||26504|
|Anti-Bcl2, clone 100 - 27804||27804|
|Anti-Bcl2, clone 100 - 31706||31706|
|Anti-Bcl2, clone 100 - 33553||33553|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Combination of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate with diethyldithiocarbamate markedly inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth in 3D culture and in immunodeficient mice.|
Huang, H; Cao, K; Malik, S; Zhang, Q; Li, D; Chang, R; Wang, H; Lin, W; Van Doren, J; Zhang, K; Du, Z; Zheng, X
International journal of molecular medicine 35 1617-24 2015
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) alone or in combination on human pancreatic cancer cells cultured in vitro and grown as xenograft tumors in nude mice. Pancreatic cancer cells were treated with either DDTC or TPA alone, or in combination and the number of viable cells was then determined by trypan blue ecxlusion assay and the number of apoptotic cells was determined by morphological assessment by staining the cells with propidium idiode and examining them under a fluorescence microscope. Treatment with DDTC or TPA alone inhibited the growth and promoted the apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were more prominent following treatment with TPA in combination with DDTC than following treatment with either agent alone in PANC-1 cells in monolayer cultures and in 3 dimensional (3D) cultures. The potent effects of the combination treatment on PANC-1 cells were associated with the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and the decreased expression of Bcl-2 induced by DDTC, as shown by NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression assay and western blot analysis. Furthermore, treatment of nude mice with DDTC + TPA strongly inhibited the growth of PANC-1 xenograft tumors. The results of the present study indicate that the administration of TPA and DDTC in combination may be an effective strategy for inhibiting the growth of pancreatic cancer.
|Aβ1-42 monomers or oligomers have different effects on autophagy and apoptosis.|
Guglielmotto, M; Monteleone, D; Piras, A; Valsecchi, V; Tropiano, M; Ariano, S; Fornaro, M; Vercelli, A; Puyal, J; Arancio, O; Tabaton, M; Tamagno, E
Autophagy 10 1827-43 2014
The role of autophagy and its relationship with apoptosis in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis is poorly understood. Disruption of autophagy leads to buildup of incompletely digested substrates, amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide accumulation in vacuoles and cell death. Aβ, in turn, has been found to affect autophagy. Thus, Aβ might be part of a loop in which it is both the substrate of altered autophagy and its cause. Given the relevance of different soluble forms of Aβ1-42 in AD, we have investigated whether monomers and oligomers of the peptide have a differential role in causing altered autophagy and cell death. Using differentiated SK-N-BE neuroblastoma cells, we found that monomers hamper the formation of the autophagic BCL2-BECN1/Beclin 1 complex and activate the MAPK8/JNK1-MAPK9/JNK2 pathway phosphorylating BCL2. Monomers also inhibit apoptosis and allow autophagy with intracellular accumulation of autophagosomes and elevation of levels of BECN1 and LC3-II, resulting in an inhibition of substrate degradation due to an inhibitory action on lysosomal activity. Oligomers, in turn, favor the formation of the BCL2-BECN1 complex favoring apoptosis. In addition, they cause a less profound increase in BECN1 and LC3-II levels than monomers without affecting the autophagic flux. Thus, data presented in this work show a link for autophagy and apoptosis with monomers and oligomers, respectively. These studies are likely to help the design of novel disease modifying therapies.
|MART-10, a New Generation of Vitamin D Analog, Is More Potent than 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in Inhibiting Cell Proliferation and Inducing Apoptosis in ER+ MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.|
Chiang, KC; Yeh, CN; Chen, SC; Shen, SC; Hsu, JT; Yeh, TS; Pang, JH; Su, LJ; Takano, M; Kittaka, A; Juang, HH; Chen, TC
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM 2012 310872 2012
Hormone antagonist therapy for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer patients post radical surgery and radiation therapy has a poor prognosis and also causes bone loss. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)] is a potent antitumor agent in pre-clinical studies, but caused hypercalcemia when its effective antitumor doses were used. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a less-calcemic 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) analog, 19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 )(MART-10), on ER+MCF-7 cells. We demonstrate that MART-10 is 500- to 1000-fold more potent than 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) in inhibiting cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MART-10 is also much more potent in arresting MCF-7cell cycle progression at G(0)/G(1) phase as compared to 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3), possibly mediated by a greater induction of p21 and p27 expression. Moreover, MART-10 is more active than 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) in causing cell apoptosis, likely through a higher BAX/Bcl expression ratio and the subsequent cytochrome C release from mitochondria to cytosol. Based on our in vitro findings, MART-10 could be a promising vitamin D analog for the potential treatment of breast cancer, for example, ER+ patients, to decrease the tumor relapse rate and the side effect on bone caused by antihormone regimens. Thus, further in vivo animal study is warranted.
|Glyoxalase-I is a novel target against Bcr-Abl+ leukemic cells acquiring stem-like characteristics in a hypoxic environment.|
Takeuchi, M; Kimura, S; Kuroda, J; Ashihara, E; Kawatani, M; Osada, H; Umezawa, K; Yasui, E; Imoto, M; Tsuruo, T; Yokota, A; Tanaka, R; Nagao, R; Nakahata, T; Fujiyama, Y; Maekawa, T
Cell death and differentiation 17 1211-20 2010
Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib and dasatinib are ineffective against Bcr-Abl(+) leukemic stem cells. Thus, the identification of novel agents that are effective in eradicating quiescent Bcr-Abl(+) stem cells is needed to cure leukemias caused by Bcr-Abl(+) cells. Human Bcr-Abl(+) cells engrafted in the bone marrow of immunodeficient mice survive under severe hypoxia. We generated two hypoxia-adapted (HA)-Bcr-Abl(+) sublines by selection in long-term hypoxic cultures (1.0% O(2)). Interestingly, HA-Bcr-Abl(+) cells exhibited stem cell-like characteristics, including more cells in a dormant, increase of side population fraction, higher beta-catenin expression, resistance to Abl TKIs, and a higher transplantation efficiency. Compared with the respective parental cells, HA-Bcr-Abl(+) cells had higher levels of protein and higher enzyme activity of glyoxalase-I (Glo-I), an enzyme that detoxifies methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic by-product of glycolysis. In contrast to Abl TKIs, Glo-I inhibitors were much more effective in killing HA-Bcr-Abl(+) cells both in vitro and in vivo. These findings indicate that Glo-I is a novel molecular target for treatment of Bcr-Abl(+) leukemias, and, in particular, Abl TKI-resistant quiescent Bcr-Abl(+) leukemic cells that have acquired stem-like characteristics in the process of adapting to a hypoxic environment.
|Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 sensitizes anaplastic thyroid cancer to standard chemotherapy.|
Francipane, MG; Eterno, V; Spina, V; Bini, M; Scerrino, G; Buscemi, G; Gulotta, G; Todaro, M; Dieli, F; De Maria, R; Stassi, G
Cancer research 69 6141-8 2009
We previously showed that cancer cells from papillary, follicular, and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas produce interleukin-4 and interleukin-10, which counteract the cytotoxic activity of conventional chemotherapy through the up-regulation of antiapoptotic molecules. Here, we identify Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT as the down-stream pathways through which these cytokines confer resistance to cell death in thyroid cancer. We found that the absence of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) molecules allows the propagation of the survival signaling. Exogenous expression of SOCS1, SOCS3, and SOCS5 in the highly aggressive anaplastic thyroid cancer cells reduces or abolishes STAT3 and 6 phosphorylation and PI3K/Akt pathway activation resulting in alteration in the balance of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic molecules and sensitization to chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro. Likewise, exogenous expression of SOCS3 significantly reduces tumor growth and potently enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy in vivo. Our results indicate that SOCS3 regulation of cytokines-prosurvival programs might represent a new strategy to overcome the resistance to chemotherapy-induced cell death of thyroid cancer.
|Involvement of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in alpha-bisabolol induced apoptosis.|
Cavalieri, Elisabetta, et al.
FEBS J., 276: 3990-4000 (2009) 2009
Alpha-bisabolol is a natural monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol. It has been used in cosmetics for hundreds of years because of its perceived skin-healing properties. Alpha-bisabolol is known to have anti-irritant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. In precedent studies, we described how alpha-bisabolol exerts a selective pro-apoptotic action towards transformed cells [Cavalieri E et al. (2004) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 315, 589-594] and its uptake is mediated by lipid rafts on the plasma membrane [Darra E et al. (2008) Arch Biochem Biophys 476, 113-123]. In this study, we hypothesize that the intracellular target of alpha-bisabolol may be the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). To evaluate this hypothesis, we used one transformed cell line (human glioma T67) in comparison with a nontransformed one (human fibroblasts). We assessed the effect of a specific mPTP inhibitor (cyclosporine A) on the toxic action of alpha-bisabolol. Results show that the alpha-bisabolol-induced decrease in oxygen consumption is abolished by the addition of cyclosporine A in T67 cells, indicating that alpha-bisabolol may target mPTP. The central role of mitochondria was also demonstrated by using galactose to force cells to a more aerobic metabolism. In this condition, we observed higher alpha-bisabolol toxicity. Furthermore, we studied the effect of alpha-bisabolol on isolated rat liver mitochondria. This study expands the notion of the specific action of alpha-bisabolol on transformed cells and suggests that it may act by disturbing the structure and function of the mPTP. Alpha-bisabolol toxicity is clearly related to its cellular uptake, which is higher in transformed cell lines.
|VIP and VIP gene silencing modulation of differentiation marker N-cadherin and cell shape of corneal endothelium in human corneas ex vivo.|
Koh, SW; Chandrasekara, K; Abbondandolo, CJ; Coll, TJ; Rutzen, AR
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 49 3491-8 2008
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is expressed by corneal endothelial (CE) cells and is present in the aqueous humor, which bathes CE cells in vivo. This study demonstrated the role of CE cell VIP in maintaining the expression level of a CE differentiation marker, N-cadherin, and the hexagonal cell shape.To determine the most effective VIP concentration, bovine corneoscleral explants were treated with 0 (control) and 10(-12) to 10(-6) M VIP. Paired human corneas (nine donors) from an eye bank were used as control; the other corneas were treated with VIP. To silence endogenous VIP, paired fresh human donor corneas (from seven cadavers) were transduced with VIP shRNA or the control lentiviral particles and then bisected/quartered for quantitative analysis by semiquantitative RT-PCR (for mRNA) and Western blot analysis/immunocytochemistry (for protein), whereas alizarin red S staining revealed CE cell shape.VIP concentration dependently increased bovine CE cell N-cadherin mRNA levels, with the maximal effect observed between 10(-10) (1.47 +/- 0.06-fold; P = 0.002) and 10(-8) M VIP (1.48 +/- 0.18-fold; P = 0.012). VIP (10(-8) M) treatment increased N-cadherin protein levels in bovine and human CE cells to 1.98 +/- 0.28-fold (P = 0.005) and 1.17 +/- 0.10 (range, 0.91-1.87)-fold (P = 0.050) of their respective controls. VIP antagonist (SN)VIPhyb diminished the VIP effect. VIP silencing resulted in deterioration of the hexagonal cell shape and decreased levels of VIP protein and mRNA, N-cadherin (but not connexin-43) mRNA and protein, and the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein.Through its autocrine VIP, CE cells play an active role in maintaining the differentiated state and suppressing apoptosis in the corneal endothelium in situ.
|Human lactoferrin exerts bi-directional actions on PC12 cell survival via ERK1/2 pathway.|
Lin, Tsung-Yao, et al.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 337: 330-6 (2005) 2005
Human lactoferrin (hLF) is a member of the transferrin family and is found in most body fluids of human. Recent study showed that hLF played some roles in the regulation of cell growth. However, the biological function of hLF in the central nervous system and neuronal cells is still unclear. The MTT was used to assay cell viability, ELISA tests were used to assay caspase activities, and TUNEL staining was used to test the cytotoxicity of hLF to the cells. Our result showed that 700 microg/ml hLF significantly reduced the cell viability and increased the caspase 3 and 8 activities in PC12 neuronal cells. TUNEL staining further showed that 700 microg/ml hLF was cytotoxic to the PC12 through apoptosis-mediated pathway. In addition, 700 microg/ml hLF significantly decreased the protein expressions of phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Bcl-2 in PC12 cells, whereas 50 microg/ml hLF significantly increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 which could be specifically inhibited by PD98059. Furthermore, 50 microg/ml hLF could not only up-regulate the Bcl-2 expression but also protect PC12 cells from FasL-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, hLF plays a crucial role in the regulation of apoptosis and anti-apoptosis in PC12 neuronal cells via ERK1/2 phosphorylation pathway.
|bcl-2 protein in non-small-cell lung carcinoma.|
Pezzella, F, et al.
N. Engl. J. Med., 329: 690-4 (1993) 1993
BACKGROUND. The proto-oncogene bcl-2 encodes a protein that inhibits programmed cell death (apoptosis). The protein is expressed in basal cells in normal human epithelium, but no data are available on the frequency or clinical importance of its expression in carcinoma. We studied bcl-2 expression in patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma and correlated this phenomenon with survival. METHODS. Immunochemical analysis with a monoclonal antibody specific for bcl-2 was used to detect the protein in tumor samples from 122 patients undergoing surgery for squamous-cell carcinoma (80 patients) or adenocarcinoma (42 patients). The possibility that bcl-2 expression correlated with survival was investigated with use of the log-rank test, hazard ratios, and their confidence intervals. RESULTS. We detected bcl-2 protein in 25 percent of squamous-cell carcinomas (20 of 80) and 12 percent of adenocarcinomas (5 of 42). In adjacent normal respiratory epithelium, bcl-2 was expressed only in basal cells. Survival at five years was higher among patients with bcl-2-positive tumors, both in the group as a whole (P < 0.1) and in the group with squamous-cell carcinoma (P < 0.02). Patients 60 years of age or older who had bcl-2-positive tumors had the best prognoses, both in the group as a whole (P < 0.02) and in the group with squamous-cell carcinoma (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS. The proto-oncogene bcl-2 is abnormally expressed in some lung carcinomas, and its expression may have prognostic importance.
|Evaluation of bcl-2 protein expression and 14;18 translocation as prognostic markers in follicular lymphoma.|
Pezzella, F, et al.
Br. J. Cancer, 65: 87-9 (1992) 1992
Conflicting results have been published on the prognostic significance of t(14;18) in follicular lymphoma: Yunis et al. (1989) reported that its presence indicated poor response to therapy and short survival, whereas Levine et al. (1988) showed no difference in prognosis between cases with and without the translocation. However these results were based on small series of cases and on follow-up periods (no longer than 7 years) which are relatively short for a disease with such a slow clinical evolution. Here we report an investigation of 70 cases of follicular lymphoma with long term follow-up data (up to 17 years). This series has been studied for the presence of the 14;18 translocation and for the expression of bcl-2 protein. Our results show that there are no grounds for considering either the 14;18 translocation or the expression of the bcl-2 protein to be useful prognostic markers in clinical practice.
|Advancing cancer research: From hallmarks & biomarkers to tumor microenvironment progression|